- Beaux-Arts architecture
Beaux Arts architecture [The phrase "Beaux Arts" is usually translated as "
Fine Arts" in non-architectural English contexts.] denotes the academic classical architectural stylethat was taught at the École des Beaux Artsin Paris. The "style "Beaux Arts" is above all the cumulative product of two and a half centuries of instruction under the authority, first of the Académie royale d'architecture, then, following the Revolution, of the Architecture section of the Académie des Beaux-Arts. The organization under the Ancien Régimeof the competition for the Grand Prix de Rome in architecture, offering a chance to study in Rome, imprinted its codes and esthetic on the course of instruction, which culminated during the Second Empire (1850-1870) and the Third Republic that followed. The style of instruction that produced Beaux-Arts architecture continued without a major renovation until 1968. [Robin Middleton, Editor. "The Beaux-Arts and Nineteenth-century French Architecture". (London: Thames and Hudson, 1982).]
The Beaux-Arts style influenced US architecture in the period 1885–1920. Other European architects of the period 1860–1914 tended to gravitate towards their own national academic centers rather than flocking to Paris. British architects of Imperial classicism, in a development culminating in Sir
Edwin Lutyens's New Delhigovernment buildings, followed a somewhat more independent course, owing to the cultural politics of the late 19th century.
The Beaux-Arts training emphasized the mainstream examples of Imperial Roman architecture between Augustus and the Severan emperors,
Italian Renaissanceand French and Italian
Beaux-Arts architecture depended on sculptural decoration along conservative modern lines, employing French and Italian Baroque and
Rococoformulas combined with an impressionistic finish and realism. In the facade below, Diana grasps the cornice she sits on in a natural action that is typical of Beaux-Arts integration of sculpture with architecture. Slightly overscaled details, bold scuptural supporting consoles, rich deep cornices, swags and sculptural enrichments in the most bravura finish the client could afford gave employment to several generations of architectural modellers and carvers of Italian and Central European backgrounds. A sense of appropriate idiom at the craftsman level supported the design teams of the first truly modern architectural offices. Some aspects of Beaux-Arts approach could degenerate into mannerisms. Beaux-Arts training made great use of "agrafes", clasps that links one architectural detail to another; to interpenetration of forms, a Baroque habit; to "speaking architecture" (" architecture parlante") in which supposed appropriateness of symbolism could be taken to literal minded extremes.Beaux-Arts training emphasized the production of quick conceptual sketches, highly-finished perspective presentation drawings, close attention to the program, and knowledgeable detailing. Site considerations tended towards social and urbane contexts. [Arthur Drexler, Editor, "The Architecture of the École des beaux-arts". (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1977).]
Characteristics of Beaux-Arts style
Though Beaux-Arts style embodies an approach to a regenerated spirit within the grand traditions rather than a set of motifs, the principal characteristics of Beaux-Arts architecture may be summarized:
*Hierarchy of spaces, from "noble spaces"—grand entrances and staircases— to utilitarian ones
*More or less explicit references to a synthesis of historicist styles and a tendency to
eclecticism. An architect was expected to work fluently in a number of "manners", following the requirements of the client and the architectural program.
*Precision in design and execution of a profusion of architectural details:
balustrades, pilasters, panels of bas-relief, figure sculpture, garland, cartouch, with a prominent display of richly detailed clasps ("agrafes") brackets and supporting consoles.
*Subtle use of
polychromy. At the eve of World War I, the style began to find major competitors among the architects of Modernism and the nascent International Style (architecture). The prestige of the École gave the "style "Beaux-Arts" a second wind in compromising the new manner with the traditional training. All architects-in-training passed through the obligatory stages, studying antique models, constructing "analos", analyses reproducing Greek or Roman models, "pocket" studies and other conventional steps in the long competition for the few desirable places at the Académie de France à Rome (housed in the Villa Medici) with traditional requirements of sending at intervals the presentation drawings called "envois de Rome".
Beaux-Arts in France
Parisian buildings in the Beaux-Arts style
École des Beaux-Arts
* LeFuel wings of the
* Palais du
Grand Palais, Petit Palaisand the Pont Alexandre III.
Palais de Chaillot.
Beaux-Arts in the United States
The first American architect to attend the École des Beaux-Arts was
Richard Morris Hunt, followed by Charles Follen McKim. They were followed by an entire generation. Henry Hobson Richardsonabsorbed Beaux-Arts lessons in massing and spatial planning, then applied them to Romanesque architectural models that were not characteristic of the Beaux-Arts repertory. His Beaux-Arts training taught him to transcend slavish copying and recreate in the essential, fully digested and idiomatic manner of his models. Richardson evolved a highly personal style ( Richardsonian Romanesque) freed of historicism that was influential in early Modernism. [James Philip Noffsinger. "The Influence of the École des Beaux-arts on the Architects of the United States" (Washington DC., Catholic University of America Press, 1955).] The "White City" of the World's Columbian Expositionof 1893 in Chicago was a triumph of the movement and a major impetus for the short-lived City Beautifulmovement in the United States. Beaux-Arts city planning, with its Baroque insistence on vistas punctuated by symmetry, eye-catching monuments, axial avenues, uniform cornice heights, a harmonious "ensemble" and a somewhat theatrical nobility and accessible charm, embraced ideals that the ensuing Modernist movement decried or just dismissed. [Chafee, Richard. "The Architecture of the École des Beaux-Arts". New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1977.] The first US university to institute a Beaux-Arts curriculum was MITin 1893, when the French architect, Constant-Désiré Despradelleswas brought to MIT to teach. Subsequently the Beaux-Arts curriculum was begun at Columbia University, The University of Pennsylvania, and elsewhere. [ Mark Jarzombek. "Designing MIT: Bosworth’s New Tech". Northeastern University Press, 2004.] The best known architectural firm specializing in Beaux-Arts style was McKim, Mead, and White[Richard Guy Wilson. "McKim, Mead & White, Architects" (New York: Rizzoli, 1983)] Among universities designed in the Beaux-Arts style there are, most notably: Columbia University, (commissioned in 1896), designed by McKim, Mead, and White; the University of California, Berkeley(commissioned in 1898), designed by John Galen Howard; the campus of MIT(commissioned in 1913), designed by William W. Bosworth, and the University of Texas(commissioned in 1931), designed by Paul Philippe Cret.
Though Beaux-Arts architecture of the twentieth century might on its surface appear out of touch with the modern age, steel-frame construction and other modern innovations in engineering techniques and materials were often embraced, as in the 1914–1916 construction of the Carolands Chateau south of San Francisco (which was built with a consciousness of the devastating 1906 earthquake). The noted Spanish structural engineer, Rafael Guastavino (1842–1908), famous for his vaultings, known as
Guastavino tilework, designed vaults in dozens of Beaux-Arts buildings in the Boston, New York and elsewhere. Beaux-Arts architecture also brought a civic face to the railroad. ( Chicago's Union Station and Detroit's Michigan Central Stationare famous American examples of this style.) Two of the best American examples of the Beaux-Arts tradition stand within a few blocks of each other: Grand Central Terminaland the New York Public Library.
American architects working in the Beaux-Arts style
The following individuals were seminal in the assimilation of the Beaux-Arts style in the United States:
William W. Bosworth
Arthur Brown Jr
Paul Philippe Cret
Carrère and Hastings
* Thomas Hastings
Richard Morris Hunt
Charles Follen McKim
John Russell Pope
Henry Hobson Richardson
William Rutherford Mead
Enoch Hill Turnock
Beaux-Arts in Canada
Beaux-Arts was very prominent in public buildings in Canada in the early 20th Century. Notably all three
prairie provinces' legislative buildings are in this style.
Canadian architecture in the Beaux-Arts style
* The NHL sponsored
Hockey Hall of Fame(formerly a branch of the Bank of Montreal), Toronto (1885)
* Royal Alexandra Theatre, Toronto (1906)
Government Conference Centre, Ottawa (originally a railway station by Ross and Macdonald, 1912)
Saskatchewan Legislative Building, Regina (1912)
Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, 1912
Alberta Legislative Building, Edmonton (1913)
Manitoba Legislative Building, Winnipeg, (1920)
* Commemorative Arch,
Royal Military College of Canada, in Kingston, Ontario(1923)
* Bank of Nova Scotia, Ottawa (1923-24)
* Union Station, Toronto (1913-27)
Canada Life Building, Toronto (1931)
Sun Life Building, Montreal (1913-1931)
Canadian architects working in the Beaux-Arts style
William Sutherland Maxwell
John M. Lyle
Ross and Macdonald
Beaux Arts in Australia
Sydneyand Melbournehave some significant examples of the style, where it was typically applied to large solid looking public office buildings and banks during the 1920s.
National Theatre, Melbourne(1920)
* GPO building, Forrest Place, Perth (1923)
* Argus Building. LaTrobe Street, Melbourne (1927)
* Commonwealth Bank, Martin Place, Sydney (1928)
* Westpac Bank Building, Elizabeth Street, Brisbane (1928)
* Port Authority building, Melbourne (1928)
* Former Mail Exchange Building, Melbourne
* Herald Weekly Times Building. Flinders Street, Melbourne
* Commonwealth Bank building, Forrest Place, Perth (1933)
* [http://www.nyc-architecture.com/STYLES/STY-BeauxArts.htm New York architecture images, Beaux-Arts gallery]
* [http://www.siematic.com/INT/en/our-kitchens/collection/new-in-the-programme/beauxarts/film/film.html Advertisement film about the usage of the Beaux Arts style as a reference in kitchen design]
*Reed, Henry Hope and Edmund V. Gillon Jr. 1988. "Beaux-Arts Architecture in New York: A Photographic Guide" (Dover Publications: Mineola NY)
*United States. Commission of Fine Arts. 1978, 1988 (2 vols). "Sixteenth Street Architecture" (The Commission of Fine Arts: Washington, D.C. : The Commission) - profiles of Beaux-Arts architecture in Washington D.C. SuDoc FA 1.2: AR 2.
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