Rudolf Bahro

Rudolf Bahro

Infobox Biography
subject_name = Rudolf Bahro

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date_of_birth = November 18, 1935
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date_of_death = December 5, 1997
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Rudolf Bahro (18 November 1935 – 5 December 1997) was a German philosopher and politician.

Bahro was born in 1935 in Bad Flinsberg (Świeradów-Zdrój) in Lower Silesia. He joined the East German Socialist Unity Party in 1954 as a student of philosophy at the Berlin Humboldt University.

From 1959-1960 he took part in the campaign to collectivise agriculture in the Oderbruch region; then, after a period as editor of a university paper at Greifswald he became an official of the Union of Scientific Employees in Berlin. He was also deputy editor of the Free German Youth magazine "Forum". In 1967 he published an article by Volker Braun which the party regarded as slanderous, leading to his dismissal. Bahro spent the next 10 years working on labour organisation in a rubber factory, during which time he completed his PhD (on training of specialists in state enterprises) and wrote the book for which he is best known.

On 25 August 1977 he published "Die Alternative. Zur Kritik des real existierenden Sozialismus", EVA, in West Germany (later translated as "The Alternative in Eastern Europe", NLB/Verso). Translations in Norway (Pax), France (Stock), Jugoslawia (Globus) and more. He promoted a new party and what is discussed today as "change from within". His work is credited as being crucial as well in the development of Eco-socialism. When the book was published, Bahro was arrested, 23.8.1977, what caused widespread and international protest. As a result of his work he was charged with being a West German spy and on 30 June 1978 he was imprisoned for eight years. But there was a mighty worldwide solidarity campaign with Bahro. President Jimmy Carter demanded his release, Gerhard Schröder, Herbert Marcuse and Wolf Biermann as well. Even the TV news "Tagesschau" spent a whole broadcasting evening, what they never did before or after, except when President Kennedy was shot. Heinrich Böll, Graham Greene, Arthur Miller wrote a Letter for Bahro in "The Times", 1 February 1978. An "International Congress for and about Rudolf Bahro" took place in Berlin, 16.-18. November 1978. He received the "Carl-von-Ossietzky-Medaille", the "Isaac Deutscher Memorial Price", became member of the Danish and Swedish Pen Center and of the New York Academy of Science. His call for a change was heard and accepted, answered around the world and discussed in many books, articles, speeches and meetings. He was released under an amnesty on 17 October 1979 and deported to West Germany.

Original and falsification

When he came free, he looked and found criticism of the ideology of Marxism-Leninism by qualified authors of many countries he was interested in. Important for his criticism is a censored text by Marx about the Russian despotism, the "Spiegel" had printed 3 month before "Die Alternative" [] . The editor/reviewer David Riazanov was sentenced to death for that in 1938, later under Gorbachev rehabilitated. He found many good and well known authors/books on the political course, on ecology, the grassroot movement and, what Marcuse called in his contribution protosocialist or "catalyst groups". A well respected term meanwhile. It reflected problems of freedom of information and opinion, science and culture, freedom from want and fear. This as well was not published in the GDR and the SU. (Text by and on Bahro in Der Spiegel Archives.) Later, when the SED Regime was overcome, first by a left opposition, which shouted "we are the people", founded indeed new parties and groups, the SED was changed in an SED/PDS, than PDS, as well the MfS was transformed in a new State Security, than the stalinists were expelled and the SED Regime/State dissolved, made part of the Federal Republic of Germany with the Basic Law as constitution.

Willy Brandt had welcomed Mr. Bahro and his theories in a letter in 1978. A meeting than took place with Chancellor, SPD-, SI Chairman Willy Brandt in October 1979, later with Egon Bahr, Peter von Oertzen and other members of the SPD leadership and party at that time. Many more. Brandt himself, as Chancellor in 1974, was damaged by a spy of the state security (Stasi) of the GDR. Erich Mielke (Markus Wolf), an old follower of Stalin, was responsible for that too. Support of the "change from within" (Gates) by CDU or other parties was not so much at that time. Maybe it was hidden. Egon Bahr once said in the Willy-Brandt-Haus, the parties Headquarter, that there is a history too, which is determined or written by the Secret Service activities.

In 1989, when the change came, the uprising here and there, and the difficulties became obvious, the question came, how much of the wrongs and of the injustice, falsifications of the past can be accepted for a new, more democratic society, the German newsmagazin "Der Spiegel" wrote, when it saw the remaining forces, the problems to come to genuine changes and problems of information- and opinion freedom, that even "our generation is influenced by Stalin and Stalinism" and editor Rudolf Augstein added, seeing the long tradition of dissens, disadvantage, falsification in matters and persons, that "remembrance must not, but can be deadly".

ED State Secret Service/Erich Mielke vs. Bahro and the international Bahro/Dissens Discussion

Later documents have been found, that Bahro and the international Bahro/Dissens Discussion was considered as so dangerous, maybe the beginning or brick of the end, a successful Prague Spring, as many thought international, that the destruction and disabling of the Bahro/Dissens solidarity, discussion and publicity, big or small, good or bad, more left or more right, national and international, was led by Erich Mielke himself, the chief of the SED State Stasi (state security, MfS) from 1957-1989, member of the Politbeaureau. He was a declared follower of Joseph Stalin, member of the KPD since 1925 after the Great Schism and called himself a "scholar of Berija", the soviet secret service man, who was responsible for Stalins cleansings, purges. Once he was a member of the Unit "Felix Dzerzhinsky", the Secret Service Man of 1924, who had by order of Stalin to prevent the publication of the Lenins Testament, falsificate his last will on Partydemocracy and personal options, both, in Russia and abroad. An international organised crime began. Still going on, insofar it is linked to wrongs? And it is not possible to mention the old enemies and victims in Russia just for the truth without disadvantage. Bahro knew, that he maybe had to follow Bucharin, Trotsky, Zinovew, the Group of the 46 et al. as a dissident. Despite the Destalinisation of 1956. Which was stopped by activities of the Post-Komintern/Kominform. Nikita Khrushchev, who promoted the "general and complete disarmamanet" in 1958 during his visit in the USA, a short reminder to the postwar period (to solve problems "by ballot not by bullets" and "never to go to war with each other again", later repeated by President Bill Clinton), was stopped in rehabilitation the old Stalin enemies and victims Bucharin, maybe even Trotsky (Bronstein), so big the crime, Zinovev, Kamenev, both Jewish too, The Group of 46, Sokolnikow et al., but was stopped by the leaders of the CPs, especially Maurice Thorez, who traveled to Moscow to prevent Khrushchev to go on with the Destalinisation to the rehabilitation, hat would mean to come to more truth and a common understanding, which can be shared worldwide and by experts.

Brandt said in 1992 that there is "Pharisäertum" (hypocrites) and poststasi spy-crime (verlängertes Spitzelwesen) in the context of the work about the SED Past and the justice and more. Even the Whitehouse was target of the Stasi. The comparison to old crimes is to be seen, when Mielke gave his new directions/reports to destroy Bahro and the international discussionpartners. He declared the opposition as well as "hostile-negative elements" or as "spy in leftradical disguise". This is part of a Strategy of Marginalisation and of the international crime. A comparison between Secret Service/ideological activities against historic opposition since 1923 will show the parallels, even in words, the political aim, way, target, to the more recent opposition, in their national and international performance, intention, with the old task, to watch and prevent the spreading this views, or the reception, and the organised desorientation, manipulation, falsification and wrongdoing and danger. This might be lasting, if the cases are relevant. After 1977/78 Stasi scholars made their degree at the Stasi University with investiagtions of the relevance of the Bahro discussion, as "grasroot" discussion and in higher places. (see material, judged by the Stasi as "antisocialist", in the west sometimes rejected as "communist", in the Bahro Archives at Humboldt University, Berlin [] )

Documents were found, that the Congress, the publisher Olle & Wolter and certain persons, institutions became Stasi-targets, came under attack.

Bahro indeed chose Wolter/Olle & Wolter as good enough to be his publisher in a free choice. SPD Chairman Willy Brandt had written in 1978, that, despite his thoughts about a new party, the discussion of Bahros book and theories is welcome, useful and good, fruitful for the Socialdemocratic Party, Socialist International (SI) too. Today 168 member parties. Years later Rudolf Bahro, who was teaching socio-ecology than, he had no place in politics, what he regretted, told Ulf Wolter as well, who was doing the research, that he had hints, that not only the dissidents, rebels, revolutionaries, reformers in the GDR, SED, the grassroot movement, revolution, new parties had used his books, initiatives, discussions, but President Gorbatschev and other politicians or important persons as well. This might be possible, since he saw no contradiction between revolution and reform to change the system, cultural revolution or reformation, as he called it in 1980. (In the Social Prediction, when the change will come, in: "Was da alles auf uns zukommt... Perspektiven der 80er Jahre", see Additional Literature) It is true, that Bahro delivered one of the most successful inputs in the last decades out of the east. Gorbachev later became as well ecologist, founded the "Green Cross", where he is chairman. He used the Referendum, to ask the population whether it will remain in the Soviet Union with a Communist Party in a 70 year tradition of suppression, falsification or go to the Russian Federation with pluralistic system. This was a revolution from above. Within a change worldwide and a European uprise, Lech Walesa, Vaclav Havel, many more, the nameless made as well.

Difficulties of the change from within - different inputs

In 1987/88f Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev did, what in the Destalinisation of 1956 was not yet done, he rehabilitated Bucharin (again member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union), Zinovev, Kamenev and more, even the first Stalin enemy, the interesting thinker Trotsky (Bronstein), always a problem, was called a "hero and martyr" in "Isvestija", his son Sergej Sedow was rehabilitated as well, his and Bucharins books circulated as manuscripts before. This was an underground fight. Gorbatschow used material or parallels of the historic opposition, the Declaration of 46 (15.10.1923), the debates 1925/26 on Partydemocracy, Socialism in one Country. Lenins suppressed Testament was first published in 1956. First parts of the wrong censored, marginalized authors have been published since 1987/89. This allowed the easier dismission of the old marxist-leninist activists, stalinists, as well in the SED (party and state), MfS. Stalin follower and Stasi-Chief Erich Mielke was excluded from the leading position, the party too in 1989. The MfS was dissolved and new founded. This was to hide, what may be could be dangerous.

Gorbachev later gave free, it was censored as well, that there was a secret part in the Stalin-Hitler-Agreement of 1939 concerning the division of Poland. This was published in an appendix in a Jewish documentation (Whitebook) in the "Case Waldheim" in 1986. Another Jewish book, by Eli Rosenbaum, "Kurt Waldheim's Hidden Past" delivered documents of Waldheims Nazi Past in 1986. Rosenbaum today is member of the Special Investigation Team in the US Department of Justice and not agreeing with a biological solution.

After writing "The Alternative", in West Germany, Bahro looked for partners in the more democratic change of Communism, east and west, to influence the communist system, dissens, leaders He invited to a Socialist Conference, where persons/authors like Petra K. Kelly, Joseph Beuys and Horst-Eberhard Richter, later Nobel Peace Price Laureate Organisation IPPNW, took part, as 1500 persons, but failed to build a party. He wrote for the eurocommunist parties too. His first book in the west, after an important 2 volume discussion book, f.i. about conservation, reform and revolution in the west and east, reformation as he preferred in 1980, translated in Denmark, was on "Elements of New Politics", the relation of ecology and socialism (see "Spiegel" archives, 1980, [] ), on Robert Havemann, the red and green coalition, what SPD-and SI Chairman Willy Brandt later discussed too and what became reality in 1998 under Gerhard Schröder/Joschka Fischer. In 1982, as part of the debate on political course, the taboo "Holocaust" was broken, the censorship/ignorance on Hilbergs book on the "Destruction of the European Jews" was finished by Wolter/Olle & Wolter too. President Carter had founded a "President's Holocaust Commission" (1978-1980). Kurt Waldheim, UN General Secretary 1971-1981, made in 1986 a reference to "Die Vernichtung der europäischen Juden", when the WJC made known, that he in reality had a Nazi past and the Reagan Administration had put him on the watchlist (by Edward Meese). Because he was not mentioned in that relevant publication, it was taken as a proof, that he cannot be the accused Holocaust-perpetrator, involved in the destruction of 60.000 Jews in Saloniki. This was at the time, when Gorbachev was Premier in the Soviet Union. Later olle & wolter research/wolter delivered as well the widely unknown Wanted Lists in the "Case Waldheim". He in reality was not free from crime, but was wanted since 1947 for "murder", "Putting hostages to death", "Slaughter", by the United Nations War Crime Commission (UNWCC), the US-Army and Jugoslavian authorities by "Odluka". But it was not possible to bring to justice the "Case Waldheim". Later President Bush spoke about the task of "bringing killers to justice." It was made known as well, that Waldheim was in the CIA/FBI Files too, before and after the 1945, because the British Scotland Yard had made a file on him already in spring 1945, passed it to the FBI/CIA, with a report on Waldheim as a small participant in nazist destruction activities.

Bahro, one of the most successful dissidents in the last decades, was a declared anti-fascist/anti-Nazi too, but with a different term to that of the anti-fascist regime, which built the Berlin Wall in the name of anti-fascist protection. He believed too, that the ns-perpetrators belong to a court. As every criminal. Those of real socialism too. But soon the hero, who had challenged the system, was a little bit let down, misinterpreted, what he called "Engführung", a theoretical shortcome. But the author of The Alternative wrote/published in 1982 another book on security and peace, armsrace with SS 20 rockets and the answers, (Zero option or Cruise Missile/Pershinmg II), about the influence of the Soviet Union and the German Communist Party (DKP), (ISBN 3-88395-710-0) still read beyond the borders, in the peacemovement worldwide and in higher places around the globe, where some had the suspicion, that the SU is able of abusing the peace movement to weaken the west. Wolter, who had published critical books on the armsrace, a map by Bill Arkin, saw that it had to come to a proposal.

Bahro and other authors discussed with Wolter the possible outcome of an "International or Simultaneous Referendum", zero option as it came later, as one of the possible answers to the armsrace, which was not in conflict with the majority principle, which is essential Popper. It was clear for nearly everyone, that a majority both, in east and west, would vote in a "Parallel Referendum" for a reduction of the armament, rather than pro continued armsrace. This is relevant to democracy and the development of other streams. Bahro was open to the criticism of the armsrace and to the "Worldwide Ballot" proposal, the last publication by Ulf Wolter/Olle & Wolter. The office of Willy Brandt was informed as well. Years later Minister Egon Bahr, "Spiegel" Editor and publisher Rudolf Augstein, Dr. Peter Brandt, the son of Chancellor Willy Brandt, the musicians Udo Jürgens, "Nicole", Grand Prix Winners, and more proposed, agreed or signed the idea of an International (Consultative) Referendum (Konsultative Welturabstimmung) in questions of war and peace, Human Rights implementation. Nina Hagen, daughter of Wolf Biermann, spoke from just a "half democracy" without a referendum. (Article 20.2 as well of the German Constitution of 1949. Article 21 Human Rights, 1949) Even Oskar Lafontaine, former Minister, agreed to the proposal of discussion of "Worldwide Ballot Thoughts", when he still was a member of the SPD, he once led. Later Wolter/Olle & Wolter Research found out, that indeed Sigmund Freud/Albert Einstein promoted implicit or in other words the "International Referendum" already in 1932 to "Ban the War" (within the League of Nations/Völkerbund), Hitler was preparing, it was investigated, that Einstein later in 1950 wrote again in a letter with the sense, to use an "International Referendum" as effective form, means of free articulation of opinion and will of the masses to come to a stop of the beginning nuclear arms race and to correct the course. (docs., see Letter by Ulf Wolter, in the Millenniums Edition of "Der Spiegel", 27.12.1999, Archives, "Einstein, (Person or) Brain of the XX. Century") [] . In 2000 as well President Bill Clinton spoke for to use a Referendum, to solve problems "by ballots not by bullits" if possible. The old postwar input. As well as the referendum was promoted implicit by John Lennon, in Happy X-Mas before: "War is over if you want it." President Jimmy Carter spoke for a Human Rights Referendum in Cuba. This could take place international to promote Human Rights and Peace Worldwide. The Nobel Peace Price Laureate HH The Dalai Lama asked in 2001 for a Referendum, but this as well was not spread enough. Nor was he informed of the important Referendum statement by US President Clinton in 2000 (Northern Ireland), as olle & wolter research found out. There are problems of information and opinion freedom. UN General Secretary Kofi Annan spoke about "Simulaneous Referenda". Not to forget for a fair view, U.S. President George W. Bush ("bringing killers to justice") as well mentioned 1. Nov. 2003 the means of ballots concerning the pros and cons, change of the new constitution in Iraq. Président Jacques Chirac and Prime Minister Tony Blair spoke as well pro referendum and made national referenda happen. The PR China adopted Human Rights to their Constitution. They include Direct Democracy in Article 21. All this has a context. In Germany President Johannes Rau, Wolfgang Thierse, Angela Merkel (CDU), who later became Chancellor, and Edmund Stoiber (CSU), many more, Gerhard Schröder once as well, spoke pro European or national referendum. Like before Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, together with Major Willy Brandt and US President John F. Kennedy in 1963, Westberlin, all enemies of the Nazis. Adenauer, who tried to persecute and forbid the NSDAP and Hitler in 1932, later was against his followers Erhardt and Kiesinger, used the opportunity, to speak of the referendum, that took place here (es hat eine Volksabstimmung stattgefunden) against the Berlin Wall and the Soviet/SED system, which ordered it. Despite Bahro told more about the Prague Spring, the Berlin Wall of 1961 and the restrictions to freedom of press to examine the true and genuine history, was unacceptable to him too. He later spoke about the deficit of being without relevant material. To accept, that people are able or are to be enabeld to have a say in elections, personal options, this meanwhile no one will deny. Or with men and women equal with universal suffrage. In France the right to vote in elections and referendums for women cam einto power only after World War II. But to see, that despite the differences, every cititzen is an owner or in possession of personal, individual values and can be counted, one man, one vote, in personal options and as well in legal options in matters, by Referenda, Ballots, accepting and realising the majority principle, is nothing else but realising already written law and knowledge since 1948/49 (to combine the referendum to an international is the new proposal), the minority is to be protected. It is a task with a name, an aim, a limitation. It is, but must after 1948/49 not be, a rather more "left" than "right", or "progressive" than "conservative", "liberal" than "autotarian" task, but in accordance with the German Constitution, Art 20.2 et al., in different variations, and the Human Rights, Article 21. Regarding the vote of Adenauer, Carlo Schmid and the men and women of the Grundgesetz (Basic Law) in 1948/49, the Siwss experience, f.i. the Referendum of 1866 about Civil Rights for Jews, which avoided the turn of anti-semitism into eliminatory anti-semitism, there can be no true reason to be silent or to ignore. The Referendum in addition to elections, develop legal options in person and matter, human rights conservation and progress, was and is the reference by the best, it seems. And Pope John Paul II rejected those, who in the criticised conflict of Israel/Palestine but, Urbi et Orbi, anywhere else, with all men of good will, to destroy or prevent the success of each good proposal to come to more peace and human rights (Er richtete sich gegen jene, die gute Vorschläge vereiteln, und so das Leid und Menschenrechtsverletzungen verlängern). From the context, he was in accordance with the quoted persons and laws here. In 1985, it again was Chancellor Willy Brandt, Nobel Peace Price Laureate, SPD and Socialist International (SI) Chairman (the biggest peace movement, parti mondial de la paix), who wrote a much translated book with nearly the same title on armament/disarmament as published by Bahro in 1982, called ("Der organisierte Wahnsinn", La folie orchestrée, engl. Arms and Hunger). He received in 1985 the "Albert Einstein Price". Brandt had spoken about Referenda, part of the Human Rights, Article 21, already in the early 60ies in the context of selfdetermination and later in the SPD Party Programme of 1989. Where many followed. The F.D.P. called for "More Democracy" and a Referendum in addition to elections. Brandt, his Motto was "More Democracy", wrote a short time later the book on Human Rights too ("Human Rights mistreated and abused"). It might be shure, that he knew about the Freud/Einstein Initiative in 1932 in the League of Nations (Völkerbund) to ban the war (by ballot, majority vote) as well, not only in treaties like in 1927. In the end, 1987/88, the Soviet Union disarmed the SS 20 rockets, the west had answered with rockets as well, warning time 2 minutes. It came to the zero option, what caused such a broad and deep discussion, Bahro was part of too. As the Referendum Proposal was. His critical views exist as book, the contribution to the referendum proposal exists only as letter. He answered to the question: "I'm ready to live without weapons", this might be in regard to the "general and complete disarmament" mentioned in Article 6 of the NPT as aim and as part of the Conventions to Chemical and Biological weapons, signed by all UN-members in this or that treaty since the 60ies. But not enough and complete quoted for success. The well known and persecuted dissident Bahro became as well one of the founders of the German Green Party, always a trouble, at that time with socialist elements, and was elected to the Federal Executive in 1980. After disagreements with the party he resigned in 1985. He remained dissident and an increasingly fundamentalist ecologist and eco-socialist.

Original and falsification II

In November 1989 he returned to East Germany and in December spoke at the congress which founded the Party of Democratic Socialism out of the SED, linked to the KPdSU. One of the new or changed left parties, he promoted in "Die Alternative" and other writings. But was let down. The mechanism, we could see in history, that founders or those who delivered concepts, theories, Elements, are often marginalised, disadvantaged by the profiteurs, nouveau riches, who like to take their place, but can't in reality. One of the dilemmas of Stalinism and Poststalinism, the rise and fall of Communism, but not only there. Gregor Gysi, lawyer of Neues Forum, where Ms. Havemann was among, the Havemanns declared before their agreement with Bahros theories of change and for new alternative parties, was chairman of the changing the stalinist/communist GDR-parties SED, SED/PDS, later PDS, now Die Linke/PDS, was his lawyer, when arrested in 1977 for "Die Alternative" and sentenced to prison in 1978. He as well knew exactly Bahros and friends theories, proposals of change. Bahro was cleared of all wrong-doing in June 1990 instead of getting a price.

Bahro is seen by many as a pioneer of the democracy movement. However, others have accused him of being too uncritical of the far right during the last period of his life.

An investigation team, Auerbach et al., later found out in the opened archives, that the state security (Stasi) had contaminated the manuscripts of "The Alternative" with radioactivity already when written and sent with the post, to control the receivers and which might have caused or fastened later the blood cancer (Non-Hodgkin-Lymphom), Bahro died of. []

There is no doubt, that it was right, what Marcuse and others told, that Bahro wrote the most important, successful contributions to the alternative discussions as a whole for decades from the east. How it is called, made silent, nameless, with what aim, consequences. Leading to catalyst groups, promoted by those. Bahros part, i.e. the relevance of his contributions, he himself was disabeld at time, in that development to 1989, 1991, the change from within, conservation, reform and revolution, the reformation, is yet to write. And it is to write, what can it mean, how can the difficulties be handled, to "hold and bring together what belongs together", as Chancellor Brandt said in 1982 to the discussion of the valuation, results, relevance of the "Great Schism" of German Social Democracy between 1905-1917. He at that occasion rejected to discuss the emerging or lasting of undemocratic elements in theory and practice, wrongs, who try to change the course, to accept f.i. crimes during he rise and decline, fall of communism in Russia and abroad, but not only there, as contradiction between social democracy and democratic socialism. He himself once was member of a group "Democratic Socialism" during his memebrship in the "Little International" during World War II. And he was Chairman of the Socialist International. It might be, insofar Willy brandt was and is influential, that this was abused by some stalinist and other braintrust later.

Brandt 1982 on conservation, reform, revolution and reformation (Bahro, 1980) in history and more recent events

In 1982 Chancellor Brandt wrote, discussed, reviewed, that the debate between conservation, reform and revolution, reformation (Bahro, 1980), the rejection of undemocratic elements, Schorske called f.i. "Leninism", and the role of other relevant streams and persons, the influence on each other, must take other ways, use other patterns, must be liberated from wrongs, even if the persons might be subjective honest, liberated from selfsatisfaction, to have better results in matters and persons and less errors, wrong exclusions or schism. Disabling. Some he wrote angry, develop a feeling that they own the party. Cannot accept wrong and right, ID or not. He himself was Chairman of the Socialist International as well. The party let him down later. He repeated it 14.6.1987 when he resigned, that there are persons, who feel, pretend to "own" the party - more than others. Instead of equal opportunity, to equal positive performance and merit, valid written ID. Some try to make a private enterprise out of the party. In 1987 he mentioned no name. Neither in good (because to forget one, is unjust), nor in bad. The still or already relevant rejection in 1982 to condemn "Democratic Socialism" in contrast to "Social Democracy", there must be a definition of course, and to create an artificial contradiction, not to use other terms, the debate of the Great Schism "with" the interesting, lucky book, he quoted as "verdienstvoll by Olle & Wolter". By Chance? This publication of a Harvard/Princeton Professor, once in the OSS (Office of Strategic Service), might have been influential for the choosing of the new name "Party of Democratic Socialism" (PDS) in 1989 to escape from the past and it's crimes and to prevent the more left, genuine Alternative, which might become dangerous if all of the crime will be investigated, comes to court. But this is no good politics. Not serious. If there is a falsification as well, it is an abuse of a good name, reputation. When the change had come, many had worked for, and as predicted, the split from undemocratic forms became reality in parts, the transition was going on, in 1989f, Brandt chose a variation of the 1982 task, re-unification, i.e. the worldwide known "that here grows together, what belongs together". (With the exclusion of certain elements, which do not count that much, or belong to a court.) This President Gorbatschow will have heard. President George H. W. Bush sr, Margaret Thatcher and Président Francois Mitterand, who was sensible too for the Holocaust Theme and the "International Referendum", as he wrote. Helmut Kohl was Chancellor from 1982-1998. The change began as a leftwing uprising, a Prague Spring, and a reform, reformation. But went another way. Chancellor Brandt said, that Gorbatchevs reforms went to short. The leading representative of the Great Schism in Russia, than chose the Referendum, more democracy, in the end to let the people have the final say about forms and contents of their society. President Vladimir Putin disagrees today. This, to let people vote, was not made possible in Germany. Is there a heritage by Bahro and the diuscussion? Every ID expert says, who did publish original text, that the Great Schism was so deep, had such a dimension, that the chapter of genuine history writing and drawing lines to the present, personal options is not yet finished. The schoolbooks must be good for a common understanding of continuity and break. There is a conflict in the estimation of origins and consequences going on. This leads to the question, if there is a heritage, a will in personal options and matters, ways, aims f.i. by Chancellor Willy Brandt.

Publications in English

*The Alternative In Eastern Europe, 1977 (German), 1978 (English), New Left Books/Verso, ISBN 0-86091-006-7
*Socialism and Survival, 1982; German 1980
*From Red To Green, 1984
*Building The Green Movement, 1986
*Avoiding Social & Ecological Disaster: The Politics of World Transformation, 1987 (German) and 1994 (English)

Additional literature

* Ulf Wolter (ed), "Rudolf Bahro - Critical Responses", M.E. Sharpe, White Plains, N.Y., 1980, ISBN 978-0-87332-159-4, new edition in 2007, books on demand, Proquest/AstroLogos, ISBN 978-0-7837-9935-3, (1978 in German: Ulf Wolter (ed.) "Antworten auf Bahros Herausforderung des 'realen Sozialismus'", ISBN 3-921241-51-0, Marcuse [] in "kritik" No. 19, ISSN 0170-4761, published as well in "Die Zeit"), as well published in "International Journal of Politics", translation by Michael Vale, with contributions by Herbert Marcuse, Helmut Fleischer, Heinz Brandt, Rudi Dutschke, Hermann Weber, Lucio Lombardo Radice (Text in: "Spiegel Archiv", 16.10.1978 [] ), Jiri Pelikan, Jakob Moneta, Pierre Frank et al. (Editions of "Antworten auf Bahro" also appeared in Yugoslavia "Pogledi Na Realni Socijalizam", Globus, Zagreb 1984, other writings in Turkey), see as well: minutes of "Bahro Kongreß", 16. - 19. November 1978, TU Berlin, contributions by Rolf Berger, Gerhard Schröder, Ossip K. Flechtheim u.a., Verlag Olle & Wolter, Berlin 1979, ISBN 388395 406 3. In Denmark: Ulf Wolter (Red.), "Hvad kan vi vente os af 80'erne" En diskussion mellem Rudolf Bahro, Ernest Mandel og Peter von Oertzen om socialismens fremtidsmuligheder. Oversat af Hans Christian Fink, Politisk Revys Forlag, Kobenhavn 1981, ISBN 87 85186 88 0. The complete version of this social prediction, debate "Was da alles auf uns zukommt...", 2 vol., Olle & Wolter 1980, ISBN 3-88395-701-1 and ISBN 3-88395-702-X. The letter of Chancellor, SPD and SI Chairman Willy Brandt to Kosta/EVA concerning important statements to Bahro and the welcoming of the discussion of his theories is published in Nr. 47/1978 in "Der Spiegel", ed. Rudolf Augstein, Hamburg. See also: Robert V. Daniels, "Trotsky, Stalin & Socialism", Westview Press, Boulder/San Franzisco/Oxford 1991, ISBN 0-8133-1223-X, Robert V. Daniels, "The End of the Communist Revolution", Routledge, London/New York 1993, ISBN 0-415-06149-0 and a book Bahro was interested in as German edition, 1978: Robert V. Daniels, "The Conscience of the Revolution. Communist Opposition in Soviet Russia", Harvard University Press, a new edition in 1988 at Westview Press, Boulder/San Francisco/Oxford, ISBN 0 8133 7577 0, ISBN of the German edition 1978 (Olle & Wolter), 1962 Kiepenheuer & Witsch, with a new foreword in 1978, ISBN 3 921241 41 3, after 70 years Communism in the SU, history writing, after 40 years real existing socialism in the GDR and the SED who is who, see: Robert V. Daniels, "Why can't they be like us?", The New Leader, Internetversion 2007. To the ongoing discussion between Social Democracy, Democratic Socialism, undemocratic forms, other relevant streams, persons, references see the still, already relevant contribution: Willy Brandt, review/debate to the Wolter/Olle & Wolter edition of one of the good, timeless works: Das politische Buch, " 'Die Große Spaltung' von 1917, Carl E. Schorske und der gegenwärtige Zustand der SPD, Das nichtsnutzige Gespenst", in "Deutsches Allgemeines Sonntagsblatt", Heft 35/82, 29.8.1982, p. 16; a copy available by any library; excerpts in Collected Works, vol. 5, "Die Partei der Freiheit. Willy Brandt und die SPD 1972-1992", ed. by the Bundeskanzler Willy Brandt Stiftung, Dietz Verlag, Bonn 2002, ISBN 3-8012-0305-0

♦ The documents of the contamination already of Bahros "Alternative" manuscipts with radioactivity by the SED State Secret Service (Stasi) (codename: Konzeption/concept) and their attacks against the opposition in east and west, the spreading, deepening and discussion of the theories, in German language for and by the Federal Authority: BStU, Der Bundesbeauftragte für die Unterlagen des Staatsicherheitsdienstes der ehmaligen DDR, Abteilung Bildung und Forschung, Projektgruppe Strahlen: Bernd Eisenfeld (Leitung), Thomas Auerbach, Gudrun Weber, Dr. Sebastian Pflugbeil; Bericht zum Projekt: "Einsatz von Röntgenstrahlen und radioaktiven Stoffen durch das MfS gegen Oppositionelle - Fiktion oder Realität?", Berlin 2000

Excerpt: In a document of this publication the State Security Spy/IM reported from a meeting with Bahro in 1977, that Bahro hoped, that Santiago Carillo, Enrico Berlinguer and George Marchais, the eurocommunist changers, will read his book and take a friendly look at his theories. It than was repeated, that the order was to watch and stop the circulation of the "hostile Bahro material". This was similar to the order to watch and prevent the publishing of the historic dissens, Stalin gave Secret Service man Dzerzhinsky in 1924 concerning already Lenins Testament, that critical Pro for Bucharin, Trotsky etc., their articles, and Lenin's clear rejection of Stalin. Mielke once served as a member of the MfS Unit "Felix Dzerzhinsky", when it was established by Berija after World War II. He was the chief of the activities against Bahro and the Bahro/Dissens Discussion, bigger or smaller. More left or more right. So mentioned in another document of 1977/78, f.i. Prof. Altvater with an universitystudy (OSI) on protosocialist societies, the Marcuse theoretical synthesis. He had given green light for Bahro within the critical Marxists in the east and west, those against Soviet-Marxism. And for all, who trusted his judgement. The publishers EVA, Bund, VSA, Komittee gegen politische Unterdückung in Ost und West were mentioned as well. It than was intended, ordered to watch and prevent that discussion of leftwing alternatives with socialist dissidents (in the east) and possible partners in the "operational area" (i.e. the west), as it was called. A file on President Carter was found by Olle & Wolter Research in another investigation, not documentated here. The dangerous contamination of his manuscipts with radioactivity was to control the contacts to those dissidents in the east and the possible partners in the west. Maybe part of the strategy to fight "hostile negative elements". There are documents found at the (Stasi) State Security University for that too. This was not yet found at 2000. One of the authors of this important, alarming study and information, Thomas Auerbach, who had co-written "DDR-konkret. Geschichten & Berichte aus einem real existierenden Land", Olle & Wolter, Berlin 1978, ISBN 3-921241-39-1, expelled after the protest against the Biermann treatment in 1976, had proved before ("Einsatzkommandos an der unsichtbaren Front. Terror- und Sabotagevorbereitung des MfS auf dem Gebiet der Bundesrepublik Deutschland", Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-86153-183-6), that the Stasi (Secret Service, Tschekisten) even has had tasks, a ressort, not only for sabotage and terror, support or using, destabilisation of the system and of representatives, but for the physical destruction of opponents, targets in the west. Maybe not only in Germany.

elected Publications

* “Rapallo? Why Not? Reply to Gorz”. "TELOS" 51 (Spring 1982). New York: [ Telos Press]

ee also

Mikhail GorbachevJimmy CarterWilly BrandtGerhard SchröderSocialist InternationalHerbert MarcusePrague Spring

* Socialist Unity Party
* German Green Party
* Party of Democratic Socialism
* Eco-socialism

External links

* [ Anti-fascist criticism of Bahro (in German)]
* [ Defence against this criticism (in English)]

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