Freedom Tower

Freedom Tower

*64th floor - sky lobby
*65th-84th floors - offices Fact|date=September 2008
*85th-90th floors - transmission equipment Fact|date=September 2008
*91st-100th floors - Mechanical
*100th-101st floors - Restaurant
*102nd floor - observation deck
*103rd-108th floors - mechanical (unoccupied)
*Top of the building - observation deck two (proposed)Fact|date=September 2007

Including basement floors, 1 World Trade Center will have a total of 114 floors.


The State of New York has agreed to a 15 year lease of 415,000 square feet (38,550 square meter) of space in the Freedom Tower, with an option to extend the term of the lease and occupy up to 1,000,000 square feet (92,900 square meter).cite news |title=Gov. Pataki, Governor Corzine, Mayor Bloomberg Announce Agreements to Occupy Freedom Tower |publisher=US States News |date=September 17, 2006] The General Services Administration (GSA) has agreed to lease approximately 645,000 square feet (59,900 square meters) of space, New York State's Office of General Services (OGS) plans to lease aproximately 412,000 square feet (38,275 square meters) of space and the China Center expects to lease approximately 190,000 square feet (17,650 square meters) in the tower. In April 2008, the Port Authority announced that it was seeking a bidder to operate an 18,000 square foot observation deck on the tower's 102nd floor.cite news | first=Douglas | last=Feiden | url= | title=Freedom Tower to open observation deck on 102nd floor | work=Daily News | publisher=Mortimer Zuckerman | location=New York, New York | date=10 April 2008]

Construction history

2004 to 2006

The symbolic cornerstone of Freedom Tower was laid down in a ceremony on July 4, 2004 [cite press release | url= | title=Governor Pataki, Governor McGreevey, Mayor Bloomberg Lay Cornerstone for Freedom Tower | date=July 4, 2004 | publisher=Office of the Governor of New York State] and further construction of the tower was stalled until 2006. The cornerstone was temporarily removed from the site on June 23, 2006. [cite news|url=|title=Cornerstone of Freedom Tower removed|date=2006-06-25|publisher=CBS News] The project had been delayed due to acrimonious disputes over money, security and design but the last major issues were resolved on April 26, 2006 with a deal between developer Larry Silverstein and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. During the summer of 2006, test explosives were detonated at the Freedom Tower construction site, testing the use of charges to clear bedrock for the Freedom Tower’s foundation. Three to four controlled explosions per day followed on alternating weekdays for approximately two months after.

2006 to 2007

On November 18, 2006, 400 cubic yards (306 cubic meters) of concrete were poured onto the foundation of the Freedom Tower carried by as many as 40 trucks. On December 17, 2006, a ceremony was held in Battery Park City, with the public invited to sign a 30-foot (9 m) steel beam. [cite news |url= |title=Messages of Love and Hope on a Freedom Tower Beam |date=December 18, 2006 |author=Chan, Sewell |publisher=The New York Times] This beam, the first to be installed, was welded on to the Freedom Tower's base on December 19, 2006. [cite news |url= |title=First Freedom Tower Beam Rises At Ground Zero |publisher=WCBS-TVV |date=December 19, 2006] On January 9, 2007 a second set of beams was welded to the top of the first set.

February 2007 estimates put the cost for construction of The Freedom Tower at $3 billion, or $1,150 per square foot ($12,380 per square meter).cite news |title=Freedom From Fear |publisher=The New York Times |date=2007-02-16 |author=Nordenson, Guy] Approximately $1 billion of insurance money recouped by Silverstein is slated for construction of the Freedom Tower. The State of New York is expected to provide $250 million toward construction costs, and the Port Authority would finance another $1 billion for the Freedom Tower, through bonds. [cite news |title=Spitzer, in Reversal, Is Expected to Approve Freedom Tower, Officials Say |publisher=The New York Times |date=2007-02-13 |author=Bagli, Charles V.]

In 2007, Tishman Construction Corporation of New York completed a row of steel columns at the perimeter of the construction site. Two tower crane bases were erected, each base containing a functioning luffing-jib tower crane. By the end of 2007, the tower’s footings and foundations were nearly complete.cite press release | url= | title=Statement by Port Authority Regarding Preparation of Towers 3 and 4 Bathtub at WTC Site to Allow Silverstein Properties to Begin Construction in January | date=December 31, 2007 | publisher=Port Authority of New York & New Jersey]

Current progress in 2008

In January 2008, two construction cranes were placed at the construction site of the Freedom Tower. The tower's concrete core began the same year on the basement floors, but began rising in the first months of 2008. By February 22, 2008, 9,400 tons of the nearly 50,000 tons of steel necessary for the Freedom Tower had been ordered. [cite news | url= | title=Long Journey of Freedom Tower Steel | publisher=Associated Press | author=Westfeldt, Amy | date=February 22, 2008] By March 13, 2008, the steel for the tower had reached convert|70|ft|m high, convert|10|ft|m below street level. [cite news | url= | title=Silverstein: WTC Still on Track for 2012 Finish | | author=Ritter, Ian | date=March 13, 2008] cite web|url=|title=Rising from the Pit||date=March 17, 2008] From late March through early April, a 40-foot (12-meter) tall mockup of a section of the tower's wall with 24 windows was tested by Construction Consulting Laboratory West in Ontario, California. The two weeks of testing were done to make sure the all-glass exterior of the tower will be able to withstand earthquakes and extreme weather conditions.cite news | first=Tom | last=Topousis | url= | title='FREEDOM' RATTLED | work=New York Post | publisher=News Corporation | location=New York, New York | date=1 April 2008] Testing also took place on another full-scale mockup in a rural area south of Albuquerque, New Mexico. Both mockups passed the tests.cite news | first=David W. | last=Dunlap | url= | title=Replicas of New Tower Endure Nature’s Fury and a Test Blast | work=New York Times | publisher=New York Times Co. | location=New York, New York | date=9 April 2008] In the middle of April, a batch of concrete had to be replaced after it failed a stress test April 15.cite news | url= | title=Weak Concrete Foundation Removed From Freedom Tower | work=NY1 | location=New York, New York | date=2008-04-16 | accessdate=2008-04-19 ]

On May 17, 2008, a Saturday, the tower's steel breached street level when new sections were bolted to two of the 24 jumbo steel columns marking the building's footprint. The new column sections brought the height of the structure up to 15 feet above street level.cite news | first=David W. | last=Dunlap | url= | title=Not Yet on the Skyline, but Above Street Level | work=New York Times | publisher=New York Times Co. | location=New York, New York | date=19 May 2008] In June, the chamfered steel skeleton of the tower's concrete base had begun to take shape.cite news | first=David W. | last=Dunlap | url= | title=Chamfer, Anyone? Cutting Corners on a Large Scale | work=New York Times | publisher=New York Times Co. | location=New York, New York | date=19 June 2008 | accessdate=2008-07-13] By the end of the month, the concrete had been poured for the floor of the tower's basement level B3.cite news | first=David W. | last=Dunlap | url= | title=The Choreography (Quickly!) of Concrete | work=New York Times | publisher=New York Times Co. | location=New York, New York | date=3 July 2008 | accessdate=2008-07-13] In his June 30, 2008 World Trade Center Rebuilding Assessment to New York Governor David Paterson, Port Authority executive director Chris Ward noted that "approximately 90 percent of the Freedom Tower contracts have been bid or areready to award."cite report |title=World Trade Center Site Update |last=Ward |first=Chris |year=2008 |publisher=Port Authority of New York and New Jersey |pages=13 |url= |accessdate=2008-06-30 |format=PDF] By August, the Freedom Tower had reached ft to m|25|precision=0 above street level.cite news | first=Michael | last=Frazier | url=,0,4404790.story | title=Construction progress slow at World Trade Center site | work=Newsday | publisher=Newsday Inc. | location=Melville, New York | date=17 August 2008] During its September 16th meeting, the Port Authority board approved contracts for security and building management systemscite press release | url= | title=Port Authority Board Takes Action on Several items | date=September 16, 2008 | publisher=Port Authority of New York & New Jersey] ; fully 95 percent of contracts needed to complete the tower had now been signed.cite news | url= | title=Port Authority Approves Freedom Tower Contracts | work=WNYC | first = Bob | last = Hennelly | date=2008-09-16 | accessdate = 2008-09-18] The $20 million security contract includes sophisticated video analyis in which computers would alert security personnel to abnormal situations automatically.cite news | first=David W. | last=Dunlap | url= | title=Unblinking Eyes, for $20 Million, at Freedom Tower | work=New York Times | publisher=New York Times Co. | location=New York, New York | date=24 September 2008 | accessdate=2008-09-24]

Future progress

The Freedom Tower had been expected to reach rooftop level by the end of 2010 with topping out expected by 2011. However in an 2 October 2008 follow-up report by Ward, the estimated completion of the tower was pushed back to some time between the second and fourth quarter of 2013 with a total budget of $3.1 billion and the use of 46,000 tons of steel.

Construction gallery


The design of Freedom Tower has generated some controversy due to the limited number of floors in the previous design (82) that were designated for office space and other amenities. The floor limit was imposed by Silverstein, who expressed concern that higher floors would be a liability in a major accident or terrorist attack. In a subsequent redesign, the highest occupiable space became comparable to the World Trade Center.

Soon after the destruction of WTC Towers 1 and 2 there was a persistent public demand [cite news | url= | title=Thousands Sign Petition To Rebuild] to rebuild the previous twin towers instead of building a single tower. Ian Simpson Architects designed twin towers but the final Freedom Tower design was more favored by officials. Developer Donald Trump also unveiled a twin design, but he was not affiliated with the official project. Former New York Governor George Pataki faced accusations of cronyism for supposedly using his influence to get the winning architect's bid picked as a personal favor for a close friend. [cite news | url= | title=America's Freedom Tower? | publisher=MSNBC | date=February 17, 2005] The chosen name of the "Freedom Tower," attributed to Pataki, has been criticized as Orwellian by a critic for "The New York Times". [cite news | url= | title=A Temple of Contemplation and Conflict | publisher=The New York Times | date=May 20, 2005] [cite news | url= | title=Lockdown at Ground Zero | publisher= New York Arts | date=November/December 2005]

The base of the tower (fortified because of security concerns) has also been a source of controversy. A number of critics (notably Derek Murdoch in the "National Review") have suggested that it is alienating and dull, and reflects a sense of fear rather than freedom, leading them to dub the project "the Fear Tower." [ [ New York Times letters to the editor: Taking the Measure of the New Freedom Tower ] ] [ [ Deroy Murdock on World Trade Center on National Review Online ] ] Nicolai Ouroussoff, the architecture critic for the New York Times, calls the tower base decorations a "grotesque attempt to disguise its underlying paranoia" [ [ Design Strikes a Defensive Posture - The Green Zone - Freedom Tower - Caltrans District 7 - New York Times ] ]

On April 18, 2008, a homeless man revealed that he found important blueprints about the Freedom Tower in a New York City trash can. The Port Authority called it "a serious security lapse" and has opened an investigation. [Cite web |title=NY tower plans found in rubbish |url= |publisher=BBC News |date=2008-04-18 |accessdate=2008-07-07]

Key people

Larry Silverstein

Larry Silverstein of Silverstein Properties, the leaseholder and developer of the complex, will retain control of the surrounding buildings, while the Port Authority gets full control of the tower itself. Silverstein signed a 99-year lease for the World Trade Center site in July 2001. Silverstein's insurance payout has been a subject of public discourse, as he maintained that the two planes constituted two separate attacks and sued for an extra $3.5 billion. Silverstein has pledged to support the reconstruction and remains actively involved in most aspects of the redevelopment process.

David Childs

David Childs, one of Larry Silverstein's favorite architects, initially came on board thanks to Silverstein's insistence, and developed a proposal for Freedom Tower in collaboration with Daniel Libeskind, a design which was revised in May 2005 to address security concerns. He is currently the project architect of the new Freedom Tower, and is responsible for overseeing the day-to-day design development from rough inception to final completion.

Daniel Libeskind

Daniel Libeskind won the invitational competition to develop a master plan for the World Trade Center's redevelopment in 2002. He included an initial proposal for the design of Freedom Tower, a building with aerial gardens and windmills with an off center spire. It was also Libeskind who denied a request to place the tower in a more rentable location next to the PATH station and instead placed it a block west because in profile it would line up and resemble the Statue of Liberty. Although these designs have since been changed, his contributions continue to shape the design and development at Ground Zero, as they are revised to meet economic and security realities.

Dan Tishman

Dan Tishman, along with his father John Tishman, builder of the original World Trade Center, is leading the construction management effort for Tishman Realty & Construction, the selected builder for Freedom Tower.

ee also

*Buildings and architecture of New York City
*List of tallest buildings in the world
*Memory Foundations
*Tallest buildings in New York City
*Tallest buildings in the United States
*World Trade Center
*World Trade Center Memorial
*World Trade Center site
*World's tallest structures


External links

* [ World Trade Center] Official site for new World Trade Center complex.
* [ WorldTradeCenterRising]
* [ Freedom Tower Construction Commencement] Video
* [, a community project based on Ground Zero's rebuilding.]
* [ World Trade Center Progress (Port Authority of New York and New Jersey)]
* [ LowerManhattan.Info] Official site for Lower Manhattan Construction Command Center.
* [ Freedom Tower Infosite] Unofficial Freedom Tower information site.
* [ Lower Manhattan Development Corporation]
* [ Skidmore, Owings & Merrill] News about Freedom Tower.
* [ Glass, Steel and Stone] History of Freedom Tower designs.
* [ Video of cornerstone laying ceremony for the Freedom Tower on July 4, 2004]
* [ Port Authority of New York and New Jersey]
* [ Project Rebirth] Documentation of the reconstruction of Ground Zero.
* [ Freedom Tower (Overview)] Information on the design concept of the Freedom Tower.
* [ Google Earth Hacks] Freedom Tower plug-in for Google Earth.
* [ Emporis] Summarised Freedom Tower information.
* [ Twin Towers Alliance] Rebuild the Twin Towers
* [ Rebuild the Twin Towers]
* [ Rebuilding the Twin Towers 2]

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Look at other dictionaries:

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