Brown rice


Brown rice

Brown rice (or "hulled rice") is unmilled or partly milled rice, a kind of whole grain. It has a mild nutty flavor, is chewier than white rice and becomes rancid more quickly, but is far more nutritious. [cite web|url=http://www.lammd.com/opinion/brown_rice_vs_white_rice.cfm|title=Brown Rice vs. White Rice|publisher=DrLam.com|year=2004|accessdate=2008-05-19] Any rice, including sticky rice, long-grain rice, or short-grain rice, may be eaten as brown rice.

In much of Asia, brown rice (zh-cp|c=糙米|p=cāomǐ|l=rough rice; Korean: 현미; Japanese: 玄米; "genmai") is associated with poverty and wartime shortages, and in the past was rarely eaten except by the sick, the elderly and as a cure for constipation. This traditionally denigrated kind of rice is now more expensive than common white rice, partly due to its relatively low supply and difficulty of storage and transport.

White rice comparison

Brown rice and white rice have similar amounts of calories, carbohydrates, fat and protein. Many types of brown rice however contain far more fat than white rice. The difference between the two lies in processing and nutritional content. If only the outermost layer of a grain of rice (the husk) is removed, the result is brown rice. If the bran layer underneath is removed, the result is white rice. Several vitamins and dietary minerals are lost in this removal and the subsequent polishing process. A part of these missing nutrients, such as Vitamin B1, Vitamin B3, and iron are sometimes added back into the white rice making it "enriched", as food suppliers in the US are required to do by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). One mineral that is not added back into white rice is magnesium; one cup (195 grams) of cooked long grain brown rice contains 84 mg of magnesium while one cup of white rice contains 19 mg.

When the bran layer is removed to make white rice, the oil in the bran is also removed. Rice bran oil may help lower LDL cholesterol. [cite web|url=http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/abstract/81/1/64|title=Rice bran oil, not fiber, lowers cholesterol in humanss|publisher=American Journal of Clinical Nutrition|year=2005|accessdate=2008-02-11]

Among other key sources of nutrition lost are fatty acids and fiber.

In addition to having greater nutritional value, brown rice is also said to be less constipating than white rice. Although this effect also depends on natural adaptation to the product by its users and whether or not the rice has been washed prior to cooking, brown rice generally allows better digestion.

Cooking and preparation

A nutritionally superior method of preparation using GABA rice or germinated brown rice (GBR), developed during the International Year of Rice, may be used. [cite web|url=http://www.hatsuga.com/DOMER/english/en/GBRRB.html|title=Marketing of Value-Add Rice Products in Japan: Germinated Brown Rice and Rice Bread|author=Ito, Shoichi and Ishikawa, Yukihiro|date=2004-02-12|accessdate=2007-11-28] This involves soaking washed brown rice for 2 hours in warm water (38 °C or 100 °F) prior to cooking it. This process stimulates germination, which activates various enzymes in the rice. By this method, it is possible to obtain a more complete amino acid profile, including GABA.

Storage and preservation

Brown rice can remain in storage for 6 monthsFact|date=July 2008 under normal conditions, but hermetic storage and freezing can significantly extend its lifetime. Freezing, even periodically, can also help control infestations of Indian meal moths.

See also

*Genmaicha, a Japanese green tea combined with roasted brown rice
*Hyeonmi cha, a Korean tisane made from roasted brown rice
*Parboiled rice

References

External links

* [http://americanhistory.si.edu/collections/object.cfm?key=35&objkey=97 Macrobiotic Brown Rice] Article from Smithsonian National Museum of American History
* [http://www.stevepavlina.com/blog/2007/03/how-to-cook-brown-rice Comprehensive Brown Rice Cooking and Preparation Instructions]
* [http://www.aish.com/family/cooking/Brown_Is_Beautiful.asp Easy Brown Rice Recipes]


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