Stephen Langton


Stephen Langton

Infobox Archbishop of Canterbury
Full name = Stephen Langton


birth_name = Stephen Langton
began=unknown
consecration = June 17, 1207
term_end = July 9, 1228
predecessor = Hubert Walter
successor = Walter d'Eynsham
birth_date =
death_date = July 9, 1228
tomb =

Stephen Cardinal Langton (c. 1150 – July 9, 1228) was Archbishop of Canterbury between 1207 and his death in 1228 and was a central figure in the dispute between King John of England and Pope Innocent III, which ultimately led to the issuing of "Magna Carta" in 1215.Fact|date=October 2008

Life

Early life and career

He was born in England (probably in Langton, Yorkshire). He had a brother, Simon Langton, who was elected Archbishop of York in 1215, but that election was quashed by Pope Innocent III. Simon Langton served his brother as Archdeacon of Canterbury in 1227. [http://british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=33855 British History Online Archdeacons of Canterbury] accessed on September 14, 2007]

He studied at the University of Paris and lectured there on theology until 1206, when Pope Innocent III, with whom he had formed a friendship at Paris, called him to Rome and made him cardinal-priest of San Crisogono. [http://british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=33853 British History Online Archbishops of Canterbury] accessed on September 11, 2007] His piety and learning had already won him prebends at Paris and York [http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=11328&strquery=langton#s79 British History Online Canons whose Prebends cannot be identified] accessed September 11, 2007] and he was recognized as the foremost English churchman.

He died at Slindon (fifty miles southwest of London), Sussex, on July 9, 1228.

Archbishopric

On the death of Hubert Walter, Archbishop of Canterbury until 1205, some of the younger monks elected to the see Reginald, the subprior of Christ Church, Canterbury, while another faction under pressure from King John chose John de Grey, Bishop of Norwich. Both elections were quashed on appeal to Rome and sixteen monks of Christ Church, who had gone to Rome empowered to act for the whole chapter, were ordered to proceed to a new election in presence of the Pope. Langton was chosen and was consecrated by the Pope at Viterbo June 17, 1207.Bartlett, Robert "England Under the Norman and Angevin Kings: 1075-1225" Oxford:Clarendon Press 2000 ISBN 0-19-822741-8 p. 404-405]

There followed a hard political struggle between John of England and Pope Innocent III. The King proclaimed as a public enemy anyone who recognized Stephen as Archbishop. On July 15, 1207, John expelled the Canterbury monks, who were now unanimous in support of Stephen. In March, 1208, Pope Innocent III placed England under the interdict and at the close of 1212, after repeated negotiations had failed, he passed sentence of deposition against John, committing the execution of the sentence to Philip II of France in January, 1213.

In May 1213 King John yielded and thus in July, Stephen (who since his consecration had lived at Pontigny Abbey in Burgundy) and his fellow exiles returned to England. His first episcopal act was to absolve the King, who swore that unjust laws should be repealed and the liberties granted by Henry I should be observed — an oath which he almost immediately violated.

Stephen now became a leader in the struggle against King John. At a council of churchmen at Westminster, August 25, 1213, to which certain lay Barons were invited, he read the text of the charter of Henry I and called for its renewal. In the sequel, Stephen's energetic leadership and the Barons' military strength forced John to sign the "Magna Carta" (June 15, 1215).

Since King John now held his kingdom as a fief of the Holy See the Pope espoused his cause and excommunicated the Barons. For refusing to publish the excommunication Stephen was suspended from all ecclesiastical functions by the papal commissioners and on November 4 this sentence was confirmed by the Pope, although Stephen appealed to him in person. He was released from suspension the following spring on condition that he keep out of England till peace was restored and he remained abroad till May 1218. Meanwhile both Pope Innocent and King John died and all parties in England rallied to the support of Henry III.

Stephen Langton continued under Henry's reign to work for the political independence of England. In 1223 he again appeared as the leader and spokesman of the Barons, who demanded that King Henry confirm the charter. He went to France on Henry's behalf to call on Louis VIII of France for the restoration of Normandy, and later he supported Henry against rebellious Barons. He obtained a promise from the new Pope Honorius III, that during his lifetime no resident legate should be again sent to England, and won other concessions from the same pontiff favorable to the English Church and exalting his see of Canterbury.

Of great importance in the ecclesiastical history of England was a council which Stephen opened at Osney April 17, 1222; its decrees, known as the "Constitutions of Stephen Langton," are the earliest provincial canons which are still recognized as binding in English church courts.

Death

On his death he was buried in open ground beside the south transept of Canterbury Cathedral. St Michael's Chapel was later built over this ground (now the Buffs Regimental Chapel), and the head of his tomb projects into the east end of this chapel, under its altar, with his feet outside it.

Works

Stephen was a voluminous writer. Glosses, commentaries, expositions, and treatises by him on almost all the books of the Old Testament, and many sermons, are preserved in manuscript at Lambeth Palace, at Oxford and Cambridge, and in France.

According to F.J.E. Raby, "There is little reason to doubt that Stephen Langton...was the author" of the famous sequence "Veni Sancte Spiritus". ["The Oxford Book of Medieval Latin Verse", Oxford, 1959, p. 496.]

The only other of his works which has been printed, besides a few letters (in "The Historical Works of Gervase of Canterbury", ed. W. Stubbs, ii. London, 1880, "Rolls Series," no. 71, appendix to preface) is a "Tractatus de translatione Beati Thomae" (in J.A. Giles's "Thomas of Canterbury", Oxford, 1845), which is probably an expansion of a sermon he preached in 1220, on occasion of the translation of the relics of St. Thomas Becket; the ceremony was the most splendid which had ever been seen in England. He also wrote a life of Richard I, and other historical works and poems are attributed to him.

Chapters of the Bible

Classically, the Bible scroll has always been divided by blank spaces at the end ("petuhoth") or middle ("setumoth") of the lines. However, Langton is believed to be the one to divide the Bible into the defined modern chapters we use today. While Cardinal Hugo de Sancto Caro is also known to come up with a systematic division of the Bible (between 1244 and 1248), it is Langton's arrangement of books and chapters that remains in use today.

Notes

Persondata
NAME=Langton, Stephen
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=
SHORT DESCRIPTION=Archbishop of Canterbury
DATE OF BIRTH=c. 1150
PLACE OF BIRTH=England (probably in Lincolnshire)
DATE OF DEATH=July 9, 1228
PLACE OF DEATH=Slindon


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