- Germania Superior
Germania Superior ("Upper
Germania"), so called for the reason that it lay upstream of " Germania Inferior", was a province of the Roman Empire. It comprised the area of western Switzerland, the French Jura and Alsaceregions and south-western Germany. Important cities were Besançon("Besontio"), Strasbourg("Argentorate"), Wiesbaden("Aquae Mattiacae") and Germania Superior's capital Mainz("Moguntiacum"). It comprised the Middle Rhine, bordering on the Limes Germanicus, and on the Alpine province of Raetiato the south-east.
Origin of the province
Initial Roman involvement
The terms "Upper Germania" and "Lower Germania" do not appear in the "
Gallic Wars" of Julius Caesar, and yet he describes the people who lived in those regions very well.Fact|date=February 2007 Lower Germania was occupied by the Belgae.Upper Germania was occupied by Gaulish tribes including the Helvetii, Sequani, Leuciand Treveri, and, on the north bank of the middle Rhine, the remnant of the Germanic troops that had attempted to take Vesontiounder Ariovistus, but were defeated by Caesar in 58 BC.
The Romans did not abandon this region at any time after then. During a 5-year period in the initial years of his reign (28-23 BC), as
Dio Cassiustells us ( [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/53*.html 53.12] ), Octavian Caesar assumed direct governorship of the major senatorial provinces on grounds that they were in danger of insurrection and he alone commanded the troops required to restore security. They were to be restored to the senate in 10 years under proconsuls elected by the senate.
Among these independent provinces were upper Germania. Apparently it had become a province in the last years of the republic.
Tacitusalso mentions it as the province of Germania Superior in his "Annales" (3.41, 4.73, 13.53). Dio Cassius viewed the Germanic tribes as Celts, an impression given perhaps by Belgica, the name assigned to lower Germania at the time. Dio does not mention the border, but he views upper Germany as extending to the source of the Rhine. It is not clear if he was aware of the Upper Rhine in Switzerland, upstream from Lake Constance. Today we call the section of the Rhine running through upper germania the middle Rhine.
The limit of the empire
Augustus had planned to incorporate all of central Germania in one province, "Germania Magna". This plan was frustrated by the Germanic tribesmen at the
Battle of Teutoburg Forest. Augustus decided to limit the empire at the Rhine-Danube border. Thereafter continual conflict prevailed along it, forcing the Romans to conduct punitive expeditions and fortify Germania Superior.
By 12 BC, major bases existed at
Xanten(Castra Vetera) and Mainz(Moguntiacum), from which Drususoperated. A system of forts gradually developed around these bases. In 69-70, all the Roman fortications along the [Rhine] and Danubewere destroyed by Germanic insurrections and civil warbetween the legions. At the conclusion of this violent but brief social storm they were rebuilt more extensively than before, with a road connecting Mainz and Augsburg. Domitianwent to war against the Chattiin 83-85, who were north of Frankfurt(in Hessenamed after them). At this time the first limes, or continuous fortified border was constructed. It consisted of a cleared zone of observation, a palisadewhere practicable, wooden watchtowers and forts at the road crossings. The system reached maximum extent by 90. A Roman road went through the Odenwaldand a network of secondary roads connected all the forts and towers.
The plan governing the development of the limes was relatively simple. From a strategic point of view, the
Agri Decumates, or region between the Rhine and Danube, offers a bulge in the line between the Celts and the Germanics, which the Germanics had tried to exploit under Ariovistus. The bulge divided the densely populated Celtic settlements along the entire river system in two. Invading forces could move up under cover of the Black Forest. Roman defensive works therefore cut across the base of the bulge, denying the protected corridor and shortening the line.
The key point was the shoulder of the bulge at Moguntiacum (Mainz) where the "masse de manoevre" or strategic reserves were located. The forts through the forest were relatively lightly defended and on that account were always being burned by the Alamanni. They gave advance notice, however. On being notified, the legions would strike out in preventative and punitive expeditions from Mainz or Strasburg, or Augsburg on the other side.
The entire system could only succeed if heavy troop concentrations were kept at Mainz. Fixed defenses alone are not much of a defense, in either ancient or modern times. Other forces are required for attack. At best the fixed defenses serve to warn or delay until a counterattack can be launched. For more complete details on the development of the limes, or frontier, see under "
In the subsequent peaceful years, the limes lost its temporary character. Vici, or communities, developed around the forts. By 150, the towers and the bases had been rebuilt in stone. The soldiers now lived in good stone barracks within walls decorated by frescoes. Germanic civilization had changed as well. Where caesar had described burning the wretched brush hovels of the Suebi who had come to fight for Ariovistus, the
Chattiand the Alamanninow lived in comfortable Romanized villages around the limes.
Germania Superior was reestablished as an
Imperial Roman provincein 90, taking large amounts of territory from Gallia Lugdunensis. One of its first and most famous governors was the future Emperor Trajan, who ruled the province from 96until his accession in 98. The Helvetiisettlement area became part of the province of "Germania Superior".
End of the province
300, as Rome was losing control over its southernmost provinces, the southern (Swiss) parts of Germania Superior were incorporated into the Provincia Maxima Sequanorumbefore they became part of Burgundy in the early 5th century.
Ladenburg("Lopodunum") = Civitas Ulpia Sueborum Nicretum;
*Wimpfen = Civitas Alisinensium;
*Rottenburg ("Sumelocenna") = Civitas Sumelocennensis;
Baden-Baden("Aquae") = Civitas Aquensis;
Mainz("Mogontiacum") = Civitas Aresacium;
*Worms ("Borbetomagus") = Civitas Vangionum;
Speyer("Noviomagus") = Civitas Nemetum;
Wiesbaden("Mattiacorum") = Civitas Mattiacorum;
Frankfurt am Main- Heddernheim("Nida") = Civitas Taunensium;
Dieburg= Civitas Auderiensium
List of Germanic peoples
*Valerie M. Hope: "Constructing Identity: The Roman Funerary Monuments of Aquelia, Mainz and Nimes"; British Archaeological Reports (16. Juli 2001) ISBN 978-1841711805
* [http://www.rgzm.de/navis/Themes/Flotte/FleetsAndBorder.htm The Fleets and Roman Border Policy]
* [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0006%3Aid%3Dlimes-germaniae-superioris LIMES GERMANIAE SUPERIORIS Germany.]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
GERMANIA superior — pars est Galliae Belgicae, a magna Rheno dicreta, in qua Helvetia, Alsatia, et Palatinatus continentur; ab inferiore (de qua mox) Mosella distincta, ad occas. Iura et Vogeso montibus a reliqua Gallia separata, Ferrar. Baudr. Germania superior… … Hofmann J. Lexicon universale
Germania superior — Lage der Provinz Römische Provinzen unter … Deutsch Wikipedia
Germania Superior — Lage der Provinz Römische Provinzen unter Trajan (117 n. Chr.) Germania Superior („Obergermanien“) war eine römische Provinz, die spätestens ab … Deutsch Wikipedia
Germania Superior — Provincia romana de Germania Superior en el año 120 d. C. La provincia romana de Germania Superior fue creada por César Augusto en un territorio conquistado años atrás por Julio César. Ocupaba Alsacia, parte de la actual Suiza y la… … Wikipedia Español
Germania superior — Germanie supérieure La Germanie supérieure dans l Empire romain, vers 120 La Germanie supérieure ou « Germanie première », « Haute Germanie » selon les auteurs et en latin Germania superior est une province romaine établie… … Wikipédia en Français
Germania Superior — La provincia romana de Germania Superior fue creada por Augusto, años atrás dicho territorio habìa sido conquistado por Julio César. Ocupaba la actual Alsacia, parte de la actual Suiza y la orilla occidental de la parte alta del río Rhun(actual… … Enciclopedia Universal
Germania (Studentenverbindung) — Germania steht für: Germanien: allgemein das Siedlungsgebiet der Germanen Magna Germania, das von den Römern nicht dauerhaft besetzte Germanien Germania Inferior, Provinz des Römischen Reiches Germania Superior, Provinz des Römischen Reiches… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Germania prima — (auch: Germania I) war eine römische Provinz der spätantiken Verwaltungsordnung (vgl. Notitia Dignitatum), die ab dem Jahr 297 bis zum Zusammenbruch der römischen Herrschaft um die Mitte des 5. Jahrhunderts am Rhein bestand. Sie wurde aus der… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Germania I — Germania Prima (auch: Germania I) war eine römische Provinz in der Spätantike, die ab dem Jahr 297 bis zum Zusammenbruch der römischen Herrschaft um die Mitte des 5. Jahrhunderts am Rhein bestand. Sie ging auf die Provinz Germania Superior… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Germania Prima — (auch: Germania I) war eine römische Provinz in der Spätantike, die ab dem Jahr 297 bis zum Zusammenbruch der römischen Herrschaft um die Mitte des 5. Jahrhunderts am Rhein bestand. Sie ging auf die Provinz Germania Superior („Obergermanien“)… … Deutsch Wikipedia