- Roméo Dallaire
Lieutenant-General The Honourable
OC CMM GOQ MSC CD
Senator from Quebec (Gulf) Incumbent Assumed office
March 25, 2005
Personal details Born June 25, 1946
Political party Liberal Spouse(s) Elizabeth Dallaire Profession Lieutenant-General (ret'd), Canadian Forces
Lieutenant-General Roméo Antonius Dallaire, OC, CMM, GOQ, MSC, CD (born June 25, 1946 in Denekamp, Netherlands) is a Canadian senator, humanitarian, author and retired general. Dallaire is widely known for having served as Force Commander of UNAMIR, the ill-fated United Nations peacekeeping force for Rwanda between 1993 and 1994, and for trying to stop the genocide that was being waged by Hutu extremists against Tutsis and Hutu moderates. General Dallaire is a Senior Fellow at the Montreal Institute for Genocide and Human Rights Studies (MIGS) and Co-Director of the MIGS Will to Intervene Project that recently released a policy recommendation report "Mobilizing the Will to Intervene: Leadership and Action to Prevent Mass Atrocities."
Early life and education
Dallaire was born in Denekamp, Netherlands to Staff-Sergeant Roméo Louis Dallaire, a Canadian non-commissioned officer, and Catherine Vermaessen, a Dutch nurse. Dallaire came to Canada with his mother as a six month-old baby on the Empire Brent, landing in Halifax on December 13, 1946. He spent his childhood in Montreal.
He enrolled in the Canadian Army in 1963, as a cadet at Le Collège militaire royal de Saint-Jean. In 1970 he graduated from the Royal Military College of Canada with a Bachelor of Science degree and was commissioned into The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery.
In 1971, Dallaire applied for a Canadian passport to travel overseas with his troops and was surprised to discover that his birth in the Netherlands as the son of a Canadian soldier did not automatically make him a Canadian citizen. He has subsequently become a Canadian citizen.
Dallaire has also attended the Canadian Land Force Command and Staff College, the United States Marine Corps Command and Staff College in Quantico, VA, and the British Higher Command and Staff Course.
He commanded the 5e Régiment d’Artillerie Légère du Canada. On July 3, 1989 he was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general. He then commanded the 5th Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group. He was also the commandant of Collège militaire royal de Saint-Jean from 1989 to 1991.
In late 1993, Dallaire received his commission as the Force Commander of UNAMIR, the United Nations Assistance Mission in Rwanda. Rwanda was in the middle of a civil war between the extremist Hutu government and a small Tutsi rebel faction. UNAMIR's goal was to assist in the implementation of the Arusha Accords. The Hutus worked through the Rwandan army and then-president of Rwanda, Juvénal Habyarimana, and the Tutsis through the rebel commander Paul Kagame, who is the president of Rwanda today. When Dallaire arrived in Rwanda, his mandate was to supervise the implementation of the Accords during a transitional period in which Tutsis were supposed to be given positions of power within the Hutu government.
There were early signs that something was amiss when, on January 22, 1994, a French DC-8 aircraft landed in Kigali, the capital of Rwanda, loaded with ammunition and weapons for the Rwandan Armed Forces (FAR). (FAR was the Hutu army under Habyarimana's control.) Through an informant, Dallaire learned that these weapons were to be used for an attack on Tutsis after the Belgians would have been forced to withdraw by violence orchestrated by the Interahamwe. Despite his telegram to the UN, Dallaire was not permitted to seize the weapons, as this was deemed to be an action beyond his UN mandate. The Chief of Staff of the Rwandan Army told Dallaire that since the munitions were ordered before Arusha, the UN was not allowed to detain the shipment, and displayed paperwork showing that the weapons had been sent by Belgium, Israel, France, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Egypt. In addition to the arms deliveries, troops from the Rwandan government began checking identity cards which identified individuals as Hutus or Tutsis. These cards would later allow Hutu militias to identify their victims with accuracy.
Following the withdrawal of Belgian forces, whom Dallaire considered his best-trained and best-equipped, Dallaire consolidated his contingent of Pakistani, Canadian, Ghanaian, Tunisian, and Bangladeshi soldiers in urban areas and focused on providing areas of "safe control" in and around Kigali. Most of Dallaire's efforts were to defend specific areas where he knew Tutsis to be hiding. Dallaire's staff — including the U.N.'s unarmed observers — often relied on its U.N. credentials to save Tutsis, heading off Interahamwe attacks even while being outnumbered and outgunned. Dallaire's actions are credited with directly saving the lives of 32,000 persons of different races.
Dallaire gave the major force contributors different evaluations for their work. In his book, he gave the Tunisian and Ghanaian contingents high praise for their valiant and competent work. Ghana lost three peacekeepers. On the other hand, he criticized the Bangladeshi contingent for being poorly trained and poorly equipped. He was especially critical of the Bangladeshi contingent's leadership because of their incompetence and lack of loyalty to the mission and UN chain of command.
End to the Genocide
As the massacre progressed and press accounts of the genocide grew, the U.N. Security Council backtracked on its position and voted to establish UNAMIR II, with a strength of 5,500 men in response to the French plan to occupy portions of the country. (The so-called Operation Turquoise, the presence of French troops, was initially opposed by Dallaire because the French had a history of backing the Hutus and the Rwandan Armed Forces, and thus their presence would be opposed by Kagame and the rebel RPF.) It was not until early July, when RPF troops under Kagame swept into Kigali that the genocide ended. By August, the French had handed their portion of the country to the RPF, giving Kagame effective control of all of Rwanda.
As revealed through testimony at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, the genocide was brutally efficient, lasting for a total of 100 days and leading to the murder of between 800,000 and 1,171,000 Tutsi, Hutu moderates and Twa. Over two million people were displaced internally or in neighbouring countries. The Genocide ended when the Rwandan Patriotic Front gained control of Rwanda on July 18, 1994, though recrimination, retribution, and criminal prosecutions continue to the present day.
Life after Rwanda
Upon his return to Canada from UNOMUR and UNAMIR, Dallaire was appointed to two simultaneous commands in September 1994: Deputy Commander of Land Force Command (LFC) in Saint-Hubert, Quebec and Commander of 1 Canadian Division. In October 1995, Dallaire assumed command of Land Force Quebec Area.
In 1996, Dallaire was promoted to Chief of Staff and to the Assistant Deputy Minister (Personnel) Group at NDHQ. In 1998, he was assigned to Assistant Deputy Minister (Human Resources - Military) and in 1999 was appointed Special Advisor to the Chief of the Defence Staff on Officer Professional Development.
Dallaire suffers from posttraumatic stress disorder and in 2000, attempted suicide by combining alcohol with his anti-depressant medication, a near fatal combination which left him comatose. Dallaire is an outspoken supporter of raising awareness for veterans' mental health.
In January 2004, Dallaire appeared at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda to testify against Colonel Théoneste Bagosora. (The testimony was critical to the outcome of the trial and in December 2008 Bagosora was convicted of genocide and for the command responsibility of the murders of the 10 Belgian Peacekeepers. The trial chamber held that: "it is clear that the killing of the peacekeepers formed part of the widespread and systematic attack", while at the same time holding that: "the evidence suggests that these killings were not necessarily part of a highly coordinated plan.") He later worked as a Special Advisor to the Canadian Government on War Affected Children and the Prohibition of Small Arms Distribution, as well as with international agencies with the same focus, including child labour. He is a great proponent of the concept of Institutionalism, and, in 2004-2005, he served as a fellow at the Carr Center For Human Rights Policy at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government. He endorses the Genocide Intervention Network.
Dallaire was on March 24, 2005, appointed to the Canadian Senate by Governor General Adrienne Clarkson on the advice of Prime Minister Paul Martin. He sits as a Liberal, representing the province of Quebec. Dallaire noted that his family has supported both the Liberal Party of Canada and the Quebec Liberal Party since 1958. He was a strong supporter of Michael Ignatieff's unsuccessful 2006 bid for the leadership of the federal Liberal Party.
In 2007, Dallaire called for the reopening of Collège militaire royal de Saint-Jean, saying "The possibility of starting a new program at the college — a military Cegep that would allow all officer cadets to spend two years in Saint-Jean before going to Kingston, instead of studying only in Kingston — is being considered. In the spirit of progress, would it be possible to support a principle as basic as the freedom of francophones in the Canadian Armed Forces by establishing a Cegep-style francophone bilingual military college."
Concordia University announced on September 8, 2006, that Dallaire would sit as Senior Fellow at the Montreal Institute for Genocide and Human Rights Studies (MIGS), a research centre based at the university’s Faculty of Arts & Science. Later that month, on September 29, 2006, he issued a statement urging the international community to be prepared to defend Bahá'ís in Iran from possible atrocities.
Senator Dallaire has worked to bring an understanding of post-traumatic stress disorder to the general public. He was a visiting lecturer at several Canadian and American universities. He was a Fellow of the Carr Center for Human Rights Policy, Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. He pursued research on conflict resolution and the use of child soldiers. He has written several articles and chapters in publications on conflict resolution, humanitarian assistance and human rights. He recently wrote a book about the use of child soldiers, which has since been published.
Dallaire and his wife, Elizabeth, have three children: Willem, Catherine and Guy.
In the media
In Samantha Power's 2002 landmark work on genocide in the 20th century, A Problem from Hell: America and the Age of Genocide, Sen. Dallaire features largely in the recounting of the Rwanda Genocide. Power also wrote the foreword to Dallaire's book, Shake Hands with the Devil. In a 2004 opinion article published by The New York Times, Dallaire called upon NATO to intervene militarily alongside African Union troops to abort the genocide in Darfur. He concluded that, "having called what is happening in Darfur genocide and having vowed to stop it, it is time for the West to keep its word as well."
Documentary and film
In October 2002, the documentary The Last Just Man  was released, which chronicles the Rwandan genocide and features interviews with Dallaire, Brent Beardsley, and others involved in the events that happened in Rwanda. It was directed by Steven Silver.
A documentary film, entitled Shake Hands with the Devil: The Journey of Roméo Dallaire, which was inspired by the book and shows Gen Dallaire's return to Rwanda after ten years, was produced by the CBC, SRC and White Pine Pictures, and released in 2004. The film was nominated for two Sundance Film Festival Awards, winning the 2004 Sundance Film Festival Audience Award for World Cinema - Documentary and a nomination for Grand Jury Prize for World Cinema - Documentary. The film aired on CBC on January 31, 2005.
In 2004, PBS Frontline featured a documentary named The Ghosts of Rwanda. In an interview conducted for the documentary and recorded over the course of four days in October 2003, Dallaire said: "Rwanda will never ever leave me. It's in the pores of my body. My soul is in those hills, my spirit is with the spirits of all those people who were slaughtered and killed that I know of, and many that I didn't know...."
The 2004 film Hotel Rwanda featured a Canadian Forces colonel assigned to UN peacekeeping based on Dallaire, played by Nick Nolte. Dallaire is quoted as saying that neither the producer, nor Nolte himself, consulted with him before shooting the film. He said further that he did not agree with Nolte's portrayal, but did think that the film was "okay."
A Canadian dramatic feature film Shake Hands with the Devil adapted from Roméo Dallaire's 2003 book and starring Roy Dupuis as Lieutenant-General Dallaire, started production in mid-June 2006, and was released on 28 September 2007. Dallaire participated in a press conference about the film held on June 2, 2006, in Montreal, a film for which he was being consulted. The film earned 12 Genie Award nominations and won one in the category Best Achievement in Music - Original Song for the song "Kaya" by Valanga Khoza and David Hirschfelder. In September 2007, Shake Hands With The Devil won the Emmy award for Outstanding Documentary with The Documentary Channel, who presented it on their channel.
Dallaire is the inspiration for the song Kigali by Canadian singer-songwriter, Jon Brooks. The song appears on his album Ours And The Shepherds, which is about Canadian war stories and the problems faced by returning soldiers. His first verse is taken directly from Dallaire's book.
Also, "Romeo Dallaire" is the title of a folk song written by Canadian folk songwriter Andy McGaw. McGaw's song points squarely at the indifference and failure of the United Nations response to the Rwanda genocide.
Chorus of McGaw's song:
- Thank you for callin' the United Nations
- We can't take your call right now cause we're all on vacation
- If you need support hug your teddy bear
- If you're in big trouble boys better say your prayers
Awards and recognition
In 1996, Dallaire was made an Officer of the Legion of Merit of the United States, the highest military decoration available for award to foreigners, for his service in Rwanda. Dallaire was also awarded the inaugural Aegis Trust Award in 2002, and on October 10 of the same year, he was inducted as an Officer in the Order of Canada.
The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's The Greatest Canadian program saw Dallaire voted, in 16th place, as the highest rated military figure. Several months after the broadcast, on March 9, 2005, Governor-General Adrienne Clarkson awarded Dallaire with the 25th Pearson Medal of Peace. On October 11, 2006, the Center for Unconventional Security Affairs at the University of California, Irvine awarded Dallaire with the 2006 Human Security Award.
Dallaire has received honorary doctorates from a large number of Canadian and American universities. He received Doctor of Laws degrees from University of Saskatchewan, St. Thomas University, Boston College, the University of Calgary, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Athabasca University, Trent University, the University of Victoria, the University of Western Ontario, and Simon Fraser University, and an honorary Doctor of Humanities degree from the University of Lethbridge. On June 1, 2006, Romeo Dallaire was awarded a Doctorate of Humane Letters by the Queens College of the City University of New York (CUNY) in recognition of his efforts in Rwanda and afterwards to speak out against genocide. He received an ovation from the crowd for his comment that "no human is more human than any other". Senator Dallaire was named a Fellow of the Ryerson Polytechnic University, and an Honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada.
His book Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda, was awarded the Governor General's Literary Award for Non-Fiction in 2004.
General Dallaire planted a tree at the Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre, Accra, Ghana in 2007 at the invitation of the Commandant, Major-General John Attipoe.
Senator Dallaire was made an Officer of the Order of Canada in 2002, Grand Officer of the National Order of Quebec in 2005. He was granted the inaugural Aegis Award for Genocide Prevention from the Aegis Trust (United Kingdom).
Dallaire was a recipient of the Vimy Award.
There are elementary schools named after Dallaire in Winnipeg, Manitoba and Ajax, Ontario as well as a French High school in Barrie, Ontario. Also, a street is named after him in the Lincoln Park neighbourhood of Calgary, Alberta.
Dallaire was one of the eight Olympic Flag bearers at the opening ceremony for the 2010 Olympic Winter Games, in Vancouver.
Bibliography and filmography
- The Last Just Man (Canada, 2001, directed by Steven Silver)
- Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda
- Shake Hands With the Devil: The Journey of Roméo Dallaire
- Shake Hands with the Devil (2007 film)
- They Fight Like Soldiers, They Die Like Children: The Global Quest to Eradicate the Use of Child Soldiers
- ^ "Senators' Statements: Sudan, Conflict in Darfur". 2006-06-28. http://www.cjc.ca/docs/PARL/305_June%2028%20-%20sen.doc.
- ^ Montreal Institute for Genocide and Human Rights Studies
- ^ Mobilizing The Will To Intervene
- ^ Passports and Citizenship Problems facing Canadian War Brides of World War Two, births, weddings, marriages to Canadian servicemen
- ^ 2005, Pilger, John (ed), page 451, 'Tell Me No Lies', Vintage Press, London. ISBN 978-0-099-43745-1
- ^ "Dallaire feels 'personal relief' after GG addresses genocide in Rwanda". The Montreal Gazette. 2010-04-22. http://www.montrealgazette.com/entertainment/music/Summer+concert+preview/2926335/Gallery+Remembrance/3119896/Dallaire+feels+personal+relief+after+addresses+genocide+Rwanda/2939690/story.html. Retrieved 2010-12-09.
- ^ "CBC News Indepth: Romeo Dallaire". CBC News. 2005-03-09. http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/dallaire/. Retrieved 2009-04-30.
- ^ Paragraphs 2174-2177,Chapter IV: Legal Findings, page 551, Judgement and Sentence, 18 December 2008, The Prosecutor v. Bagosora et al., Case No. ICTR-98-41-T
- ^ Paragraphs 791 & 795, Pages 198-199, Judgement and Sentence, 18 December 2008, The Prosecutor v. Bagosora et al., Case No. ICTR-98-41-T
- ^ "Debates of the Senate, 1st Session, 39th Parliament" (PDF). 2007-05-03. http://www.parl.gc.ca/39/1/parlbus/chambus/senate/deb-e/pdf/093db_2007-05-03-E.pdf. Retrieved 2009-04-02.
- ^ "Senator Roméo Dallaire Partners With Concordia". Montreal Institute for Genocide and Human Rights Studies. 2008-09-08. http://migs.concordia.ca/DallairePressConferenceAdvisory.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-30.
- ^ Romeo Dallaire, expert on genocide, expresses concern for Baha'i community in Iran
- ^ Dallaire, Roméo (2004-10-04). "Looking at Darfur, Seeing Rwanda". Reprinted from The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/10/04/opinion/04dallaire.html. Retrieved 2009-04-30.
- ^ a b "Ghosts of Rwanda". PBS. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/ghosts/.
- ^ Romeo Dallaire, Still Bedeviled, Washington Post, February 9, 2005
- ^ http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0472562/awards
- ^ e-Veritas » Blog Archive » Misc
- ^ Ecole Romeo-Dallaire- Winnipeg (Ecole francaise)
- ^ "Roméo Dallaire P.S.". http://dallaire.ddsbschools.ca/. Retrieved 10 November 2009.
- ^ Google Maps
- 4237 Dr. Adrian Preston & Peter Dennis (Edited) "Swords and Covenants" Rowman And Littlefield, London. Croom Helm. 1976.
- H16511 Dr. Richard Arthur Preston "Canada's RMC - A History of Royal Military College" Second Edition 1982
- H1877 R. Guy C. Smith (editor) "As You Were! Ex-Cadets Remember". In 2 Volumes. Volume I: 1876-1918. Volume II: 1919-1984. RMC. Kingston, Ontario. The R.M.C. Club of Canada. 1984
- Biography and picture, from Harvard's Carr Center for Human Rights Policy at the John F. Kennedy School of Government.
- Roméo Dallaire - Parliament of Canada biography
- Liberal Senate Forum
- Canada Council of the Arts: brief biography, high-resolution image, and review of Dallaire's autographical book Shake Hands with the Devil
- CBC Biography of LGen Roméo Dallaire
- CBC Digital Archives – Witness To Evil: Roméo Dallaire and Rwanda
- CBC News article on appointment of Roméo Dallaire to the Canadian Senate
- Moving from Words to Actions Panel discussion hosted by Aegis Trust on January 25, 2006.
- Transcript of interview of LGen Dallaire in Ghosts of Rwanda documentary on PBS Frontline.
- Transcript of interview of LGen Dallaire at the US Holocaust Memorial Museum, conducted in Washington D.C., June 12, 2002.
- Transcript of interview of General Dallaire on BBC's Hardtalk in 2002
- Romeo Dallaire Interview on The Hour
- General Romeo Dallaire - United Nations/Canada
- http://www.supportcamh.ca/Media_Buzz_display.asp?crypt=DX98DhsZZnZsbGIRfXIKAA== Centre for Addiction & Mental Health interview with Romeo Dallaire about PTSD
Military offices New title Force Commander of UNAMIR
Major-General Guy Tousignant
Parliament of Canada Preceded by
Gulf Senate division
Incumbent Current members of the Senate of Canada AB BC MB NB NL NS ON PE QC SK TerritoriesNTNUYT Conservative (C) • Independent (Ind.) or Not affiliated (N/A) • Liberal (L) • Progressive Conservative (PC) Chair Vice ChairLillian Eva Dyck Members
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