- Log wind profile
The

**Log wind profile**is a semi-empirical relationship used to describe the vertical distribution of horizontal wind speeds above the ground within the atmospheric surface layer. The relationship is well described in theplanetary boundary layer literature [*cite book|author=Oke, T.R.|title=Boundary Layer Climates|edition=|publisher=Methuen|year=1987|id=*] .The

logarithmic profile of wind speeds is generally limited to the lowest 100 meters (325') of the atmosphere (i.e., thesurface layer of theatmospheric boundary layer ). In the free atmosphere, geostrophic wind relationships should be used. The equation to estimate the wind speed ($u$) at height $z$ (meters) above the ground is:$u\_z\; =\; frac\{u\_*\}\{kappa\}\; left\; [ln\; left(frac\{z-d\}\{z\_0\}\; ight)\; +\; varphi(z,z\_0,L)\; ight]$ where $u\_*$ is thefriction (or shear)velocity (m s^{-1}), $kappa$ is von Karman's constant (~0.41), $d$ is the zero plane displacement, $z\_0$ is the surface roughness (in meters), and $varphi$ is a stability term where $L$ is the Monin-Obukhov stability parameter. Under neutral stability conditions, $z/L\; =\; 0$ and $varphi$ drops out.Zero-plane displacement ($d$) is the height in meters above the ground at which zero wind speed is achieved as a result of flow obstacles such as trees or buildings. It is generally approximated as

^{2}/_{3}of the average height of the obstacles. For example, if estimating winds over a forest canopy of height h = 30 m, the zero-plane displacement would be d = 20 m.Roughness length ($z\_0$) is a corrective measure to account for the effect of the roughness of a surface on wind flow, and is between

^{1}/_{10}and^{1}/_{30}of the average height of the roughness elements on the ground. Over smooth, open water, expect a value around 0.0002 m, while over flat, open grassland $z\_0$ ≈ 0.03 m, cropland ≈ 0.1-0.25 m, and brush or forest ≈ 0.5-1.0 m (values above 1 m are rare and indicate excessively rough terrain).The log wind profile is generally considered to be a more reliable estimator than the

Wind profile power law , which is commonly used when neutral conditions are assumed and roughness information is not available.**Applications**Log wind profiles are generated and used in a good many atmospheric pollution dispersion models. [

*cite book|author=Beychok, Milton R.|title=*]Fundamentals Of Stack Gas Dispersion |edition=4th Edition|publisher=author-published|year=2005|id=ISBN 0-9644588-0-2**ee also***

Compilation of atmospheric dispersion models **References**

*Wikimedia Foundation.
2010.*

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