United Kingdom general election, 1931


United Kingdom general election, 1931

Infobox Election
election_name = United Kingdom general election, 1931
country = United Kingdom
type = parliamentary
ongoing = no
previous_election = United Kingdom general election, 1929
previous_year = 1929
previous_mps = MPs elected in the United Kingdom general election, 1929
next_election = United Kingdom general election, 1935
next_year = 1935
next_mps = MPs elected in the United Kingdom general election, 1935
seats_for_election = All 616 seats to the House of Commons
election_date = 27 October 1931


leader1 = Stanley Baldwin
leader_since1 = 23 May 1923
party1 = Conservative Party (UK)
leaders_seat1 = Bewdley
last_election1 = 260 seats, 38.1%
seats1 = 473
seat_change1 = +210
popular_vote1 = 11,377,022
percentage1 = 55.0%


leader2 = Arthur Henderson
leader_since2 = 1 September 1931
party2 = Labour Party (UK)
leaders_seat2 = Burnley (defeated)
last_election2 = 287 seats, 37.1%
seats2 = 52
seat_change2 = -225
popular_vote2 = 6,339,306
percentage2 = 30.8%


leader3 = Sir Herbert Samuel
leader_since3 = October 1931
party3 = Liberal Party (UK)
leaders_seat3 = Darwen
last_election3 = 59 seats, 23.6%
seats3 = 33
seat_change3 = +9
popular_vote3 = 1,346,571
percentage3 = 6.5%


leader4 = John Simon
leader_since4 = 1931
party4 = National Liberal Party (UK)
leaders_seat4 = Spen Valley
last_election4 = "N/A"
seats4 = 41
seat_change4 = "N/A"
popular_vote4 = 761,705
percentage4 = 3.7%


leader5 = Ramsay MacDonald
leader_since5 = 24 August 1931
party5 = National Labour Party (UK)
leaders_seat5 = Seaham
last_election5 = "N/A"
seats5 = 20
seat_change5 = "N/A"
popular_vote5 = 316,741
percentage5 = 1.5%
title = PM
before_election = Ramsay MacDonald
before_party = Labour Party (UK)
after_election = Ramsay MacDonald
after_party = UK National Government

The UK general election on Tuesday 27 October 1931 was the last in the United Kingdom not held on a Thursday. It was also the last election, and the only one under universal suffrage, where one party (the Conservatives) received an absolute majority of the votes cast.

The 1931 general election was held in the middle of the Great Depression, and by 1931 Ramsay MacDonald's Labour government had reached a deadlock over a response to the crisis. Influential members of the Labour Cabinet, such as Arthur Henderson, were not willing to support the budget cuts advised by the civil service, while the Chancellor, Phillip Snowden refused to consider deficit spending or tariffs. MacDonald was then encouraged to form an all-party National Government to deal with the financial crisis. The Conservatives stated that the new government should seek a mandate from the electorate.Fact|date=October 2007

MacDonald's decision before the election to form a coalition with the Conservatives saw him expelled from the Labour Party. He was replaced as leader by Henderson. MacDonald and a small group of supporters then formed the National Labour Party. The Labour split persuaded MacDonald that a quick election was necessary. The Liberals opposed the calling of an election and Liberal leader David Lloyd George urged his colleagues to withdraw from the National Government. However, the majority of Liberals, led by Sir Herbert Samuel decided to remain within it. Complicating matters further a group of Liberal MPs emerged as the "Liberal Nationals" who urged full support for the National Government and expressed a willingness to fill any vacancies created by the resignations of other Liberals and maintain the multi-party nature of the government.

A main issue was the Conservatives' wish to introduce protectionist trade policies. This not only divided the government from the opposition but also divided the parties in the National Government. The Liberal Nationals under Sir John Simon supported the Conservative protectionist trade policies. The Liberals led by Samuel and Lloyd George campaigned in defence of free trade.

In the event, the Labour vote fell sharply, and the Conservatives, led by Stanley Baldwin, won a landslide majority of 324 seats, although Ramsay MacDonald remained Prime Minister in the new National government. The Liberals lacked the funds to contest the full range of seats, but still won almost as many constituencies as the Labour Party.

Results

Election Summary Party with Candidates
party = Conservative Party (UK)
candidates = 518
seats = 473
gain =
loss =
net = + 210
votes = 11,377,022
votes % = 55.0
seats % = 76.4
plus/minus = +16.9
government = yes
Election Summary Party with Candidates
party = Labour Party (UK)
candidates = 516
seats = 52
gain =
loss =
net = - 225
votes = 6,339,306
votes % = 30.8
seats % = 8.5
plus/minus = -6.5
Election Summary Party with Candidates
party = Liberal Party (UK)
candidates = 111
seats = 33
gain = 16
loss = 7
net = + 9
votes = 1,346,571
votes % = 6.5
seats % = 5.2
plus/minus = -17.0
government = yes
Election Summary Party with Candidates
party = National Liberal Party (UK)
candidates = 41
seats = 35
gain = 10
loss = 3
net = + 7
votes = 761,705
votes % = 3.7
seats % = 5.7
plus/minus = "N/A"
government = yes
Election Summary Party with Candidates
party = National Labour Party (UK 1930s)
candidates = 20
seats = 13
gain = 13
loss = 0
net = + 13
votes = 316,741
votes % = 1.5
seats % = 2.1
plus/minus = "N/A"
government = yes
Election Summary with Candidates
party = Ind. Liberal Party
candidates = 6
seats = 4
gain = 0
loss = 1
net = - 1
votes = 103,528
votes % = 0.5
seats % = 0.7
plus/minus = "N/A"
Election Summary Party with Candidates
party = UK National Government
candidates = 4
seats = 4
gain = 4
loss = 0
net = + 4
votes = 100,193
votes % = 0.5
seats % = 0.7
plus/minus = "N/A"
government = yes
Election Summary Party with Candidates
party = Nationalist Party (Northern Ireland)
candidates = 3
seats = 2
gain = 0
loss = 1
net = - 1
votes = 72,530
votes % = 0.4
seats % = 0.3
plus/minus = +0.2
Election Summary Party with Candidates
party = Communist Party of Great Britain
candidates = 26
seats = 0
gain = 0
loss = 0
net = 0
votes = 69,692
votes % = 0.3
seats % = 0
plus/minus = +0.1
Election Summary Party with Candidates
party = New Party (UK)
candidates = 24
seats = 0
gain = 0
loss = 0
net = 0
votes = 36,377
votes % = 0.2
seats % = 0
plus/minus = "N/A"
Election Summary Party with Candidates
party = National Party of Scotland
candidates = 5
seats = 0
gain = 0
loss = 0
net = 0
votes = 20,954
votes % = 0.1
seats % = 0
plus/minus = +0.1
Election Summary Party with Candidates
party = Independent Labour
candidates = 2
seats = 0
gain = 0
loss = 0
net = 0
votes = 18,200
votes % = 0.1
seats % = 0
plus/minus = 0.0
Election Summary Party with Candidates
party = Scottish Prohibition Party
candidates = 1
seats = 0
gain = 0
loss = 1
net = - 1
votes = 16,114
votes % = 0.1
seats % = 0
plus/minus = 0.0
Election Summary Party with Candidates
party = Independent (politician)
candidates = 4
seats = 1
gain = 0
loss = 3
net = - 3
votes = 10,789
votes % = 0.0
seats % = 0
plus/minus = -0.4
Election Summary with Candidates
party = Liverpool Protestant
candidates = 1
seats = 0
gain = 0
loss = 0
net = 0
votes = 7,834
votes % = 0.0
seats % = 0
plus/minus = "N/A"
Election Summary Party with Candidates
party = Agricultural Party
candidates = 1
seats = 0
gain = 0
loss = 0
net = 0
votes = 6,993
votes % = 0.0
seats % = 0
plus/minus = "N/A"
Election Summary Party with Candidates
party = Independent Nationalist
candidates = 1
seats = 0
gain = 0
loss = 0
net = 0
votes = 3,134
votes % = 0.0
seats % = 0
plus/minus = "N/A"
Election Summary Party with Candidates
party = Independent Liberal
candidates = 1
seats = 0
gain = 0
loss = 0
net = 0
votes = 2,578
votes % = 0.0
seats % = 0
plus/minus = -0.1
Election Summary Party with Candidates
party = Plaid Cymru
candidates = 2
seats = 0
gain = 0
loss = 0
net = 0
votes = 2,050
votes % = 0.0
seats % = 0
plus/minus = 0.0
Election Summary with Candidates
party = Commonwealth Land
candidates = 2
seats = 0
gain = 0
loss = 0
net = 0
votes = 1,347
votes % = 0.0
seats % = 0
plus/minus = "N/A"
Election Summary with Candidates
party = "National Government (total)"
candidates = "694"
seats = "556"
gain =
loss =
net =
votes = "13,902,232"
votes % = "67.2"
seats % = "90.1"
plus/minus =
government = yes

References

*F. W. S. Craig, "British Electoral Facts: 1832-1987"
* [http://www.election.demon.co.uk/geresults.html United Kingdom election results - summary results 1885-1979]

ee also

*MPs elected in the United Kingdom general election, 1931

External links

* [http://www.conservativemanifesto.com/1931/1931-conservative-manifesto.shtml 1931 Conservative manifesto]
* [http://www.labour-party.org.uk/manifestos/1931/1931-labour-manifesto.shtml 1931 Labour manifesto]
* [http://www.libdemmanifesto.com/1931/1931-liberal-manifesto.shtml 1931 Liberal manifesto]


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