- Common sage
name = Common sage
image_width = 240px
image_caption = flowers
divisio = Magnoliophyta
genus = "
species = "S. officinalis"
binomial = "Salvia officinalis"
binomial_authority = L.
Common sage ("Salvia officinalis") is a small perennial
evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers. It is native to the Mediterraneanregion.
It is much cultivated as a
kitchenand medicinal herb. Common sage is also grown in parts of Europe, especially the Balkansfor distillation of the essential oil, though other species, such as " Salvia triloba" may also be harvested and distilled with it.
It is also called Garden sage, Kitchen sage, and Dalmatian sage. The word
sageor derived names are also used for a number of related and non related species.
Sage has been known to be used for spiritual and sometimes supernatural purposes. Many use sage while performing an exorcism with the belief that burning the sage will drive out dark entities and demons. Sage is also used in the practices of Witchcraft and Wicca.
herb, sage is considered to have a slight peppery flavour. In Western cooking, it is used for flavouring fatty meats (especially as a marinade), cheeses (Sage Derby), and some drinks. In the United States, Britain and Flanders, sage is used with onionfor poultry or pork stuffing and also in sauces. In French cuisine, sage is used for cooking white meatand in vegetable soups. Germans often use it in sausagedishes, and sage forms the dominant flavouring in the English Lincolnshire sausage. Sage is also common in Italian cooking. Sage is sautéd in olive oil and butter until crisp, then plain or stuffed pasta is added (burro e salvia). In the Balkansand the Middle East, it is used when roasting mutton.
The Latin name for sage, "salvia", means “to heal". Although the effectiveness of Common Sage is open to debate, it has been recommended at one time or another for virtually every ailment. Modern evidence supports its effects as an
anhidrotic, antibiotic, antifungal, astringent, antispasmodic, estrogenic, hypoglycemic, and tonic. cite web|url=http://www.appliedhealth.com/nutri/page8453.php |title=Sage |accessdate=2008-02-04 |work=OBeWise Nutriceutica |publisher=Applied Health ] In a double blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial, sage was found to be effective in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. [cite journal|author=Akhondzadeh S, Noroozian M, Mohammadi M, Ohadinia S, Jamshidi AH, Khani M. |title=Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial |journal=J Clin Pharm Ther |year=2003 |issue=1 |volume=28 |pages=53–9 |pmid =12605619 |doi=10.1046/j.1365-2710.2003.00463.x]
indigestion, gas, livercomplaints, excessive lactation, excessive perspiration, excessive salivation, anxiety, depression, female sterility, menopausalproblems.It is astringent and stimulant in its properties and used to treat joint pain like Sandhivata, Amavata
insect bites, throat, mouth, gum, skin infections, vaginal discharge.
The strongest active constituents of Sage are within its
essential oil, which contains cineole, borneol, and thujone. Sage leaf contains tannic acid, oleic acid, ursonic acid, ursolic acid, cornsole, cornsolic acid, fumaric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, niacin, nicotinamide, flavones, flavone glycosides, and estrogenicsubstances.
A number of
cultivars of the plant exist. The majority of these are cultivated more often for ornament than for their herbal properties. All are valuable as small ornamental flowering shrubs, and for low ground cover, especially in sunny dry situations. They are easily raised from summer cuttings. Named cultivars include
* 'Purpurascens', a purple-leafed cultivar, considered by some to be strongest of the garden sages,
* 'Tricolor', a cultivar with white, yellow and green variegated leaves,
* 'Berggarten', a cultivar with large leaves,
* 'Icterina', a cultivar with yellow-green variegated leaves,
* 'Alba', a white-flowered cultivar,
* 'Extrakta', has leaves with higher oil concentrations.
* 'Lavandulaefolia', a small leaved cultivar.
* "The Herb Society of America New Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses", Deni Bown (New York: DK, 2001)
* [http://www.appliedhealth.com/nutri/page8453.php Medicinal use: from appliedhealth.com]
* [http://botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/s/sages-05.html#com Medicinal use, modern and historical: from botanical.com]
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