- Nordic Mobile Telephone
NMT (Nordisk MobilTelefoni or Nordiska MobilTelefoni-gruppen, Nordic Mobile Telephony in English) is the first fully automatic cellular phone system. It was specified by Nordic telecommunications administrations (PTTs) and opened for service in 1 October 1981 as a response to the increasing congestion and heavy requirements of the manual mobile phone networks: ARP (150 MHz) in Finland and MTD (450 MHz) in Sweden, Norway and Denmark. The Swedish electrical engineer Östen Mäkitalo is considered as the father of this system, and of the cell phone.
NMT is based on analog technology (first generation or 1G) and two variants exist: NMT-450 and NMT-900. The numbers indicate the frequency bands uses. NMT-900 was introduced in 1986 because it carries more channels than the previous NMT-450 network.
The NMT specifications were free and open, allowing many companies to produce NMT hardware and pushing the prices down. The success of NMT meant a lot to Nokia (then Mobira) and Ericsson. First Danish implementers were Storno (then owned by General Electric, later taken over by Motorola) and AP (later taken over by Philips). Initial NMT phones were designed to mount in the trunk of a car, with a keyboard/display unit at the drivers seat. "Portable" versions existed: one could definitely move them, but they were bulky, and battery lifetime was a big problem. Latter-day models (such as Benefon's) were as small as 100 mm and weighed only about 100 grams.
The NMT network was opened in Sweden and Norway in 1981, and in Denmark and Finland in 1982. Iceland joined in 1986. However, the first commercial service was introduced in Saudi Arabia on September 1, 1981 to 1200 users, one month before Sweden. By 1985 the network had grown to 110,000 subscribers in Scandinavia and Finland, 63,300 in Norway alone, which made it the world's largest mobile network at the time.
The NMT network has mainly been used in the Nordic countries, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Hungary, Poland, Bulgaria, Romania, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Serbia, Turkey, Croatia, Bosnia, Baltic countries and Russia and in Asia. The introduction of digital mobile networks such as GSM has reduced the popularity of NMT and the Nordic countries have suspended their NMT networks. In Finland TeliaSonera's NMT network was suspended on December 31, 2002. Norway's last NMT network was suspended on December 31, 2004. Sweden's TeliaSonera NMT network was suspended on December 31, 2007. The NMT network (450 MHz) however has one big advantage over GSM which is the range; this advantage is valuable in big but sparsely populated countries such as Iceland. In Iceland, the GSM network reaches 98% of the country's population but only a small proportion of its land area. The NMT system however reaches most of the country and a lot of the surrounding waters, thus the network is popular with fishermen and those traveling in the mountains. In Iceland NMT service was stopped on the 1st of September 2010, when Síminn closed down its NMT network.
In Denmark, Norway and Sweden the NMT-450 frequencies has been given to Swedish Nordisk Mobiltelefon (Sweden) that later became Ice.net and renamed to Net 1 that built a digital network using CDMA 450. The permission for TeliaSonera to continue operation of NMT-450 ended on December 31, 2007.
In Russia Uralwestcom shut down their NMT network on September 1, 2006 and Sibirtelecom on January 10, 2008.
The cell sizes in an NMT network range from 2 km to 30 km. With smaller ranges the network can service more simultaneous callers; for example in a city the range can be kept short for better service. NMT used full duplex transmission, allowing for simultaneous receiving and transmission of voice. Car phone versions of NMT used transmission power of up to 15 watt (NMT-450) and 6 watt (NMT-900), handsets up to 1 watt. NMT had automatic switching (dialing) and handover of the call built into the standard from the beginning, which was not the case with most preceding car phone services, such as the Finnish ARP. Additionally, the NMT standard specified billing as well as national and international roaming.
NMT voice channel is transmitted with FM-modulation and NMT signaling transfer speeds vary between 600 and 1200 bits per second, using FFSK (Fast Frequency Shift Keying) modulation. Signaling between the base station and the mobile station was implemented using the same RF channel that was used for audio, and using the 1200 bit/s FFSK modem. This caused the periodic short noise bursts, e.g. during handover, that were uniquely characteristic to NMT sound.
A disadvantage of the original NMT specification is that voice traffic was not encrypted, therefore it was possible to listen to calls using e.g. a scanner. As a result, some scanners have had the NMT bands "deleted" so they could not be accessed. Later versions of the NMT specifications defined optional analog scrambling which was based on two-band audio frequency inversion. If both the base station and the mobile station supported scrambling, they could agree upon using it when initiating a phone call. Also, if two users had mobile stations (=mobile phones) supporting scrambling, they could turn it on during conversation even if the base stations didn't support it. In this case audio would be scrambled all the way between the two mobile stations. While the scrambling method was not at all as strong as encryption in newer digital phones, such as GSM, it did prevent casual listening with scanners. Scrambling is defined in NMT Doc 450-1: System Description (1999-03-23) and NMT Doc 450-3 and 900-3: Technical Specification for the Mobile Station (1995-10-04)'s Annex 26 v.1.1: Mobile Station with Speech Scrambling - Split Inversion Method (Optional) (1998-01-27).
NMT also supported a simple but robust integrated data transfer mode called DMS (Data and Messaging Service) or NMT-Text, which used the network's signaling channel for data transfer. Using DMS, also text messaging was possible between two NMT handsets before SMS service started in GSM, but this feature was never commercially available except in Russian, Polish and Bulgarian NMT networks. Another data transfer method was called NMT Mobidigi with transfer speeds of 380 bits per second. It required external equipment.
- ^ "Nokia 1100 phone offers reliable and affordable mobile communications for new growth markets" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 27 August 2003. http://press.nokia.com/PR/200308/915317_5.html. Retrieved 2009-05-26.
- ^ Nordsveen, Arve M (28 November 2005). "Mobiltelefonens historie i Norge" (in Norwegian). Norsk Telemuseum. Archived from the original on 13 February 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070213045903/http://telemuseum.no/mambo/content/view/29/1/.
- ^ Petersen, Julie K. (2002). The telecommunications illustrated dictionary. CRC Press. http://books.google.com/books?id=b2mMzS0hCkAC&pg=PA679&lpg=PA679#v=onepage&q&f=false.
Cellular network standards 0G (radio telephones) 1GAMPS familyOther 2G3GPP2 familycdmaOne (TIA/EIA/IS-95 and ANSI-J-STD 008)AMPS familyD-AMPS (IS-54 and IS-136)Other 2G transitional
(2.5G, 2.75G)3GPP2 familyCDMA2000 1X (TIA/EIA/IS-2000) · 1X AdvancedOther
3G (IMT-2000)3GPP2 familyCDMA2000 1xEV-DO Release 0 (TIA/IS-856) 3G transitional
(3.5G, 3.75G, 3.9G)3GPP2 familyIEEE family
(IMT-Advanced)IEEE familyWiMAX-Advanced (IEEE 802.16m)
5GResearch concept, not under formal development LinksRelated articlesExternal links
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Nordic Mobile Telephone — Pour les articles homonymes, voir NMT. Nordic Mobile Telephone, abrégé en NMT (Nordisk MobilTelefoni ou Nordiska MobilTelefoni gruppen en allemand) est une norme de téléphonie mobile spécifiée par les administrations des télécommunications… … Wikipédia en Français
Nordic Mobile Telephone — NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone) аналоговый стандарт мобильной связи в диапазоне частот от 453 до 468 МГц. Особенности Значительно большая по сравнению с другими стандартами площадь обслуживания одной базовой станции и соответственно меньшие… … Википедия
Nordic Mobile Telephone — Das Nordic Mobile Telephone (Nordisk MobilTelefoni oder Nordiska MobilTelefoni gruppen, abgekürzt NMT) ist ein Mobiltelefonsystem aus Skandinavien. Die Planungen begannen 1970 und der Betrieb 1981. Es war der Nachfolger der analogen,… … Deutsch Wikipedia
mobile telephone — Introduction also called mobile phone portable device for connecting to a telecommunications network in order to transmit and receive voice, video, or other data. Mobile phones typically connect to the public switched telephone network (PSTN)… … Universalium
Mobile telephony — Mobile phone tower Mobile telephony is the provision of telephone services to phones which may move around freely rather than stay fixed in one location. Mobile phones connect to a terrestrial cellular network of base stations (cell sites),… … Wikipedia
Mobile phone terms across the world — The following is a list of mobile phone terms used around the world. Mobile phones are known as: * cellulair , mobile or telefon in Lebanon. * cell phones or cell in Canada, India, Pakistan, the Philippines, South Africa, and the United States. * … Wikipedia
Telephone mobile — Téléphonie mobile Pour les articles homonymes, voir Téléphone (homonymie) et Mobile. La téléphonie mobile est une infrastructure de télécommunication qui permet de communiquer par téléphone sans être relié par câble à un central. Le téléphone… … Wikipédia en Français
Telephone portable — Téléphonie mobile Pour les articles homonymes, voir Téléphone (homonymie) et Mobile. La téléphonie mobile est une infrastructure de télécommunication qui permet de communiquer par téléphone sans être relié par câble à un central. Le téléphone… … Wikipédia en Français
Téléphone Mobile — Téléphonie mobile Pour les articles homonymes, voir Téléphone (homonymie) et Mobile. La téléphonie mobile est une infrastructure de télécommunication qui permet de communiquer par téléphone sans être relié par câble à un central. Le téléphone… … Wikipédia en Français
Téléphone Portable — Téléphonie mobile Pour les articles homonymes, voir Téléphone (homonymie) et Mobile. La téléphonie mobile est une infrastructure de télécommunication qui permet de communiquer par téléphone sans être relié par câble à un central. Le téléphone… … Wikipédia en Français