- Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster
Infobox British Royalty|royal
name =Edmund Crouchback
title =Earl of Lancaster and Leicester
caption = Edmund Crouchback and
St. George, each wearing their arms.
spouse =Lady Aveline de Forz
Blanche of Artois
issue =Thomas, Earl of Lancaster
Henry, Earl of Lancaster
John, Lord of Beaufort
titles =The Earl of Lancaster
The Earl of Leicester
royal house =
House of Plantagenet
Henry III of England
Eleanor of Provence
date of birth =
16 January 1245
place of birth =
London, Kingdom of England
date of death =
5 June 1296(aged 51)
place of death =
Bayonne, Duchy of Aquitaine|
Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster (
January 16, 1245– June 5, 1296) was the second surviving son of Eleanor of Provenceand King Henry III of England.
Edmund was born in
London. He was a younger brother of Edward I of England, Margaret of England, and Beatrice of England, and an older brother of Katherine of England.
In 1253 he was invested by
Pope Innocent IVin the Kingdom of Sicilyand Apulia. At about this time he was also made Earl of Chester. These were of little value as Conrad IV of Germany, the real King of Sicily, was still living and the Earldom of Chester was transferred to his elder brother Edward.
Edmund soon obtained, however, important possessions and dignities, for soon after the forfeiture of
Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicesterin 1265, Edmund received the Earldom of Leicester and of Lancaster and also the honour of the Stewardship of England and the lands of Nicolas de Segrave. In 1267 he was granted the lordship of Builth Wellsin opposition to the then holder, Llywelyn ap Gruffydd. To help him conquer the land he was also granted his elder brother's lordships of the Trilateral of Skenfrith, Grosmontand White Castletogether with Monmouth.
In 1271 he accompanied his elder brother Edward on the
Ninth Crusadeto Palestine. Some historians, including the authors of the Encyclopedia Britannica article on him, state that it was because of this that he received the nickname "Crouchback" (which they say means "cross back") indicating that he was entitled to wear a cross on his back.
On his return from the Crusade he seems to have made
Grosmont Castlehis favoured home and undertook much rebuilding there. His son Henry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster was apparently born there in 1281.
Edmund was married twice, first on
8 April 1269to Lady Aveline de Forz, the daughter of William de Forz, Count of Aumaleand Isabel de Reviers, Countess of Aumale. She died just 4 years after the marriage, at the age of 15, and was buried at Westminster Abbey. The couple had no children, though some sources believe she may have died in childbirth or shortly after a miscarriage.Fact|date=March 2008
He married a second time in
Paris, on February 3, 1276to Blanche of Artois, daughter of Robert I of Artoisand Matilda of Brabant. That same year he became the Count of Champagneand Briein France. With Blanche he had four children:
* Thomas Plantagenet, Second Earl of Lancaster (b. 1278)
* Henry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster (b. 1281)
* John Plantagenet, Lord of Beaufort, (c. 1282 - 1327)
* Mary Plantagenet (c. 1284 - c. 1289)
He died while besieging
Bordeauxfor his brother on June 5, 1296in Bayonne, and was interred on July 15, 1296at Westminster Abbey, London, England.
Titles, styles, honours and arms
Edmund bore the arms of the kingdom, differenced by a "label France of three points (that is to say azure three fleur-de-lys or, each)". [ [http://www.heraldica.org/topics/britain/cadency.htm Marks of Cadency in the British Royal Family] ]
Remfry, P.M., Grosmont Castle and the families of Fitz Osbern, Ballon, Fitz Count, Burgh, Braose and Plantagenet of Grosmont (ISBN 1-899376-56-9)
* [http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=19130 Edmund Crouchback's Grave in Westminster Abbey]
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Earl of Lancaster — The title of Earl of Lancaster was created in the Peerage of England in 1267, merging in the crown in 1399. See also Duke of Lancaster.Earls of Lancaster (1267)*Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster (1246 1296) *Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster… … Wikipedia
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