International court

International court

International courts are formed by treaties between nations, or under the authority of an international organization such as the United Nations — this includes "ad hoc" tribunals and permanent institutions, but excludes any courts arising purely under national authority.

Early examples of international courts include the Nuremberg and Tokyo tribunals established in the aftermath of World War II. Three such courts are presently located at The Hague in the Netherlands: The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), the International Court of Justice (ICJ), and the International Criminal Court (ICC). Further international courts exist elsewhere, usually with their jurisdiction restricted to a particular country or issue, such as the one dealing with the genocide in Rwanda.

Judges and high-level staff of such courts may be afforded diplomatic immunity if their governing authority so allows. International courts should be distinguished from international arbitration forums.

List of international courts

Permanent international courts


*International Court of Justice
*International Criminal Court
*Permanent Court of Arbitration
*Permanent Court of International Justice
*World Trade Organization Dispute Settlement Body


*African Court of Justice
*African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights
*East African Court of Justice


*Caribbean Court of Justice
*Central American Court of Justice
*Combined Appeals Court of the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba
*Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court
*Inter-American Court of Human Rights

Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States

*Economic Court of the Commonwealth of Independent States
*European Court of Auditors
*European Court of Human Rights
*European Court of Justice
*European Commission of Human Rights
*European Free Trade Association Court
*European Nuclear Energy Tribunal
*European Union Civil Service Tribunal
*Human Rights Chamber for Bosnia and Herzegovina

"Ad hoc" tribunals

*International Military Tribunal (Nuremberg)
*International Military Tribunal for the Far East
*Beagle Channel Court of Arbitration
*Iran-United States Claims Tribunal
*International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
*International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
*Special Panels of the Dili District Court
*Special Court for Sierra Leone
*Cambodia Tribunal
*Special Tribunal for Lebanon

External links

* [ Project on International Courts and Tribunals]

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