- Horizontal transmission
Horizontal transmission is the transmission of a
bacterial, fungal, or viral infectionbetween members of the same species that are not in a parent-child relationship.
There are two types of horizontal transmission, "anterior station" and "posterior station".In anterior station, transmission occurs via the bite of an infected organism, like in
malaria, dengue fever, and bubonic plague. Posterior station is transmission via contact with infected feces. Examples are rickettsiaedriven diseases (like typhus), which are contracted by a body louse's fecal material being scratched into the bloodstream.
Horizontal transmission tends to
evolve virulence. It is therefore a critical concept for evolutionary medicine.
In Dual Inheritance Theory, horizontal transmission refers to the spread of cultural traits between members of the same generation. [Cavalli-Sforza, L.L. and M. Feldman. 1981. Cultural Transmission and Evolution: A Quantitative Approach. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.]
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