- Henry Francis Bowers
Henry Francis Bowers (1837-1911) was the founder of the
American Protective Associationin Clinton, Iowa. It was staunchly politically anti-Catholic.
Henry Bowers, an attorney, objected to
Catholicinvolvement in politics. He paradoxically held friendships with Catholics within his community.
His demands for
Catholicsto remove themselves from politics, was because he saw Catholics as having dual loyalties. To Bowers they could not be both loyal to the United States and a popein Rome.
econdary Scholarly Sources
* Bennett, David H. "The Party of Fear: From Nativist Movements to the New Right in American History" (1988), ISBN 0807817724.
* Brown, Ira V. [http://cip.cornell.edu/DPubS/Repository/1.0/Disseminate/psu.ph/1133207845/body/pdf#page=9 Review] of Donald L. Kinzer, "An Episode in Anti-Catholicism: The American Protective Association" (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1964), "Pennsylvania History", April 1966.
* Lipset, Seymour Martin and Earl Raab. "The Politics of Unreason: Right Wing Extremism in America, 1790-1970" (1970), ISBN 0060126477.
* [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01426a.htm Humphrey J. Desmond, "The American Protective Association" "Catholic Encyclopedia" (1911)]
*"Congressional Record" (Washington, October 31, 1893)
*Traynor, in "North American Review", volume clix (New York, 1887)
* [http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5351/ Protestant Paranoia: The American Protective Association Oath ] at historymatters.gmu.edu
* [http://projects.vassar.edu/1896/apa.html 1896: McKinley and the A.P.A. ] at projects.vassar.edu
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