official_name = Sliven
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = BUL
subdivision_type1 = Provinces
map_caption = Location of Sliven
pushpin_map_caption =Location of Sliven
postal_code_type =Postal Code
blank_name= License plate
image_shield=Sliven Bulgaria coat of arms.png
Sliven ( _bg. Сливен) is a town in southeast
Bulgariaand the administrative centre of Sliven Province. It is a relatively large town with 110,000 inhabitants (the 8th largest in Bulgaria). Sliven is famous for its Bulgarian Haiduts who fought against the Ottoman Turksin the 19th century and is known as the "City of the 100 Voyvodi", a Voyvoda being a leader of Haiduts. The current mayor of the city is former football star Yordan Letchkov.
The famous rocky
massif Sinite Kamani(Сините камъни, "The Blue Rocks") and the associated national park, the fresh air and the mineral springs offer diverse opportunities for leisure and tourism. Investors are exploring the opportunity to use the famous local wind (Bora) for the production of electricity.
Another point of interest and symbol of the city, as featured on the coat of arms, is the thousand-year-old Stariya Briast (Старият Бряст, "The Old Elm"), a large
Smooth-leaved Elmin the center of the city. During the time of the Ottoman Occupation, Turkish officials would hang Bulgarian revolutionaries on the tree. In modern times, the city is doing its best to keep the tree alive with the addition of cement to the base. Sliven Peakon Livingston Islandin the South Shetland Islands, Antarcticais named for Sliven.
Geography and climate
Sliven is located 300 km east of Bulgaria's capital
Sofia, 100 km from Bourgas, the country's largest commercial port, 130 km from the border with Greeceand 130 km from the border with Turkey. It is located in close proximity to the cities of Yamboland Nova Zagora.
West of the city lies the so called Peach Valley which contains large
peachorchards. The city is also known for its mineral baths whose water is used to treat diseases of the liver and nervous system.
The most visited geographical location and attraction in the city is the Karandila (Карандила). It is a hilltop 1050m above sealevel, with great sights overlooking the city. On the Karandila is the rock formation Hulkata (Хaлката, "The Ring"). It is a rock protrusion with an interesting, yet peculiar hole in the center. According to myth, one would change gender upon passing through the ring.
Remains of the oldest settlements on the territory of Sliven date back to around 6000 B.C.E of the neolithic. Ruins of a
Thraciansettlement dating to around 5th–3rd century B.C.E as well as Thracianceramics and Hellenisticcoins have been discovered in the area of Hisarlaka — a small hill in Sliven. The area occupied by present-day Sliven has in the past been settled by the Thraciantribes Asti, Kabileti and Seleti. These tribes held their independence until time of Philip II of Macedonand Alexander the Greatwho conquered them.
The second century B.C.E. marked the beginning of the Roman conquests of northeastern
Thracia. Sliven became part of the Roman Empirearound 71–72 B.C.E. when the Thraciancities of Kabileand Apolonia are conquered. With the emergence of the Roman Empirethe region of the city became part of the Thracian province of the Roman Empire.
A new stage in the city's history began around 2nd–4th century B.C.E. The first written records of the settlement's name, Tuida/Suida/Tsuida date to this period. This name is most likely of
Thracianorigin. Its etymology is currently not understood.
In more modern times, Sliven became one of the most significant cultural centres during the Bulgarian National Revival, with much of its old heritage still preserved and enriched its heritage and today offers to its citizens and visitors a lot of opportunities for cultural life. It served as the birthplace of many prominent Bulgarians who contributed to the enlightenment such as
Hadzhi Dimitar, Dobri Chintulov, Evgeniy Chapkanov, Ivan Sеliminskiand many others. Another notable native is Anton Pannwho composed the Romanian national anthem.
The economy of Sliven has centered around industry since the early 19th century. In 1834,
Dobri Zhelyazkovestablished the first factory in Bulgarian lands, thus starting industrial development in Bulgaria. Sliven was one of the largest industrial centers in Bulgaria, playing an important role during the Bulgarian National Revival. It has long-lived traditions in textiles, machine-building, glass-making, chemical production, and the technical аnd food industries. Following the beginning of communist rule in Bulgaria in 1944, most industries were nationalized and much industrial building and development was spurred. Industry continued to develop until the fall of communism, at which point much of the previously built industry stagnated; many plants and factories were shut down and there was little development. In contemporary times, Sliven has experienced a surge in economy with increased investment, banking establishments and new industries have began to emerge. The dairy industry, which has long been present, continues to grow and thrive. The wine industry, with companies such as Vinprom and Vini Sliven and about a dozen others, continues to grow as grapes are easily grown due to the climate conditions. In terms of heavy industry, Sliven is home to a 3Mplant which produces machinery used to cut metals. The city also produces electric lights and electrical machines. Light industry in sliven is mostly devoted to textiles with many companies making wool clothing, socks, and food.
There are many buildings in the city built in the National Revival Architecture style, including the Hadzhi Dimitur House-Museum. It is in the south western part of the town and shows visitors a complex of a native memorial home and an old traditional inn. The Dobry Chintulov Memorial House Museum is on the North side of Sliven; it was the home of the Bulgarian revival teacher and poet Dobry Chintulov.The city's main theater is located at the main city square. It is named after the Sliven native Stefan Kirov (Стефан Киров) who was a prominent actor and director.
According to 2007 estimates the Sliven municipality has a population of 147,557, while the city Sliven 112,103 citizens.
Members of the following ethnic groups are represented in the city's population.
Sliven is the administrative centre of the eponymous Sliven municipality (part of
Sliven Province), which includes the following 49 places (towns in bold):
Alba Iulia, Romania
* - [http://www.tekirdagefsanesi.com Tekirdağ ]
* [http://www.snimka.bg/album.php?album_id=5316 Digital photos from Sliven]
* [http://www.sliven.bg Official site of Sliven]
* [http://www.picturesofbulgaria.com/article/sliven.html Sliven at Pictures of Bulgaria]
* [http://www.guide-bulgaria.com/SE/Sliven Guide to Sliven district, cities, villages and regions]
* [http://www.sliven.net Sliven.net]
* [http://www.sliven.government.bg Sliven.government.bg]
* [http://sliven.start.bg/ Sliven.start.bg]
* [http://maps.google.com/maps?f=q&hl=en&q=42.67%C2%B0+N,+26.32%C2%B0+E&ie=UTF8&ll=42.673854,26.320152&spn=0.115103,0.343323&t=h&om=1 Sliven on Google Maps]
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Look at other dictionaries:
Sliven — Сливен Héraldique … Wikipédia en Français
Sliven — Sliven, Stadt in Ostrumelien, s. Slivno … Kleines Konversations-Lexikon
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Sliven — Original name in latin Sliven Name in other language Gorad Sliven, Islimiye, Islimje, Sliven, Slivenas, Slivno, Sliwen, aslmyh, aslywn, seulliben, si li wen, sliveni, slybn, slyfn, slywyn, surivuSlivenen, Горад Слівен, Сливен, Слівен, State code… … Cities with a population over 1000 database
Sliven — Sli·ven (slĭvʹən) A city of east central Bulgaria east of Sofia. It was contested by Bulgaria and the Byzantine Empire in medieval times and by Russia and Turkey in the 19th century. Population: 106,225. * * * ▪ Bulgaria town, east central… … Universalium
Sliven — Sp Slivenas Ap Сливен/Sliven L sr. c., C Bulgarija … Pasaulio vietovardžiai. Internetinė duomenų bazė
Sliven — Admin ASC 1 Code Orig. name Sliven Country and Admin Code BG.56 BG … World countries Adminstrative division ASC I-II
Sliven — Sliwen (Сливен) … Deutsch Wikipedia
Sliven — noun a town in central Bulgaria … Wiktionary
Sliven — ► Distrito del E de Bulgaria; 3 614 km2 y 242 110 h. Cap., la ciudad homónima (106 610 h) … Enciclopedia Universal