- Cold air intake
Most vehicles manufactured since the mid-1970s have thermostatic air intake systems that regulate the temperature of the air entering the engine's intake tract, providing warm air when the engine is cold and cold air when the engine is warm to maximize performance, efficiency, and fuel economy. Aftermarket cold air intake systems are marketed with claims of increased engine efficiency and performance. The putative principle behind a cold air intake is that cooler air has a higher density, thus containing more oxygen per volume unit than warmer air.
Some strategies used in designing aftermarket cold air intakes are:
- Reworking parts of the intake that create turbulence to reduce air resistance.
- Providing a more direct route to the air intake by eliminating muffling devices.
- Shortening the length of the intake.
- Using a less restrictive air filter, usually trading filtering quality for increased airflow capacity (this may be of dubious benefit).
- Placing the intake duct so as to use the ram-air effect to give positive pressure at speed.
Aftermarket cold air intakes can pose a risk of damage to the vehicle.
- Hydrolock - The intake opening is closer to the street than an original-equipment air intake, and more likely to introduce water into the engine when fording streams or flooded roads.
- Noise - Stock air filtration systems usually include resonator-based muffling tubes. Removing them reduces pumping losses but increases noise.
- Can void the vehicle warranty.
Intake systems come in many different styles and can be constructed from plastic, metal, rubber (silicone) or composite materials (fiberglass, carbon fiber or Kevlar). The most efficient intake systems utilize an airbox which is sized to complement the engine and will extend the powerband of the engine. The intake snorkel (opening for the intake air to enter the system) must be large enough to ensure sufficient air is available to the engine under all conditions from idle to full throttle.
The most basic cold air intake consists of a short metal or plastic tube leading to a conical air filter. Power may be lost at certain engine speeds and gained at others. Because of the reduced covering, intake noise is usually increased.
Some intakes use heat shields to isolate the air filter from the rest of the engine compartment, providing cooler air from the front or side of the engine bay. Some systems called "fender mount" move the filter into the fender wall, this system draws air up through the fender wall which provides even more isolation and still cooler air.
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