Scorewriter


Scorewriter

A scorewriter, or music notation program, is software used for creating sheet music.


A scorewriter is to music notation what a word processor is to text.

Contents

Comparison with multitrack sequencer software

Multitrack sequencer software and scorewriters typically employ different methods for the input and display of music notation.

Scorewriters are based on traditional music notation, which originates from European classical music. They use graphical symbols representing durations in sound and silence, along with symbols for dynamics, articulations and tempo. Some even allow the user to import or create their own symbols for use in scoring.

Multitrack sequencer software typically uses a multi-track recorder metaphor as the main interface, consisting of multiple tracks and track segments. Individual tracks can be edited using a graphic notation in the form of a piano-roll guided input for the control of MIDI-based hardware or software instruments.

In addition to these two approaches, a third approach has emerged that combines the above two methods of score input into a Digital Audio Workstation. This allows the user to score parts using traditional notation, using the graphic notation of the piano roll and to record acoustic or electronic instruments in real time along side the existing scores.

In all three case it is possible to use the computer keyboard and mouse for input control or to use a MIDI based keyboard for data entry that is later edited using traditional notation or piano-roll based notation.

Some argue that the implementation of traditional notation in multitrack sequencer software and Digital Audio Workstations is limited in contrast to the engraving quality programs such as Finale and Sibelius.

History

The rapid growth of desktop computers in the 1980s caused the creation of dozens of early scorewriters during that decade (see List of scorewriters). However, during the 1990s many of these fell into disuse.

By 2000 the market was dominated by Finale (particularly in the US), and to a lesser extent Sibelius (which had dominated the UK since 1993, and had expanded worldwide since its Windows release in 1998). Unlike many earlier programs, both of these offered a wide range of sophisticated features, making them suitable for almost all kinds of music and for professional publishing.

In the early 2000s, worldwide sales of Sibelius overtook Finale (according to Sibelius Software). Sibelius and Finale still dominate the market today.

Functionality

Basic features

All scorewriters allow the user to input, edit and print music notation, to varying degrees of sophistication. They range from programs which can write a simple song, piano piece or guitar tab, to those that can handle the complexities of orchestral music, specialist notations (from early music to avant garde), and high-quality music engraving.

Input

Music can usually be input by using the mouse, computer keyboard, and/or a MIDI keyboard. Also a few will allow input by scanning scores using musical OCR software, or by playing or singing into a microphone.

Playback

Most scorewriters also allow the music to be played back via MIDI, or in some cases using virtual instruments. This means that scorewriters have a certain amount in common with sequencers (many of which can also write music notation up to a point), though scorewriters are used primarily for writing notation and sequencers primarily for recording and playing music.

Engraving

Some scorewriters allow the printed output to be customized and fine-tuned to a considerable degree, as is required by publishers to produce high-quality music engraving and to suit their individual house style.

Internet publishing

A few scorewriters allow users to publish scores on the Internet, where they can be (for example) played back, transposed, and printed out, perhaps for a fee.

Other features

Most scorewriters provide other musical functions such as transposing, or producing separate instrumental parts from a full score, or applying music transformations such as retrograde. Some can automatically create instrumental exercises and student worksheets. Some support plug-ins, often developed by users or other companies. Various features found in other types of program are also found in some scorewriters; these include version control (similar to Microsoft Word's 'track changes' feature), importing and exporting graphics, Post-It-like sticky notes, etc.

File formats

Almost all scorewriters use their own file formats for saving files. Hence, in order to move notation between different scorewriters (or to/from other kinds of music software such as sequencers), most scorewriters can also import or export one or more standard interchange file formats, such as:

  • Standard MIDI File: supported by almost all scorewriters. However, as this format was designed for playback (e.g. by sequencers) rather than notation, it only produces approximate results and much notational information is lost in the process
  • MusicXML: in recent years has become the standard interchange format for accurate notation[1]
  • NIFF: a now-obsolete file format that was supported by a few scorewriters.[2]

There are also human-readable text-based formats such as Abc notation and ASCII tab. These are easily rendered as speech by screen reading software.

See also

References

  1. ^ "MusicXML Software". Recordare LLC. 23 October 2007. http://www.recordare.com/xml/software.html. Retrieved 2007-11-06. 
  2. ^ Belkin, Alan (NIFF coordinator). (February 1992). "The Current Status of NIFF". Archived from the original on 2007-10-31. http://web.archive.org/web/20071031231009/http://www.musique.umontreal.ca/personnel/Belkin/NIFF.doc.html. Retrieved 2007-11-06. "Niff has now been superseded by MusicXML." 

External links


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