- Declaration of Indulgence
The Declaration of Indulgence (or the Declaration for the Liberty of Conscience) was two proclamations made by James II of England and VII of Scotland in 1687. The Indulgence was first issued for Scotland on 12 February, and then for England on 4 April 1687. It was a first step at establishing freedom of religion in the British Isles.
The Declaration granted broad religious freedom in England by suspending penal laws enforcing conformity to the Church of England and allowing persons to worship in their homes or chapels as they saw fit, and it ended the requirement of affirming religious oaths before gaining employment in government office.
By use of the Royal suspending power the King lifted the religious penal laws and granted toleration to the various Christian denominations, Catholic and Protestant, within his kingdoms. The Declaration of Indulgence was supported by William Penn who was widely perceived to be its instigator. The declaration was greatly opposed by Anglicans in England and their Episcopalian counterparts in Scotland for it did not appear to guarantee that the Anglican Church would remain the established church.
In Scotland the Indulgence stated that subjects were to obey the King's "sovereign authority, prerogative royal, and absolute power" "without reserve". The Presbyterians initially refused to accept the Indulgence. The King re-issued it on 28 June giving the Presbyterians the same liberties as Roman Catholics; this was accepted by the Presbyterians with the exception of the extremist Covenanters. The Indulgence as well as granting religious liberties to his subjects also reaffirmed the King as absolute.
The English version was welcomed by most non-conformists but as in Scotland the Presbyterians were more reluctant to wholeheartedly accept it. There was concern that the toleration rested only on the King's arbitrary will. The Anglican Church was greatly disturbed by it.
The English Indulgence was reissued on 27 April 1688 leading to open resistance from Anglicans. Few clergy read out the indulgence in Church. The Scottish Declaration was reaffirmed in a second proclamation on May 1688. Some Scottish Episcopalians refused to recognise the Indulgence.
William Sancroft Archbishop of Canterbury and six other Bishops presented a petition to the King declaring the Indulgence illegal. James regarded this as rebellion and sedition and promptly had the seven bishops tried; however, the bishops were acquitted. The Presbyterians supported the Church, and of the dissenters only the Quakers gave thanks to the King for the Indulgence.
- ^ Harris, Tim Revolution: The Great Crisis of the British Monarch, 1685-1720 Allen Lane (2006) p. 211
- ^ Lodge, Richard The History of England - From the Restoration to the Death of William III 1660-1702 (1910) p. 268
- ^ Harris, Tim Revolution: The Great Crisis of the British Monarch, 1685-1720 Allen Lane (2006) p. 173
- ^ Armitage, David British political thought in history, literature and theory, 1500-1800 Cambridge University Press (2006) pp. 95-96
- ^ Harris, Tim Revolution: The Great Crisis of the British Monarch, 1685-1720 Allen Lane (2006) p. 217
- ^ Fritze, Ronald H. and Robison, William B. (editors) Historical Dictionary of Stuart England, 1603-89 Greenwood Press (1996) p. 487
- ^ Miller, John William and Mary Weidenfeld and Nicholson (1974) p. 87
- ^ Harris, Tim Revolution: The Great Crisis of the British Monarch, 1685-1720 Allen Lane (2006) p. 264
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Declaration of Indulgence — A name given to proclamations of Charles II and esp James II declaring laws restraining religious liberty suspended by the king s will • • • Main Entry: ↑indulge … Useful english dictionary
Royal Declaration of Indulgence — The Royal Declaration of Indulgence was Charles II of England s attempt to extend religious liberty to Protestant nonconformists in his realms, by suspending the execution of the penal laws that punished recusants from the Church of England.… … Wikipedia
indulgence — n. 1 a the act of indulging. b the state of being indulgent. 2 something indulged in. 3 RC Ch. the remission of temporal punishment in purgatory, still due for sins after absolution. 4 a privilege granted. Phrases and idioms: Declaration of… … Useful english dictionary
Indulgence — An indulgence, in Roman Catholic theology, is the full or partial remission of temporal punishment due for sins which have already been forgiven. The indulgence is granted by the church after the sinner has confessed and received absolution. [… … Wikipedia
Declaration of Breda — There are also two contemporary treaties known as the Treaty of Breda. The Declaration of Breda (issued on April 4, 1660) was a proclamation by Charles II of England in which he promised a general pardon for crimes committed during the English… … Wikipedia
United Kingdom — a kingdom in NW Europe, consisting of Great Britain and Northern Ireland: formerly comprising Great Britain and Ireland 1801 1922. 58,610,182; 94,242 sq. mi. (244,100 sq. km). Cap.: London. Abbr.: U.K. Official name, United Kingdom of Great… … Universalium
England (Since the Reformation) — England (Since the Reformation) † Catholic Encyclopedia ► England (Since the Reformation) The Protestant Reformation is the great dividing line in the history of England, as of Europe generally. This momentous Revolution, the outcome… … Catholic encyclopedia
James II of England — James II redirects here. For other uses, see James II (disambiguation). James II VII King of England, Scotland a … Wikipedia
Charles II of England — Charles II Charles II in the robes of the Order of the Garter, c. 1675, as painted by Sir Peter Lely. King of Scotland … Wikipedia
Richard Cameron — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Cameron. Richard Cameron, surnommé « le Lion du Covenant », Écossais né vers 1648 à Falkland, mort le 22 juillet 1680 à Airds Moss, est un pasteur presbytérien, insurgé contre la maison Stuart … Wikipédia en Français