Balija


Balija

Balija is a warrior / trading / agrarian community found in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh (concentrated in the Rayalaseema region), Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. They are also found in Maharashtra and Kerala.

Balija is a sub-caste of the Kapu (caste). Most Balijas refer to themselves as "Kapu"or "Telaga" in Andhra and as "Munnuru Kapu" in Telangana. In the Rayalaseema area (where "Kapu" refers to the Reddy community), they call themselves "Balija", "Setty" or "Balija Naidu". Balija is the only sub-caste of the Kapu caste which bears both the titles "Setty" and "Naidu".

"Desayi Chetty", "Pattam Chetty" are the titles of the Balijas who presides over the "Eighteen" Right-Hand Castes.

Infobox caste
caste_name=Balija or Balija Naidu
classification= Warriors, Traders and Peasants.
subdivisions=Six
populated_states=Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka
languages=Telugu, Tamil, Kannada
religions=Hinduism

Other names

The geographical names of Balija are
*Kapu Caste
*Munnuru Kapu
*Telaga
*Turpu Kapu
*Ontari
*Naidu

Origins


"Sree Vishnu paada padma sevayu sadguru

Bhakti paraayanul balija vaaru,

Thirumamtra nistayu deha tatwamulaadi

Paratatwa kovidul balija vaaru,

Padapadi brahmaanda bhaandamattamdaina

Palki bomkani vaaru balija vaaru"


"Balija vaaridi bhoomi balusamai vraasi

Yisuka muppiritraadu veyanga nerchi

Kalimi balamulakella Ghana punya raasi

Kalanaina dharmamul ghanathoo jesi

Ayyavaleee mukyamainatti vaaru

Kayyamanduna kaalu kadilinchaboru

Neyyamunandu mahaa nerpugalavaaru

Divyathula yaabai yaaru desaala vaaru balijavaaru"

Primarily traders or agriculturists by occupation they seem to have been formed by a small social change that seem to have occurred among some sections of the Kapu community according to some historians. The original Balijas seem to have migrated from the Balijipeta, Srikakulam District.

Veera Balaingyas were mentioned in Chalukyas of Badami, Kakatiya dynasty inscriptions as powerful and wealthy merchants who were known as "Five Hundred Lords of Ayyavolu" (or modern Aihole). They were highly respected in the Chalukyan and Kakatiya society. The Balijas were primarily tax collectors and merchants.

Thurston and Rangachari describe the Telugu trading classes as fire-born merchant and artisan castes: Balijas (with their offshoots Kavarais and Janappans) believe they originated when their God Chamundeshwari threw rice into the sacrificial fire from which a host of warriors sprang out.

According to David West Rudner in 'Religious Gifting and Inland Commerce in Seventeenth-Century South India' (The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 46, No. 2 (May, 1987), page 361): "Balija Chettis are a caste that fissioned off from Balija Nayaks ("warrior") caste as recent as the 19th century. Accordingly they have closer kinship ties to these Nayak warriors than to Chetti merchants".

According to the 1891 census data, the merchant groups of Agrawal, Khatri, Balija, Barnwal together constituted just 5% of the population. However, in the census of 1981 (2), Balija formed 22.5% of the total population of Andhra Pradesh. It may be hypothesised that the Balija grouping received members from other castes during this time as a generic term for 'trader'. This may be so expected since the ties of kin and caste did play an important but unexplored role in South Indian commerce.

Origin of the name

R.V. Russell in the book"The Tribes and Castes of Central Provinces of India", recorded that the "name of Balija seems also to have been applied to a mixed caste started by Basava, the founder of the Lingayat sect of Saivites..". A. Vijaya Kumari and Sepuri Bhaskar in their book 'Social Change Among Balijas' suggest that the name Balija either comes from a dynasty belonging to King Balichakravarthi (also known as Mahabali) or from the Sankrit 'Bali' (sacrifice) and 'Ja' (born), meaning 'born from sacrifice'.

The Balija trace their lineage to Himavanta (father of Paravati) when he sacrificed a bull to Lord Brahma and from the fire emerged a person who brought forth combs, bangles, perfumes, sandals, powder, beads, and colored palf-leaf rolls for the ear for Parvati (Government Of Madras Staff, P. 105 Gazetteer of the Nellore District: brought upto 1938); and they claim to be Rishivanshi Kshatriyas.

Balija Branches

*Kota Balijas or Raacha Balijas The Tuluva, Araveeti Dynasties of vijayanagara Empire, Madurai Nayaks, Thanjavur Nayaks, Gingee Nayaks and Nayaks of Kandy Kingdom dynasties were from this line.

There are multiple references available divulging the interrelationship of Madurai, Thanjavur and Vijayanagar kings of Balija caste. Apart from historians such as Thurston, Rangachari and R.V.Russel there are others that attest to the Balija affiliation of the kingdoms of Thanjavur, Madurai and Vijayanagar. According to the "Gazetteer of the Nellore district: Brought up to 1938" by the Government of Madras staff, the Desa section of Balija caste comprises the descendents of the Nayak kings of Madura, Tanjore and Vijayanagar. As per G.S.Ghurye in "Caste and Race in India", the Nayak kings of Madura and Thanjavur were Balijas. According to "Questioning Ramayana: A South Asian Tradition" by Paula Richman, the famous Thanjavur king Raghunatha Nayudu belonged to Balija caste. King Sevappa Naidu, the founder of Thanjavur dynasty and the predecessor of king Raghunatha Naidu had married the sister-in-law of Vijayanagar emperor Achyutha Deva Raya (half-brother of the emperor Sri Krishnadevaraya).

*Gajula Balija / Sugavansi (pure) Balija. Myth is that Siva's wife Parvati did a severe penance in order to look beautiful for Shiva. A man sprung from the sacrificial fire and this person was the ancestor of the Gajula Balija [3] . The Gajulu Balija are known as Kavarai in Tamil Nadu.

*Kavarai (Kavara Balija Naidu or Gavara Balija Naidu). As per Thurston of "Castes and Tribes of Southern India", Kavarai is the name for Balijas (Telugu trading caste), who have settled in the Tamil country. Kavarais call themselves Balijas (Born from fire). They use the titles Naidu, Nayakkan, Chetti or Setti and Nayak. Kavarai or Gavarai is said to be a corrupt form of Kauravar or Gauravar, as descendants of Kuru of Mahabharata as Kauravas [3] .

According to Jogendranath Bhattacharya in "Hindu Castes and Sects" though Kavarais were originally devoted entirely to agriculture, in the capacity of land owners, and their lands were cultivated by inferior castes, they were also involved in the other professions such as trading, sailing etc. Gajula Balija is the largest sub-division of Kavarais. The equivalent name for Gajula Balija in Tamil is Valaiyal Chetti. Gajula Balijas attained this name as they were involved in manufacturing and selling bangles. The other branch of the Kavarais was Kambalattars (Thottiyars/Thottiyans). Kambalattars were originally Telugu speaking cultivators that migrated from Telugu and Karnataka lands to Western parts of Madura Country in sixteenth century during the reign of Madurai Nayaks. They had found employment in Madurai Balija Nayak dynasty and also got promoted as Poligars. The famous chieftain Veerapandiya Kattabomman Naicker belonged to this branch of Balija caste (Rajakambala Balija). Kambalattars primarily practiced Vaishnavism. They were known to be energetic and industrious people.

*Setty Balija These were rich and powerful traders and merchants of the Kakatiya Dynasty. There was mention of some very old trading guilds concentrated in Bellary in Karnataka. [http://sathiraya.googlepages.com/polisetty] In fact historians suggest this was the first branch in Balijas.

*Balija Naidu They seem to have formed during the Kakatiya dynasty primarily to protect the Balija / Setty trading caravans from being attacked by bandits.

*Odda (Vada) Balija a sub caste of the Balijas from the Visakhapatnam Srikakulam and East Godavari area who are sea farers and were sea traders and merchants.

*Vaada Balija also known as Matsyakarlu.
*Ediga Balija also known as Goud.
*Rajamahendravaram Balija or Musukama Balija (traders named after a special ear ornament worn by women).
*Gandavallu or Gundapodi Vandlu (supposed to have been originally Komatis)
*Anamala
*Linga (Lingayat balijas)
*Thota
*Ralla
*Pusa (traded in beads)
*Andey
*Ravuth
*Sukamanchi
*Vyasa
*Gopati Balija
*Mulaka
*Miriyala (pepper traders)
*Nemilli
*Pagadala (coral traders)
*Pakanati
*Perika
*Poludasu
*Oppanakkaran (Trader)
*Musugu

Balija dynasties

The Balijas were well-known in the Kakatiya Kingdom as Settys who were appointed as Tax Collectors for the various Vassal States. Their involvement in the formation of several rich and powerful trading guilds wielded considerable power in the Kakatiya social structure. One such trading guild was the Ayinavol trading guild in Prakasam Dt.

Balija Naidus/Kapus rose to power during the 1300 - 1700 A.D. with the advent of the Vijayanagar Empire. The Vijayanagar rulers had a policy of consoldating power by granting Palegallu the local Administrative rights and in turn relied on the bands of soldiers that these Paleggallu / Palegars put at the disposal of the Vijayanagar rulers in times of war. With Balijas background of a warrior/ trading community this suited well.

While not just being restricted to controlling small princely states as Palegars / Poligars, some the Balijas eventually commanded some of the biggest kingdoms in the form of Madurai Nayaks, Thanjavur Nayaks and Kandi Nayaks (Ceylon/Srilanka).

They ruled over Tamil Nadu with 13 lines of Kings for about 300 years. Some of the famous kings were:Madurai Dynasty
* Garikepati (kotikam) Nagama Nayaka
* Garikepati Viswantha Nayaka
* Garikepati Kumara Krishnappa Nayaka
* Garikepati Muthu Krishnappa Nayaka
* Garikepati Tirumala Nayaka
* Garikepati Muthu Alakadri Nayaka
* Garikepati Chokkanadha Nayaka
* Garikepati Ranga krishna Muthu Veerappa Nayaka
* Garikepati Rani Mangamma
* Garikepati Vijaya Ranga Chokkanatha Nayaka
* Garikepati Rani Meenakshi

Tanjavur Dynasty
* Alluru Sevappa Nayaka
* Alluru Achutappa Nayaka
* Alluru Raghunadha Nayaka
* Alluru Vijayaraghava Nayaka

Chenji / Gingee Dynasty
* Tupakula Periya Ramabhadra Nayaka
* Tupakula Krishnappa Nayaka
* Tupakula Ramalingayya Nayaka
* Tupakula Peda Venkata Perumallu Nayaka

Some prominent kings left a legacy worth its mention in every Indian history book in the form the several temples and forts built in Tamil Nadu during this period, like the Tirumala Nayaka Mahal and commissioning the re-building of the Madurai Meenakshi Temple.

The following were the Kingdoms of Balija Naidus.
* Vijayanagara Rayas of Tuluva and Araveeti dynasties
* Madurai Nayaks
* Tanjavur Nayaks
* Kandy Nayaks who ruled Sri Lanka
* Gingee Nayaks / Chenchi Nayaks, Thundeera
* Metla Rajulu of Cuddapah. The Metla Rajulu [http://books.google.com/books?id=TEruAaDaOZ8C&pg=PA55&lpg=PA55&dq=guntur+gazzetter&source=web&ots=dM_50dtAXr&sig=83B5fquBE1dnKaa6wwquW6GmD2U&hl=en#PPA38,M1] had been married with Sada Siva Raya, son of Achyuta Deva Raya who was the last ruler from the Tuluva Dynasty. The Descendants of Metla Rajulu are still residing in Cuddapah District. Similarly the Descendats of Koneti Nayudu also reside in Pulidula, Cuddapah District.

Apart from these there were several small kingdoms and principalities [http://ia300234.us.archive.org/0/items/FurtherSourcesOfVijayanagaraHistory/HTML/00000313.htm] which formed the power structure on which the Vijayanagar Kingdom flourished.

* Penukonda
* RayaDurgam
* Kotakonda (kothi konda)
* Ramagiri
* Kalyanadurgam (of Butna family).
* Bukkarayapatnam (Linga Balija of Ande Prasannapaa)
* Chandragiri (Koneti Nayudu)
* Udayagiri
* Poligars, land owners and tax collectors of Tamil Nadu where of Balija origin.

Sources, including Vijaya Kumari and Sepuri and Bhaskar Kante Narayana Desayi in their books, "Social Changes among Balijas" and "Balijakula Charithra" write that the Madurai, Thanjavur, Khandi (Kandy), Thundeera (Gingee/Chenchi), Krishnadeva Raya and the Aravidu kings of Vijayanagar empire were interrelated and from the Balija / Kapu caste.

Edgar Thurston and K.Rangachari in their book "Castes And Tribes of Southern India" observed a close connection between Vijayanagar and the West Coast and wrote (on page 292): "Kings who ruled Vijayanagar during the later half of the fourteenth century belonged to a low non-aryan caste, namely that of canarese cow-herds. They were therefore closely akin to the Nayars, one of the leading Rajas among whom at present time, although officially described as Samanta, is in reality of the Eradi i.e., cow-herd caste.... N.Subramani Aiyer writes in a note.. that Nair is derived from Naga (serpents) as the Aryans termed the earlier settlers of Malabar on account of the special adoration which they paid to snakes".

A. Vijaya Kumari and Sepuri Bhaskar in their book 'Social Change Among Balijas' recorded (page 3) that the "Balija kings of Madurai and Tanjore claim to be Kshatriyas of Kasyapa gotra, while the Vijayanagar Rais say they are lineal descendents of sage Bharadwaja. Others trace their ancestry to the Kauravas of the Mahabharata. These kshatriya descendents are an offshoot of the Kammas or Kapus, or they are a mixed community recruited from these and other Telugu castes".

The Encyclopedia of World History states:

"Balijas were originally part of the great Telugu migrations southward into the Tamil country in the 15th and 16th centuries, Balija merchant-warriors who claimed these Nayaka positions rose to political and cultural power and supported an ethos that emphasized non-ascriptive, heroic criteria in legitimizing political power. The Balijas were proud of their Sudra status, in a world previously dominated by a classical Sanskritic Varna scheme that insisted that kings had to be Kshatriya. The new egalitarian ethos made it easier for claimants from a variety of communities to succeed to political control".

Contribution to literature

Balija kings encouraged many poets and contributed to literature themselves. The following is the list of Balja Naidus that made their contribution to Telugu and Sanskrit languages.

* Raghunatha Naidu (Thanjavur king): Sangeetha Sudha, Ramayana Katha Sangrahamu, Bharatha Katha, Sangrahamu, Ramayanam, Parijathapaharanam, Nalabhyudayamu, Achyuthabhyudayamu, Valmiki Charithram.

* Vijaya Raghava Naidu (Thanjavur king, son of Raghunatha Naidu): Raghunatha nayakabhyudayamu, Yakshaganas and composition of poems.

* Pasupuleti Rangajamma (One of the queens of Vijaya Raghava Naidu): Mannarudasa Vilasam.

* Sreekrishna Devaraya (Vijayanagar emperor): Amuktha Malyada / Vishnuchittiyam, Vemanayogi: Centum (Sataka) of verses.

* Queen Ganga devi ( wife of Vijaya nagar prince Kumara Kampana): Madhura Vijayam.

* Vijayaranga Chokkanatha Naidu (Madura king): Sreeranga Mahatmyam and Maghamahathmyamu.

* Samukham Venkata Krishnappa Naidu (Poet in the court and Army chief of Vijaya Ranga Chokkanatha Naidu of Madura dynasty): Jaimini Bharatham, Ahalya Sankradana Vilasam, Radhika Santhwanam, Saarangadhara Charithra.

* Thupakula Anantha Bhoopaludu (Poet and Dalavai of Vijaya Ranga Chokkanatha Naidu of Madura): Vishnupuranam, Bhagavatham, Ramayanam, Bharatham, Garalapuri Mahathmyam, Bhagavadgeetha.

* Nanne Choda Prabhuvu (Telugu Choda prince, son of Chodaballi of Pakanadu, and Poet): Kumara Sambhavam.

* Gudaru Venkatadasa Kavi (Poet's surname is Gudaru and Gothram is Paidipala) : Balarama Charithram.

* Konidena Nagaya Kavi (Born in Yellammapeta in Kadapa district): Vedavedantha Sarasagraham, Ashtottara Sathakam, Brahmanarada Samvadam.

* Chekuri Siddha Kavi (Born in Yellammapeta, Kadapa district): Sreerama Karnamrutham, Dwadasa manjareesthavam, Chathurdasa Manjareestavam, Venugopala Sathakam, Vishnupuranam, Sreeranga mahathmyam, Haribhakthamrutha saaramu.

* Macha Venkataraya Kavi (Born in Jalumuru, Visakhapattanam district): Vydarbhee Parinayam, Haribhajana Keerthana kruthi, Chennakesava Ramayana Sangraham, Chaya putra Sathakam, Mukhalingeswarodaharanamu, Rukmini Natakam, Droupadi vasthrapaharanam, Mayuradhwajopakhyanamu, Suddhandhra nirvachana niroshtya kusa charithram.

* Thumu Ramadasa Kavi (Born in Warangal): Rukmini Kalyanam, Gopika vilasam, Mitravindo dwaham, Kalidasu Natakam, Andhrapada nidhanamu.

* Tripurana Venkata Surya Prasada Rao Dora Garu (Sri Dontihundamulku Darlu, Andhra Kalidasa, Kavibhushana, Bhirudankitulu, Sri Jayapura Samsthana gaurava Asthana Kavulu, Born in Siddhantham in Visakhapattanam district): Nirvachana Kumara Sambhavamu, Raghu vamsamu, Kiratharjuneeyamu, Uttararama Charithramu, Raghudayamu, Indumati mandaramu, Rati vilapamu, Pathala khandamu, Moilu Rayabharamu, Sree Bhagavadgeethamruthamu.

* Erra Venkata swami: Vasthuguna Deepika.
* Erra Ayyanna: Telugu Kavaathu.
* Matla Anantharaju (Kadapa district, Telugu Chola descendent): Kakustha Vijayamu (Poems).
* Katta Varada Raju (decent from Karikala Chola, tanjore): Wrote a Ramayana

Popular Balija Naidus (Kapus/Telagas)

Literature

*Sri Krishna Deva Raya
*Gangadevi
*Tapi Dharma Rao Naidu — Writer
*Yerramsetti Sai — Novelist

Politics

*E.V.Ramasami Naicker — Founder of Dravida Kazhagam
*E.V.K.S. Elangovan — Central minister (Grand-son of Periyar's brother)
*E. V. K. Sampath — Politician (Nephew of Periyar)
*K.Veeramani — Politician (Nephew of Periyar)
*Kurma Venkata Reddy Naidu — Chief Minister of Madras Presidency
*Kamichetty Sri Parassourama Varaprassada Rao Naidu — Speaker of Pondicherry state.
*Kamichetty Venougopala Rao Naidou— Grand Old Man of Yanam, Pondicherry
*P. V. Rangaiah Naidu IPS — Former DGP, Former Union Minister.
*Mallipudi Raju Pallam Mangapati — Union minister.
*Chegondi Venkata Harirama Jogaiah — Politician / Film producer.
*Ramakrishna Badiga — Politician / Businessman.
*P. Shiv Shankar — Former Union Minister.
*Grandhi Venkata Reddy Naidu — First Law Minister of Andhra Pradesh.
*Vangaveeti Mohana Ranga — Politician.
*V. Hanumantha Rao — Politician
*Dharmapuri Srinivas — Politician
*Botsa Jhansi Lakshmi — Politician
*Pappala Chalapathirao— Politician
*D. K. Audikesavulu Naidu — Politician, Industrialist and Founder of Educational Institutions.
*K. Keshava Rao — Politician
*Sai Prathap Annayyagari— politician
*C. Ramachandraiah — Politician
*Balashowry Vallabhaneni — Politician
*Kamichetty Venougopala Rao Naidou— Grand Old Man of Yanam, Pondicherry
*Ponnala Laxmiah — State Minister Irrigation, Govt of AP
*Chiranjeevi — PRAJA RAJYAM PARTY,Founder

Freedom Fighters

*Veerapandiya Kattabomman — Freedom Fighter
*Kaneganti Hanumanthu — Freedom Fighter

Music

*Dwaram Venkataswamy Naidu — Renowned Musician
*Shobha Naidu —Kuchipudi Dancer
*Master Venu — music Director
*Ramesh Naidu — Music Director
*Devi Sri Prasad — Music Director
*Ramana Gogula — Music Director
*Chakri —Music director

ports

*C. K. Nayudu — First Captain of Indian Cricket
*Kodi Rammurthy Naidu — Bodybuilder and wrestler
*Venugopal Rao — Cricketer
*Ambati Rayudu — Cricketer

Movies

*S. V. Ranga Rao— Veteran Telugu / Tamil Actor
*Chiranjeevi — MEGA STAR of Telugu Cinema
*Pasupuleti Kannamba — Veteran Telugu and Tamil actress / Producer
*Savithri — Famous Telugu and Tamil actress
*Dasari Narayana Rao — Famous Telugu director /Producer
*Raghupathi Venkaiah| Naidu — Father of Telugu Cinema
*Rajanala — Actor
*G. Varalakshmi — Actress
*Santha Kumari — Famous Telugu and Tamil actress/Producer
*Allu Rama Lingaiah — Veteran actor
*Kaikala Satyanarayana — Actor
*Pawan Kalyan — Actor
*Srihari — Actor
*Nagendra Babu — Actor/Producer
*Allu Arjun — Famous actor
*Bhanu Chander—Famous actor
*Sneha — Famous actress
*Mohan (editor) — Editor/Famous Producer
*Marthand K. Venkatesh — Famous editor
*Kodi Ramakrishna — Famous Director
*Sekhar Kammula — Famous Director and Producer
*Nagesh Kukunoor — Famous Director and Producer
*V.V. Vinayak — Famous Director
*Krishna Vamsi — Famous Director
*Allu Aravind — Producer
*A. M. Rathnam — Producer
*Chota K. Naidu — Cinematographer
*Shyam K. Naidu — Cinematographer
*Vijayakanth — Tamil Cinema Actor Turned Politician
*M.R. Radha — Veteran Tamil Actor
*Raadhika Sarathkumar — Tamil and Telugu Actress/Producer
*Edida Nageshwara Rao —Famous producer
*Thotta Tharani — Art director
*Jayam Ravi —Famous actor
*Ravi Krishna —Famous actor
*Sukumar — Famous director
*M. S. Narayana —Famous actor
*Ram Charan Teja— Famous actor
*M. Raja — Famous director
*Ananth Sreeram —Lyricist
*Leela Naidu — actress in 1950s and 1960s. Miss India 1954

Business/Industry

*Vikram Akula — Founder of SKS Microfinance
*Srini Kopollu — MD, Microsoft India

Others

*Manikonda Chalapathi Rau — Journalist
*Sadhu Kuppuswami Naidu; sevaka ratnam, saint; fiji [http://www.sangamfiji.com/founder.htm]
* Narayana — Founder of Narayana Educational Institutes, Nellore
*M S Ramaiah — Founder of M S Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore
*Sekhar Tam Tam — Famous physician
*Vice Admiral R D Katari — First Chief of Naval Staff from 22 April 1958 - 4 June 1962
*M. V. Bhaskara Rao I.P.S — Former DGP, Andhra Pradesh
* Pagadala Narasimhulu Nayudu born to Rangaswami Nayudu and Lakshmi Ammal in 1854, was a prolific writer, editor and industrialist who strove for the development of Coimbatore area. He traced his family's past to the Vijayanagar kings. He was a pioneer in establishing the first textile mill C.S&W in Coimbatore, sugar mill in Podhanur, the Siruvani water system, the Victoria Town hall, the Coimbatore Cosmopolitan Club and many other institutions in Coimbatore. He wrote more than 100 books on varied sujects including law, medicine, music, religion and agriculture.
*Amma Naidoo — South African freedom fighter
*Indira Naidoo — Australian broadcaster
*Anand Naidoo — South African journalist with CNN
*Xavier Naidoo — German singer of South African/Indian Tamil descent
*G.D.Naidu Inventor, Industrialist from Coimbatore
*Daya Nayak
*Monty Naicker, a South African politician of Indian origin
*George Naicker of South Africa
*Papisetty RamaMohan Rao IAS,Chennai

List of Balijas

See List of Balijas for more information on prominent Balijas/Kapus who have greatly contributed to the social, cultural and political fabric of South India.

Other usages

The word Balija in this article refers to a caste in India. The term (disambuigation) Balija can be found as:

* A derogatory term (as Balija or Balije or Kurds( [http://www.gfbv.ba/index.php?id=155] ) ) used by Serbs / Croats to refer to Bosniaks in Bosnia and Herzegovina, highly used during the Bosnian war, with devolution in after war time. Example: used in Prijedor massacre article. It is a derogative Turkish word most used to designate a religious convert or to refer to a primitive peasant.
* A term used to refer to descendants of Turks of ottoman empire in the Balkans.
* A muslim ethnic group in Bangladesh.
* A place, Balija Mala: situated in Srbinovo, Gostivar, Macedonia.
* A place, Balija: situated in Guatemala.

The origin of the word Balija in other languages (6) :
*Proto-Slavic form: badli
*PSLMEAN: `enchanter, healer, physician'
*Old Church Slavic: balii `physician' ; bali (Cloz.) `physician'
*Church Slavic: bali `healer, Saviour'
*Old Russian: balii `physician, enchanter' ; balija `physician, enchanter'
*Indo-European reconstruction: bheh2-dhl- IE meaning: enchanter
*COMM: There is no direct evidence for a suffix *dhl-üji-, but the form bali from the Freising Fragments could be regarded as counter-evidence, as dl is regularly retained in this dialect, cf. modliti. It is not impossible, however, that bali is of Church Slavic origin. Truba‰e¨v bases his reconstructions *badlüji and *badlovati chiefly on derivatives of the type of OCz. pr¹edli´ `spinster', «vadli´ `needlewoman'. According to the ESSJa (I 137-138), further evidence for a suffix *-dhl- is provided by SCr. ba?jalo m. `sorcerer', Ru. dial. ba´jala m.f. `talker, chatterer, story-teller', which may be transformations of *badlüji.
*Arabic: Balija - gleam.

pelling variations

* The following are supposed spelling variations of Balija [9] : bahlika, balika, balaika, balija, bahlikas.

See also

* Forward Castes
* Other Backward Classes

References & Sources

Important information about Kapu origins can be obtained from Balijapuranam in the Chennai library.
*Balijavaaru Puraanam, or Vamsa-Prakaasikai and Naayudugarla Samsthana-Charitram (A brief sketch of the Origin and History of the Balija Caste people or Nayudu Community), written and compiled by the help of the Legend of Coimbatore, Sri Selam Pagadaala Narasimhalu Nayudu, Coimbatore.
*Balijakula Charithra (by Kante Narayana Desayi)
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=nJMs-r0FY50C&pg=PA106&vq=madura&dq=caste+and+race+in+india&source=gbs_search_s&sig=ACfU3U3D2RggL32msphQY-iDMWagpN4AlQ#PPA106,M1 " Caste and Race in India" (by G.S.Ghurye)]
*American Kapu Association [http://www.aka-us.org]
*Castes And Tribes of Southern India" (Edgar Thruston)
*"Rethinking India's Oral and Classical Epics: Draupadi among Rajputs, Muslims" By Alf Hiltebeitel.
*American Kapu Association(AKA)- [http://www.aka-us.org]
*"Andhrula Sanghika Charitra" (Suvarnam Pratapa Reddy)
* [http://www.odi.org.uk/livelihoodoptions/papers/wp179.pdf#search='caste%2C%20class%2C%20and%20social%20articulation' Caste & Class Articulation of Andhra Pradesh]
* [http://evolutsioon.ut.ee/publications/Bamshad2001.pdf Genetic Evidence on Caste Origins]
* [http://www.nd.edu/~kellogg/pdfs/Jaffrelot.pdf Caste politics in the North, West and South India before Mandal]
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=r-ffeWmj2JUC&printsec=frontcover&dq=social+change+among+balija&ei=IHtWSICFKYTStgPPsJigDQ&sig=K_ulpBWOr36H7D0xeBfFnDZmagc "Social Changes among Balijas" (by Vijaya Kumari and Sepuri Bhaskar)]
*"Andhrula Sankshiptha Charitra" (E. Balarama Murthi)
*"Religion in Vijaya nagara Empire" (Konduri Sarojini Devi)
* [http://www.kapunadu.com/history_main.html - History in telugu]
* [http://indculture0.tripod.com/kapu.htm - History in english]
* [http://www.kapunadu.com - All about kapu community]
*District Gazetteer: Cuddapah by Brackenbury
* [http://nfwa-kerala.com/ABOUT.HTM]
* Religion in Vijaya nagara Empire (Konduri Sarojini Devi)
* [http://www.kapunadu.com/history_main.html - History in Telugu]
* [http://indculture0.tripod.com/kapu.htm - History in English]
* [http://www.kapunadu.com - All about kapu community]
* Balijakula Charithra (by Kante Narayana Desayi)
* Kerala information [http://nfwa-kerala.com/ABOUT.HTM]
* http://www.gfbv.ba/index.php?id=155
* (2) As per Social Change Among Balijas by A. Vijaya Kumari and Sepuri Bhaskar.
* (6) http://www.indo-european.nl/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=leiden&morpho=0&basename=%5Cdata%5Cie%5Cslav&first=21
* The Madura Country (James Henry Nelson)
* Hindu Castes And Sects (Jogendranath Bhattacharya)
* (9) http://infomotions.com/alex/?cmd=search&query=balija


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