Albert II of Germany


Albert II of Germany

Albert II of Habsburg (August 10, 1397 – October 27, 1439) was King of the Romans (ruler of Germany within the Holy Roman Empire) from 1438 until his death. He was also King of Bohemia and Hungary and, as Albert V, Duke of Austria.

Biography

Albert was born in Vienna as the son of Albert IV, Duke of Austria, and Johanna Sophia of Bavaria.

Albert succeeded to the duchy of Austria on his father's death in 1404. After receiving a good education, he undertook the government of Austria in 1411, and succeeded, with the aid of his advisers, in ridding the duchy of the evils which had arisen during his minority. He assisted the German emperor Sigismund, who was also king of Hungary and Bohemia, in his campaigns against the Hussites, and in 1422 married Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Sigismund, who designated him as his successor. (Note that she was not the daughter of Sigismund's first wife Mary of Hungary, and thus not descended from Angevin kings of Hungary, but in many ways, she descended from the old Arpád kings of Hungary.)

Elisabeth was daughter of Emperor Sigismund and his second wife, the Slovenian noblewoman Barbara of Celje. Her paternal grandparents were Emperor Charles IV and Elisabeth of Pomerania. Her maternal grandfather was Count Herman II of Celje, whose parents were the Slovenian ruler Count Herman I of Celje and Catherine of Bosnia (who apparently descended also from Nemanjic kings of Serbia and from Catherine of Hungary, a daughter of Stephen V of Hungary). In right of the paternal grandparents, she was, through Emperor Charles, an heiress of Bohemia, and through Elisabeth of Pomerania, an heiress of Poland, of its Kujavian Piast branch of kings. Thus, Albert's marriage brought him claims to several Slavic kingdoms and principalities.

She was also a descendant of Árpáds of Hungary, through her great-grandmother Elisabeth of Bohemia, who herself was granddaughter of Anna Rostislavna of Halicia, whose mother Constance was a daughter of King Bela IV of Hungary. Admittedly, this was not a very close Hungarian connection, but all the other descendants of Árpáds were approximately as distant at that time.Additionally, she descended from Ottokar I of Bohemia's second wife Constance of Hungary, daughter of Bela III of Hungary.

Albert himself descended from Bela IV of Hungary through his daughter Ilona whose descendant was a princess of Brieg who became Albert's ancestress the countess of Hainaut and Holland, and from a younger sister of Queen Elisabeth of Bohemia, thus descending from both Constances of Hungary, and also from King Geza II of Hungary through his daughter Elisabeth who married Bedrich of Czech, their daughter being an ancestress of Albert's maternal Bavarian line.

When Sigismund died in 1437, Albert was crowned king of Hungary on January 1, 1438, and, although crowned king of Bohemia six months later, he was unable to obtain possession of the country. He was engaged in warfare with the Bohemians and their Polish allies, when on March 18, 1438, he was chosen as German king at Frankfurt, an honour which he does not appear to have sought. He thus was "King of the Romans", but he was not crowned as Holy Roman Emperor.

Afterwards engaged in defending Hungary against the attacks of the Turks, he died on October 27, 1439, at Neszmély, and was buried at Székesfehérvár. Albert was an energetic and warlike prince, whose short reign gave great promise of usefulness for Germany.

Expulsion of the Jews

On May 23, 1420, at the behest of the Church, Albert ordered the forcible conversion of the Jews. Those that had not converted or escaped or been sent off in the boats were burned at the stake on March 12, 1421, and their beautiful synagogue destroyed.

Family

Children

His children with Elisabeth of Bohemia were:
* Ladislas V Posthumus of Bohemia, King of Hungary and Bohemia
* Anne of Austria, (1432-1462), who married William III, Duke of Saxony. William became (1457-69) Duke of Luxembourg, in right of his wife.
* Elisabeth (1438-1505), who married Casimir IV of Poland, and whose son Ladislas VI of Bohemia later became king of Bohemia and Hungary.

Ancestors

3gen
SLF=Albert II of Germany
FAT=Albert IV, Duke of Austria
FAF=Albert III, Duke of Austria
FFF=Albert II, Duke of Austria
FFM=Johanna of Pfirt
FAM=Beatrix of Nuremberg
FMF=Frederick V, Burgrave of Nuremberg
FMM=Elisabeth of Meissen
MOT=Johanna Sophia of Bavaria
MOF=Albert I, Duke of Bavaria
MFF=Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor
MFM=Margaret II, Countess of Hainault
MOM=Margaret of Brieg
MMF=Ludwik I of Brieg
MMM=Agnes of Sagan

ee also

*Kings of Germany family tree. He was related to every other king of Germany.

References

*1911

External links

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