Psyche (psychology)


Psyche (psychology)

In psychoanalysis, the psyche (pronounced|ˈsaɪki) refers to the forces in an individual that influence thought, behavior and personality. The word is borrowed from ancient Greek, and refers to the concept of the self, encompassing the modern ideas of soul, self, and mind. The Greeks believed that the soul or "psyche" was responsible for behaviour.

Freud's structural theory of the psyche

Sigmund Freud, the creator of psychoanalysis, believed that the psyche was composed of 3 components: [cite book|last=Reber |first=Arthur S.|authorlink=|coauthors=Reber, Emily S.|title=Dictionary of Psychology|publisher=Penguin Reference|date=2001|location=New York|isbn=0-140-51451-1]

* The id, which represents the instinctual drives of an individual and remains largely unconscious.
* The ego, which is conscious and serves to integrate the drives of the id with the prohibitions of the super-ego. Freud believed this conflict to be at the heart of neurosis.
* The super-ego, which represents a person's conscience and their internalization of societal norms and morality.

Jung's definitions of “psyche” and "soul" anchor|Jung psyche def

Carl Jung wrote much of his work in German. Difficulties for translation arise because the German word "Seele" means both "psyche" and "soul". Jung was careful to define what he meant by psyche and by soul.

I have been compelled, in my investigations into the structure of the unconscious, to make a conceptual distinction between "soul" and "psyche". By psyche, I understand the totality of all psychic processes, conscious as well as unconscious. By soul, on the other hand, I understand a clearly demarcated functional complex that can best be described as a "personality". (Jung, 1971: Def. 48 par. 797)

[The translation of the German word "Seele" presents almost insuperable difficulties on account of the lack of a single English equivalent and because it combines the two words "psyche" and "soul" in a way not altogether familiar to the English reader. For this reason some comment by the Editors will not be out of place.

[In previous translations, and in this one as well, "psyche"– for which Jung in the German original uses either "Psyche" or "Seele"– has been used with reference to the totality of "all" psychic processes (cf. Jung, "Psychological Types", Def. 48); i.e., it is a comprehensive term. "Soul", on the other hand, as used in the technical terminology of analytical psychology, is more restricted in meaning and refers to a "function complex" or partial personality and never to the whole psyche. It is often applied specifically to "anima" and "animus"; e.g., in this connection it is used in the composite word "soul-image" ("Seelenbild"). This conception of the soul is more primitive than the Christian one with which the reader is likely to be more familiar. In its Christian context it refers to "the transcendental energy in man" and "the spiritual part of man considered in its moral aspect or in relation to God." . . . –Editors.] (Jung, 1968: note 2 par. 9)

ee also

*Mind
*Soul
*Consciousness
*Inscape (art)

Notes

References

* Jung, C.G. (1968). "Psychology and Alchemy", Collected Works, Volume 12, Princeton, N.J. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691018316 OCLC|219856.
* Jung, C.G. (1971). "Psychological Types", Collected Works, Volume 6, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01813-8.

External links

* [http://www.zanadigital.com/en/psyche Unscientific but interesting article about psyche, mind and soul]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Psyche — may refer to:*Psyche (psychology), the original Greek conception of the self **Soul or Self (psychology) or Mind *Psyche (band), a Canadian dark synthpop band * Psyché , a French tragedy ballet of 1671 and opera of 1678 * Psyche (album), the 1994 …   Wikipedia

  • Psychology and Alchemy — is the twelfth volume in the Princeton/Bollingen edition of the Collected Works of Carl Jung. In it Jung argues for a reevaluation of the symbolism of Alchemy as being intimately related to the psychoanalytical process. Using a cycle of dreams of …   Wikipedia

  • PSYCHOLOGY — PSYCHOLOGY, the science of the mind or of mental phenomena and activities. Psychological Concepts in the Bible Psychology has a long past, but only a short history (H. Ebbinghaus, Abriss der Psychologie, 1908). Nowhere is this aphorism better… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Psychology — • The science which treats of the soul and its operations Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Psychology     Psychology     † …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • psychology — 1650s, study of the soul, probably coined mid 16c. in Germany by Melanchthon as Mod.L. psychologia, from Gk. psykhe breath, spirit, soul (see PSYCHE (Cf. psyche)) + logia study of (see LOGY (Cf. logy)). Meaning study of the mind first recorded… …   Etymology dictionary

  • Psychology in medieval Islam — A medical work by Ibn al Nafis, who corrected some of the erroneous theories of Galen and Avicenna on the anatomy of the brain[citation needed]. Islamic psychology translates the term ʿIlm al Nafs[ …   Wikipedia

  • Psyche —    , PSYCHIC, PSYCHIATRIST    Many name words have been derived from the Greek Psyche, meaning breath, hence life or the soul itself. The essence of psyche is one s rational and spiritual being. Its derivatives range from psychiatrist to… …   Dictionary of eponyms

  • Psyche (journal) — This article is about the consciousness studies journal. For the entomological journal, see Psyche (entomological journal). Psyche (ISSN 1039 723X) is the official journal of the Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness. The… …   Wikipedia

  • psyche — [[t]sa͟ɪki[/t]] psyches N COUNT In psychology, your psyche is your mind and your deepest feelings and attitudes. [TECHNICAL] It probably shows up a deeply immature part of my psyche, he confesses... His exploration of the myth brings insight into …   English dictionary

  • psyche — [17] Like Latin animus (source of English animal), Greek psūkhé started out meaning ‘breath’ and developed semantically to ‘soul, spirit’. English adopted it via Latin psychē in the mid 17th century, but it did not really begin to come into its… …   The Hutchinson dictionary of word origins


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.