Seijun Suzuki


Seijun Suzuki

Infobox actor
name = Seijun Suzuki


caption =
birthname = Seitaro Suzuki
birthdate = birth date and age|1923|5|24
birthplace = Nihonbashi, Tokyo, Japan
deathdate =
deathplace =
restingplace =
restingplacecoordinates =
othername =
occupation = Film and television director,
actor and writer
yearsactive = Since 1956
spouse =
partner =
children =
parents =
influences =
influenced =
website =
nihongo|Seijun Suzuki|鈴木 清順|"Suzuki Seijun", born Seitaro Suzuki (鈴木 清太郎 "Suzuki Seitarō") on May 24, 1923, is a Japanese film director. His films are renowned by film enthusiasts worldwide for their jarring visual style, irreverent humour, nihilistic cool and entertainment-over-logic sensibility. He made 40 predominately B-movies for the Nikkatsu Company between 1956 and 1967, working most prolifically in the yakuza genre. His increasingly surreal style began to draw the ire of the studio in 1963 and culminated in his ultimate dismissal for what is now regarded his magnum opus, "Branded to Kill" (1967), starring notable collaborator Joe Shishido. Suzuki successfully sued the studio for wrongful dismissal but was blacklisted for 10 years. As an independent filmmaker he won critical acclaim and a Japanese Academy Award for his Taishō Trilogy, "Zigeunerweisen" (1980), "Kagero-za" (1981) and "Yumeji" (1991).

His films remained widely unknown outside of Japan until a series of theatrical retrospectives beginning in the mid 1980s, home video releases of key films such as "Branded to Kill" and "Tokyo Drifter" in the late 90s and tributes by such acclaimed filmmakers as Jim Jarmusch, Takeshi Kitano, Wong Kar-wai and Quentin Tarantino signaled his international discovery. Suzuki continued making films, albeit sporadically. He has emphysema and, due to health concerns, as of 2006, has no plans to direct further projects. In Japan, he is more commonly recognized as an actor for his numerous roles in Japanese films and television.

Early life and career

Suzuki was born during the Taishō period — and three months before the Great Kantō Earthquake — in the Nihonbashi Ward (now the Chūō Special Ward) in Tokyo. His younger brother, Kenji Suzuki (now a retired NHK television announcer), was born six years his junior. His family was in the textile trade. After earning a degree at a Tokyo Trade School in 1941 Suzuki applied to the college of the Ministry of Agriculture but failed the entrance exam due to poor marks in chemistry and physics. A year later he successfully enrolled in a Hirosaki college.cite book
last=Rayns
first=Tony
authorlink = Tony Rayns
title=Branded to Thrill: The Delirious Cinema of Suzuki Seijun
publisher = Institute of Contemporary Arts
year = 1994
id = ISBN 0-905263-44-8
pages = p. 46
chapter = Biography
]

In 1943 he was recruited by the Imperial Japanese Army during the national student mobilization to serve in World War II. Sent to East Abiko, Chiba, he was assigned the rank of Private Second Class. He was shipwrecked twice throughout his service. First the cargo ship that was to take him to the front was destroyed by an American submarine and he fled to the Philippines. Later the freighter that took him to Taiwan sank after an attack by the American air force,cite book
last = Suzuki
first = Seijun
title = De woestijn onder de kersenbloesem—The Desert under the Cherry Blossoms
publisher = Uitgeverij Uniepers Abcoude
year = 1991
month = January
id = ISBN 90-6825-090-6
pages = pp. 80-82
chapter = Biografie van Suzuki Seijun—Biography of Suzuki Seijun
] he spent 7 or 8 hours in the ocean before rescue. In 1946, having attained the rank of Second Lieutenant in the Meteorological Corps, he returned to Hiroshi and completed his studies. About his time in the military Suzuki wrote:

quote|While I stayed in the army out of fear of being executed as a deserter as soon as I threw down my rifle and ran, it wasn't long before I was promoted to trainee officer with a salary of twelve-and-a-half yen, comparable at the time to that of a departmental manager in business life. I went to the Philippines, where the war took a wrong turn for us. Then I was transferred to Taiwan, where I was stationed at an isolated airport at the foot of a mountain, with twelve others. Our wages were divided into thirteen equal parts; as in a perfect communist system. To avoid the outbreak of a revolt because of sexual deprivation, we didn't just get food, clothing and shelter, but the army staff had also considered it strategically necessary to supply us with three army prostitutes. This isn't a very edifying story, but I can't help it: I spent most of my money on booze and women, and when I arrived at Tanabe harbor the year after liberation, I was completely destitute.cite book
last = Suzuki
first = Seijun
title = De woestijn onder de kersenbloesem—The Desert under the Cherry Blossoms
publisher = Uitgeverij Uniepers Abcoude
year = 1991
month = January
id = ISBN 90-6825-090-6
pages = pp. 27-31
chapter = Mijn werk—My Work
]

He has also said that he often found the horrors of war comical,cite book| last = Chute
first = David
title = Branded to Thrill: The Delirious Cinema of Suzuki Seijun
publisher = Institute of Contemporary Arts
year = 1994
id = ISBN 0-905263-44-8
pages = pp. 11-17
chapter = Branded to Thrill
] such as men being hoisted on board his ship with ropes and being battered black and blue against the hull, or the bugler blasting his trumpet every time a coffin was thrown into the sea. Ian Buruma writes, "The humour of these situations might escape one who was not there. But Suzuki assures us that it was funny."cite book
last = Buruma
first = Ian
authorlink = Ian Buruma
title = Branded to Thrill: The Delirious Cinema of Suzuki Seijun
publisher = Institute of Contemporary Arts
year = 1994
id = ISBN 0-905263-44-8
pages = pp. 19-23
chapter = The Eccentric Imagination of a Genre Film-maker
]

quote|But war is very funny, you know! When you're in the middle of it, you can't help laughing. Of course it's different when you're facing the enemy. I was thrown into the sea during a bombing raid. As I was drifting, I got the giggles. When we were bombed, there were some people on the deck of the ship. That was a funny sight.cite book
last = Suzuki
first = Seijun
title = De woestijn onder de kersenbloesem—The Desert under the Cherry Blossoms
publisher = Uitgeverij Uniepers Abcoude
year = 1991
month = January
id = ISBN 90-6825-090-6
pages = pp. 62-66
chapter = De tijger en de koerier—The Tiger and the Messenger (interview by Koichi Yamada, Tetsuo Iijima, Aoi Ichiro and Takenobu Watanabe)
]

Next he applied to the prestigious University of Tokyo but again failed the entrance exam. At the invitation of a friend, who had also failed the exam, Suzuki enrolled into the film department of the Kamakura academy. In October 1948, he passed the Shochiku Company's entrance exam and was hired as an assistant director in the company's Ōfuna Studio. There he worked under directors Minora Shibuya, Yasushi Sasaki, Noboru Nakamura and Oniwa Hideo before joining the regular crew of Tsuruo Iwama.

Rise and fall at Nikkatsu

In 1954 the Nikkatsu Company reopened its doors after having ceased all film production at the onset of the war. It lured many assistant directors from the other major film studios with the promise of circumventing the usual long queue for promotion. Among these wayfarers was Suzuki who took an assistant directing position there at approximately 3 times his previous salary.cite book
last = D.
first = Chris
authorlink = Chris D.
title = Outlaw Masters of Japanese Film
publisher = I.B. Tauris
year = 2005
id = ISBN 1-84511-086-2
url = http://www.ibtauris.com/ibtauris/display.asp?K=510000000494236&bic=ATK*&ds=Film&sort=sort_title&m=91&dc=124
pages = pp. 228-229
] He worked under directors Hidesuke Takizawa, Kiyoshi Saeki, So Yamamura and Hiroshi Noguchi. His first screenplay to be filmed was "Duel at Sunset" (落日の決闘 "Rakujitsu no ketto", 1955), it was directed by Hiroshi Noguchi. In 1956 he became a full-fledged director.

His directorial debut, credited to his real name, Seitarō Suzuki, was "Victory Is Mine", a "kayo eiga" , or pop song film, part of a subgenre that functioned as a vehicle for hit pop records and singers.cite web
last = Firsching
first = Robert
title = "Minato No Kanpai: Shori o Wagate Ni" Plot Synopsis
publisher = All Media Guide
url = http://www.allmovie.com/cg/avg.dll?p=avg&sql=1:179608
accessdate = 2006-12-12
] Impressed by the film's quality Nikkatsu signed him to a longterm contract.cite web
last = Weisser
first = Thomas
title = "The Films of Seijun Suzuki: A Complete Filmography with Commentary
publisher = 45. Caliber Samurai
url = http://sweetbottom.tripod.com/films.htm
accessdate = 2006-12-20
] Nearly all of the films that he made for Nikkatsu were program pictures, or B-movies, production-line genre films made on a tight schedule and shoestring budget that were meant to fill out the second half of a double feature. B-directors were expected to work fast and take any and every script that was assigned to them and refused at risk of dismissal. Suzuki maintained an impressive pace, averaging 3½ films per year, and claims to have turned down only 2 or 3 scripts during his years at the studio.cite book
last = Rayns
first = Tony
title = Branded to Thrill: The Delirious Cinema of Suzuki Seijun
publisher = Institute of Contemporary Arts
year = 1994
id = ISBN 0-905263-44-8
pages = pp. 5-9
chapter = The Kyoka Factor: The Delights of Suzuki Seijun
] He later said of his work schedule (and wrongful dismissal):

quote|Actually making movies was painful work, as I often said to my wife. I had already wanted to quit four or five years before. I told her I hated this foolish, painful process. She told me I shouldn't say such a thing ... that if I talked that way, it would come true. And it eventually did. [This alludes to his unfair dismissal from Nikkatsu in 1968.] For me, it was a relief. I felt this way from the very start.cite web
last = Sato
first = Tadao
authorlink = Tadao Sato
title = Sato on Suzuki
publisher = Pacific Film Archive
url = http://www.mip.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/cine_doc_detail.pl/cine_img/?15717?15717?1
pages = pp. 4-7
work = The Films of Seijun Suzuki
accessdate = 2006-12-16
]

His 3rd film and first yakuza action movie, "Satan's Town", linked him inexorably to the genre. "Underworld Beauty" (1958) marked his first CinemaScope film and was also the first to be credited to his assumed name, Seijun Suzuki.cite book
last = D.
first = Chris
title = Outlaw Masters of Japanese Film
publisher = I.B. Tauris
year = 2005
id = ISBN 1-84511-086-2
url = http://www.ibtauris.com/ibtauris/display.asp?K=510000000494236&bic=ATK*&ds=Film&sort=sort_title&m=91&dc=124
pages = pp. 136-149
]

Having enjoyed moderate success his work began to draw more attention, especially among student audiences, with 1963's "Youth of the Beast" which is considered his "breakthrough" by film scholars and Suzuki himself calls it his "first truly original film." His style increasingly shirked genre conventions, favouring visual excess and visceral excitement over a coherent plot and injecting madcap humour into a normally solemn genre, developing into a distinctive "voice". Tony Rayns explained, "In his own eyes, the visual and structural qualities of his '60s genre films sprang from a mixture of boredom ('All company scripts were so similar; if I found a single line that was original, I could see room to do something with it') and self-preservation ('Since all of us contract directors were working from identical scripts, it was important to find a way of standing out from the crowd')."

quote|If you hear the word B-movie you will probably laugh heartily, but a B-movie director has his own worries. In newspaper ads the main feature usually has the most prominent place, and I'm way down at the bottom. The B-movie director's biggest worry is the question "What effect will the main feature have that is shown before your film?" Films from Nikkatsu usually have the same plot: the main character falls in love with a woman, he kills the bad guy and gets the woman. This pattern is repeated in every film, so you concentrate on finding out all you can about who the actors are, who the director is, and the approach this director has. This is what the B-movie director does. For instance, the main feature's director has a habit of filming a love scene a certain way; this means that I have to handle it in another way. The director of the main feature has it easy. He doesn't have to find out how I work at all. He can just do whatever he wants. So actually a B-movie director has a harder task than his colleague who does the main feature. Because of this the studio should give me more money than him, actually, but it's just the other way around.cite book
last = Suzuki
first = Seijun
title = De woestijn onder de kersenbloesem—The Desert under the Cherry Blossoms
publisher = Uitgeverij Uniepers Abcoude
year = 1991
month = January
id = ISBN 90-6825-090-6
pages = pp. 33-40
chapter = In de tijd van Kanto Mushuku—The Days of Kanto Mushuku
]

This development was furthered with the assistance of like-minded collaborators. Suzuki considered the production designer to be among the most important:

quote|"The Bastard" was the real turning-point in my career, more so than "Youth of the Beast", which I made just before. It was my first time with [Takeo Kimura] as designer, and that collaboration was decisive for me. It was with Kimura that I began to work on ways of making the fundamental illusion of cinema more powerful.cite book
last = Suzuki
first = Seijun
title = Branded to Thrill: The Delirious Cinema of Suzuki Seijun
publisher = Institute of Contemporary Arts
year = 1994
id = ISBN 0-905263-44-8
pages = pp. 25-29
chapter = Suzuki on Suzuki
]

His fan base grew rapidly but did not extend to studio president Kyusaku Hori. Beginning with "Tattooed Life" the studio issued Suzuki his first warning for "going too far".cite book
last = Rayns
first = Tony
title = Branded to Thrill: The Delirious Cinema of Suzuki Seijun
publisher = Institute of Contemporary Arts
year = 1994
id = ISBN 0-905263-44-8
pages = p. 38
chapter = 1965: One Generation of Tattoos
] He responded with "Carmen from Kawachi" after which he was ordered to "play it straight"cite book
last = Rayns
first = Tony
title = Branded to Thrill: The Delirious Cinema of Suzuki Seijun
publisher = Institute of Contemporary Arts
year = 1994
id = ISBN 0-905263-44-8
pages = p. 40
chapter = 1966: Tokyo Drifter
] and had his budget slashed for his next film. The result was "Tokyo Drifter", an "ostensibly routine potboiler" made into a "jaw-dropping, eye-popping fantasia".cite web
last = Dargis
first = Manohla
authorlink = Manohla Dargis
title = Tokyo Drifter
publisher = The Criterion Collection
url = http://www.criterion.com/asp/release.asp?id=39&eid=62&section=essay
accessdate = 2006-12-14
] Further reduced to filming in black-and-white Suzuki made his 40th film in his 12 years with the company, "Branded to Kill" (1967), considered an avant-garde masterpiece by critics, for which Hori promptly fired him.

uzuki v. Nikkatsu

On April 25, 1968 Suzuki received a telephone call from a Nikkatsu secretary informing him that he would not be receiving his salary for that month.cite web
last = Ueno
first = Kohshi
title = Suzuki Battles Nikkatsu
publisher = Pacific Film Archive
url = http://www.mip.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/cine_doc_detail.pl/cine_img/?15717?15717?1
pages = p. 8
work = The Films of Seijun Suzuki
accessdate = 2006-12-16
] Two friends of Suzuki met with Hori the next day and were informed that "Suzuki's films were incomprehensible, that they did not make any money and that Suzuki might as well give up his career as a director as he would not be making films for any other companies." At that time the student-run film society Cine Club, headed by Kazuko Kawakita, was sponsoring a major retrospective of Suzuki's films—meant to be the first in Japan to honour a Japanese director.cite web
last = Willemen
first = Paul
title = The Films of Seijun Suzuki
publisher = Pacific Film Archive
url = http://www.mip.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/cine_doc_detail.pl/cine_img/?15717?15717?1
pages = p. 1
work = The Films of Seijun Suzuki
accessdate = 2006-12-19
] It was scheduled to begin on May 10 but Hori withdrew all of his films from distribution and refused to release them to the Cine Club. The students were told that "Nikkatsu could not afford to cultivate a reputation for making films understood only by an exclusive audience and that showing incomprehensible and thus bad films would disgrace the company," adding that, "Suzuki's films would not be shown for some time in theaters or by the Cine Club."

Suzuki reported the illegal termination of his contract and the removal of his films from distribution to the Japanese Film Directors Association. Association Chairman Heinosuke Gosho met with Hori on May 2 but was unable to resolve the matter. Gosho then issued a public declaration condemning Nikkatsu for breach of contract and violation of Suzuki's right to freedom of speech. On the day of the intended retrospective the Cine Club met to discuss the situation. Two hundred people attended, much exceeding their expectations. A three hour debate ensued as to whether they should negotiate the release of the films, or confront Nikkatsu directly. The former was agreed upon and it was decided that efforts had to be made to keep the public informed.

On June 7, after repeated attempts to reason with Nikkatsu, Suzuki took the studio to court suing for breach of contract and personal damages amounting to ¥7 380 000. He also demanded that Hori send letters of apology to the three major newspapers on account that Hori's statements gave the impression that all of his films were bad. He then called a press conference with representatives of the Japanese Film Directors Association, the Actors Guild, the Scriptwriters Guild, ATG and the Cine Club. Among the participates were directors Nagisa Oshima, Masahiro Shinoda and Kei Kumai. The only group not represented was the Nikkatsu Directors Association.

The Cine Club held a public demonstration on June 12 which resulted in the formation of a joint committee supporting Suzuki against Nikkatsu. The committee was comprised mostly of directors, actors, large student film groups and independent filmmakers. This also marked the first time the public became involved in a type of dispute normally confined to the industry. The Cine Club, and other similar groups, mobilized the public, holding panel discussions and leading mass demonstrations against the studio. The public support, garnered at the height of student movement, was based on a wide appreciation of Suzuki's films and the idea that audiences should be able to see the types of films they wanted to see. This shook the film industry by the fact that the public was making demands rather than passively accepting their product.

Throughout the lawsuit, 19 witnesses were heard over a two and a half year process including directors, newspaper reporters, film critics and two members of the film-going public. Kohshi Ueno writes of Suzuki's own testimony on the making of "Branded to Kill", "A film scheduled for production was suddenly deemed inappropriate and Suzuki was called in at very short notice to fill the gap. The release date had already been set when Suzuki was asked to write the script. He suggested dropping the script when the head of the studio told him he had to read it twice before he understood it, but the company directed him to make the film. According to Suzuki, Nikkatsu was in no position to criticize him for a film that he made to help them out in an emergency." Suzuki had never before disclosed this information or discussed any internal company affairs and his testimony exposed the fact that the major studios assigned films to directors at random, improperly publicized them and expected directors to carry any blame.

It also came to light that, with the industry in decline since the early 1960s, by 1968 Nikkatsu was in the midst of a financial crisis. The studio had accumulated a ¥1 845 000 000 debt due to irresponsible management and was to undergo a massive restructuring. Film crew sizes were to be reduced, time cards introduced and advanced approval was required for all overtime. Hori, known as a totalitarian figure, unaccustomed to retracting statements or granting requests, had made an example of Suzuki apparently on the basis of his dislike of the film. In a New Year's speech to the company he repeatedly emphasized that he wanted to make films that were "easily understandable".

On February 12, 1971 testimony was completed and a verdict expected. However, in March the court advised a settlement, explaining appeals were extremely time consuming. Negotiations began on March 22 and concluded on December 24, three and a half years after the case had begun. Nikkatsu paid Suzuki ¥1 000 000, a fraction of his original claim, and Hori was forced to apologize for comments he made while serving as president. In a separate agreement Nikkatsu donated "Fighting Elegy" and "Branded to Kill" to the Tokyo National Museum of Modern Art's Film Centre. At the time of settlement Suzuki expressed fears that if he had continued to fight he might not even be able to get an apology from the failing company. During the course of the litigation Nikkatsu was being slowly dismantled. Hori's plans to restructure the company were unsuccessful and Nikkatsu was forced to liquidate studios and headquarter buildings. It released two final films in August of 1971 and by November began producing "roman porno", softcore romantic pornography. Despite Suzuki's victory with wide support from the public and film world he was blacklisted by all major production companies and unable to make another film for 10 years.

Late recognition

To sustain himself during the trial and proceeding black list years Suzuki published books of essay and directed several television movies, series and commercials. The trial and protests had made him into a counterculture icon and his Nikkatsu films became quite popular at midnight screenings, playing to "packed audiences who wildly applauded." He also began acting for other directors in small parts and cameos. His first credited screen role was a special appearance in Kazuki Omori's "Don't Wait Until Dark!" (1975).cite web
title = 鈴木清順
publisher = Japanese Movie Database
url = http://www.jmdb.ne.jp/person/p0376830.htm
language = Japanese
accessdate = 2006-12-30
]

Shochiku, the company that started him as an assistant director, produced his return to film direction in 1977, "A Tale of Sorrow and Sadness", a golf expose cum psychological thriller penned by sports-oriented manga illustrator Ikki Kajiwara. Joe Shishido appears in a brief cameo. The film was met poorly critically and popularly.

He teamed up with producer Genjiro Arato in 1980 and made the first part of what would become his Taishō trilogy, "Zigeunerweisen", a psychological, period, ghost story, named after a gramophone record of gypsy violin music by Pablo de Sarasate featured prominently in the film. When exhibitors declined to show the film, Arato screened it himself in an inflatable mobile dome to great success.cite book
last = Rayns
first = Tony
title = Branded to Thrill: The Delirious Cinema of Suzuki Seijun
publisher = Institute of Contemporary Arts
year = 1994
id = ISBN 0-905263-44-8
pages = p. 43
chapter = 1980: Zigeunerweisen
] It won Honourable Mention at the Berlin International Film Festival,cite web
title = Prizes & Honours
publisher = Internationale Filmfestspiele Berlin
url = http://www.berlinale.de/en/archiv/jahresarchive/1981/03_preistraeger_1981/03_Preistraeger_1981.html
work = 1981 Yearbook
accessdate = 2006-12-22
] was nominated for 9 Japanese Academy Awards and won four, including best director and best film,cite web
title = 1981年 第 4回 受賞者・受賞作品一覧
publisher = Japan Academy Prize
url = http://www.japan-academy-prize.jp/allprizes/1981/index.html
work = 歴代受賞者・受賞作品
language = Japanese
accessdate = 2006-12-22
] and was voted the no. 1 Japanese film of the 1980s by Japanese critics. He followed the film with "Kagero-za", made the following year, and completed the trilogy ten years later with "Yumeji". Suzuki commented on working outside of the studio system:

Italy hosted the first partial retrospective of his films outside of Japan at the 1984 Pesaro International Film Festival. The 1994 touring retrospective "Branded to Thrill: The Delirious Cinema of Suzuki Seijun" showcased 14 of his films. In 2001 Nikkatsu hosted the "Style to Kill" retrospective featuring more than 20 of his films. In celebration of 50th anniversary of his directorial debut Nikkatsu again hosted the 2006 "Suzuki Seijun 48 Film Challenge" showcasing all of his films to date at the Tokyo International Film Festival.

He made a loose sequel to "Branded to Kill" with "Pistol Opera" (2001). Makiko Esumi replaced Joe Shishido as the number 3 killer. This was followed by "Princess Raccoon" (2005), starring Zhang Ziyi, a musical love story. Suzuki has been diagnosed with pulmonary emphysema and is permanently hooked up to a portable respirator.cite web
last = Brown
first = Don
title = Suzuki Seijun: Still Killing
publisher = Ryuganji.net
url = http://www.ryuganji.net/news/index.php?entry=entry061023-085912
work = Japan Film News
accessdate = 2007-03-04
] In a 2006 interview, he said that he has no plans to direct any further films.

quote|I'm not really in perfect condition at the moment ... Making films is all about vitality. You have to be very healthy and at the moment my health is not good."cite web
last = Rose
first = Steve
title = Man on the Moon
publisher = Guardian Unlimited Film
url = http://film.guardian.co.uk/interview/interviewpages/0,,1808939,00.html#article_continue
accessdate = 2007-01-20
]

Filmmaking

As a contract B director at Nikkatsu, Suzuki's films were made following a rigid structure. He was assigned a film and script, and could only refuse it at the risk of losing his job. He claims to have turned down only 2 or 3 scripts in his time with Nikkatsu but always modified the scripts both in preproduction and during shooting. Nikkatsu also assigned an actor for the lead, or leads, either a (usually 2nd-tier) star or one being groomed for stardom. The rest of the cast was not assigned but typically drawn from the studio's pool of contract actors. Most studio A films had a set budget of ¥45 million where Suzuki's black-and-white Bs ran 20 million and his colour films were provided an additional 3 million. His films were scheduled 10 days for pre-production, such as location scouting, set design and costumes, 25 days for shooting and 3 days for post-production, such as editing and dubbing.cite video
people = Suzuki, Seijun (interviewee)
year = 1999
title = Tokyo Drifter interview
url = http://www.criterion.com/asp/release.asp?id=39
medium = DVD
location = New York
publisher = The Criterion Collection
] Within this framework he had a greater degree of control than the A directors as the cheaper B productions drew a less watchful eye from the head office.

Filmography

References

Further reading

*
*
*

External links

* [http://www.midnighteye.com/interviews/seijun_suzuki.shtml Midnight Eye interview] : Seijun Suzuki
* [http://www.sensesofcinema.com/contents/festivals/00/8/miff/suzuki.html Seijun Suzuki: Authority in Minority] at Senses of Cinema
* [http://www.mip.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/cine_director_query.pl?11350 Cinefiles] - An archive containing essays, notes, reviews and book excerpts on Suzuki's films
* [http://sweetbottom.tripod.com/ 45. Caliber Samurai] - Tribute site
*
*
*


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