- Daniel François Malan
Daniel François Malan 5th Prime Minister of South Africa In office
4 June 1948 – 30 November 1954
Monarch George VI (1948–1952)
Elizabeth II (1952–1954)
Governor General Gideon Brand van Zyl
Ernest George Jansen
Preceded by Jan Smuts Succeeded by Johannes Gerhardus Strijdom Minister of the Interior In office
30 June 1924 – 20 May 1933
Prime Minister J. B. M. Hertzog Preceded by Patrick Duncan Succeeded by Jan Hofmeyr Personal details Born 22 May 1874
Riebeek-Wes, Cape Colony
Died 7 February 1959(aged 84)
Political party National Party Religion Dutch Reformed Church
Daniel François Malan (Afrikaans pronunciation: [ˈdɑːniəl frɐnˈswɑː mɐˈlɐn]; 22 May 1874 – 7 February 1959), more commonly known as D.F. Malan, was the Prime Minister of South Africa from 1948 to 1954. He is seen as a champion of Afrikaner nationalism. His National Party government came to power on the program of apartheid and began its comprehensive implementation.
Malan was born in Riebeek-Wes in the Cape Colony. He obtained a B.A. in Mathematics and Science from the Victoria College in Stellenbosch, whereafter he entered the Stellenbosch seminary in order to train as a minister in the Dutch Reformed Church. Along with his studies in theology, he obtained a M.A. in Philosophy from Victoria College, later to be Paul Roos Gymnasium and the Stellenbosch University. Malan left South Africa in 1900 to study towards a Doctorate in Divinity at the University of Utrecht, which he obtained in 1905. After his return to South Africa, he was ordained as a minister of the Dutch Reformed Church and served for six months as an assistant-minister in Heidelberg, Transvaal. He was an ardent fighter for the acceptance of Afrikaans, which was an emerging language fighting against Dutch and English, and was a founding member of the Afrikaanse Taal en Kultuur Vereeniging (ATKV) (Afrikaans language and cultural society), which was established in 1906. He was stationed in Montagu from 1906 to 1912 and thereafter in Graaff-Reinet until 1915. He also undertook a journey on behalf of the Dutch Reformed Church, visiting Afrikaners in the Belgian Congo and Southern Rhodesia.
Malan's involvement in National Party politics began shortly after the NP's formation in 1914. In those years, political parties had affiliated newspapers that served as their mouthpiece. However, Nationalist-minded Afrikaners in the Cape had no such outlet and therefore, in 1915, decided to found De Burger, which later became known as Die Burger. They persuaded Malan to become the editor of the new newspaper and, as he was worried about the Afrikaners' political position in the aftermath of the 1914 Rebellion, he relinquished his position as a minister in the Dutch Reformed Church to accept the position. The Cape branch of the National Party was founded in 1915 and Malan was elected as its provincial leader. In 1918, he was elected to Parliament for the first time as MP for the Calvinia constituency. He held that seat until 1938, when he became the MP for Piketberg.
The National Party came to power under the leadership of Hertzog in 1924, and Malan was given the post of Minister of the Interior, Education and Public Health, which he held until 1933. In 1925, Malan was at the forefront of a campaign to replace Dutch with Afrikaans in the constitution as well as to provide South Africa with its own national flag.
After the 1933 election, the United Party was formed out of the merger between Hertzog's National Party and the rival South African Party of Jan Smuts. Malan strongly opposed the merger and, in 1934, he and 19 other MPs defected to form the 'Purified' National Party, which he led for the next fourteen years as opposition. Malan also opposed South African participation in World War II, which was already unpopular among the Afrikaner population and led to a split in the governing party; this dramatically increased his popularity, and he consequently defeated Smuts and the United Party in 1948.
A firm foundation for apartheid was laid during Malan's six-and-a-half years as prime minister. The system was officially dismantled in 1994, but the legacy continues to have an impact in South Africa. Malan retired in 1954 at the age of 80, but in the succession-battle that accompanied his retirement, his anointed heirs, N.C. Havenga and E. Donges were defeated and Malan was thus succeeded by J.G. Strijdom.
Malan died in 1959 at Môrewag, his home in Stellenbosch. His book, Afrikaner Volkseenheid en my ervaringe op die pad daarheen ("Afrikaner Nationalism and my experiences on the road to it"), was published in the same year by Nasionale Boekhandel. A collection of his writings and documents is housed in the Document Centre at the University of Stellenbosch's J.S. Gericke library.
He is positioned 81st on the SABC3's Great South Africans list.
The progenitor of the Malan name in the South African region was a French Huguenot refugee named Jacques Malan from Provence (Mérindol), France, who arrived at the Cape before 1689. The Malan name is one of a number of Afrikaans names of French origin which have retained their original spelling.
In 1952 J B L Smith was told about a coelacanth that had just been landed by fishermen at Anjouan and recognised by an adventurer called Eric Hunt. He had persuaded them that the fish was worth a lot of money and shouldn't be sold to anyone other than the South African government. This would be only the second specimen known to science. The first specimen identified by Marjorie Courtenay-Latimer was preserved only as a skin, so Smith needed to collect this new specimen and get it refrigerated quickly so that the internal organs wouldn't decay. His local MP, Vernon Shearer, telephoned Malan and together with Smith persuaded him to send the South African Air Force to fetch the fish and bring it back to South Africa. Because second specimen differed from the first one in two key ways, it lacked the first dorsal fin and its tail fin was truncated, Smith named the fish in honour of Malan and the place where the fish was caught, Malania anjouanae. Eventually it was established that this wasn't a different species at all, and exactly the same fish as the first specimen, Latimeria chalumnae; the apparent differences were down to a shark attack that cost the fish one of its dorsal fins and part of its tail.
- ^ Les Francais Qui Ont Fait L'Afrique Du Sud ("The French People Who Made South Africa"). Bernard Lugan. January 1996. ISBN 2841000869
- D.F. Malan photographed with H.F. Verwoerd in 1954
- Photograph of the first D.F. Malan Cabinet of 1948
- Signed 1951 photograph of D.F. Malan, J. G. Strijdom and C. R. Swart
- Mr and Mrs D.F. Malan photographed with J.C. Smuts, in 1938
Prime Minister of South Africa
Johannes Gerhardus Strijdom
Governor-General of the Union of South Africa · State President of South Africa pre-Apartheid (1910–1948) Apartheid-era (1948–1994) Post-Apartheid (1994–present) Note: Until the appointment of Louw in 1955 the Prime Minister was also foreign minister. pre-Apartheid (1910-1948) Apartheid-era (1948-1994) Post-Apartheid (1994-present)
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Daniel Francois Malan — Daniel François Malan (* 22. Mai 1874 in Riebeek West, Kapprovinz, Südafrika; † 7. Februar 1959 in Stellenbosch, Südafrika) war Premierminister der Südafrikanischen Union von 1948 bis 1954 und Mitglied der burischen Nationalen Partei. Malan… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Daniel François Malan — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Malan. Daniel François Malan Mandats … Wikipédia en Français
Daniel François Malan — D. F. Malan Daniel François Malan (* 22. Mai 1874 in Riebeek West, Kapprovinz, Südafrika; † 7. Februar 1959 in Stellenbosch, Südafrika) war Premierminister der Südafrikanischen Union von 1948 bis 1954 und Mitglied der burischen Nationalen Partei … Deutsch Wikipedia
Daniel Malan — Daniel François Malan Pour les articles homonymes, voir Malan. Daniel François Malan … Wikipédia en Français
Daniel Malan — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Daniel François Malan (22 de mayo de 1874 – 7 de febrero de 1959) fue un primer ministro de Sudáfrica. Se lo considera el máximo exponente del nacionalismo afrikáner racista. Bajo su gobierno se empezaron a… … Wikipedia Español
MALAN (D. F.) — MALAN DANIEL FRANÇOIS (1874 1959) Issu d’une famille de vignerons d’origine hollandaise, et descendants lointains de huguenots français, Daniel François Malan est né dans la province du Cap, à Riebeeck, dans le village natal de son prédécesseur à … Encyclopédie Universelle
Francois Christiaan Erasmus — François Christiaan Erasmus François Christiaan Erasmus (1896 1967) était un avocat et un homme politique d Afrique du Sud, membre du Parti national, député (1933 1961) qui fut ministre de la défense (1948 1959), ministre des postes (1949 1950),… … Wikipédia en Français
François Christiaan Erasmus — (1896 1967) était un avocat et un homme politique d Afrique du Sud, membre du Parti national, député (1933 1961) qui fut ministre de la défense (1948 1959), ministre des postes (1949 1950), des forêts (1956 1958) et enfin ministre de la justice… … Wikipédia en Français
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