New Democracy (Greece)


New Democracy (Greece)
Νέα Δημοκρατία
New Democracy
Leader Antonis Samaras
Founder Konstantinos Karamanlis
Founded 4 October 1974
Headquarters 340 Syggrou Ave.,
176 73 Kallithea, Athens
Ideology Conservatism
Liberal conservatism
Christian democracy
Political position Centre-right
International affiliation Centrist Democrat International
International Democrat Union
European affiliation European People's Party
European Parliament Group European People's Party
Official colours Blue
Parliament
83 / 300
European Parliament
7 / 22
Peripheries[1]
260 / 725
Website
www.nd.gr
Politics of Greece
Political parties
Elections

New Democracy (Greek: Νέα Δημοκρατία, Néa Dimokratía, also known by its acronym ΝΔ, ND,) is the main centre-right political party and one of the two major parties in Greece. It was founded in 1974 by Konstantinos Karamanlis and formed the first cabinet of the Third Hellenic Republic. After serving as the Cabinet of Greece from 2004 to 2009, New Democracy is now the main opposition party in the Hellenic Parliament after its smashing defeat in the 2009 Greek elections in which they recorded their historical lowest percentage of votes. After the defeat former president Kostas Karamanlis, nephew of the party's founder, resigned and Antonis Samaras was elected the new president of the party through a leadership election in November 2009. New Democracy is a member of the European People's Party and currently has 7 out of 22 Greek MEPs in the European Parliament.

Contents

History

ND was founded on 4 October 1974. Konstantinos Karamanlis was sworn in as the first Prime Minister in two months of the post-dictatorship era. Karamanlis had already served as Prime Minister from 1955 to 1963. In the first free elections of the new era, New Democracy won. This result is attributed mostly to the personal appeal of Karamanlis, rather than the influence of ND as a party, to the electorate. "Karamanlis or tanks" was a slogan at the time, with the latter referring to the military, which, it was feared, might stage another coup.

Karamanlis claimed that he intended New Democracy to be a more modern and progressive right-wing party than those that ruled Greece before the 1967 military coup, including his own ERE (Εθνική Ριζοσπαστικη Ενωση Ethniki Rizospastiki Enosis National Rizospastiki Union). The party's ideology was defined as "radical liberalism," a term defined by ND as "the prevalence of free market rules with the decisive intervention of the state in favour of social justice."

In 1977, ND again won national elections, albeit with a largely reduced majority (41.88%). Still, it retained a comfortable parliamentary majority. Under Karamanlis Greece redefined its relations with NATO, and tried to resolve the Cyprus issue following the Turkish invasion. In 1980, however, Karamanlis retired. His successor, George Rallis, was defeated at the following elections by the Panhellenic Socialist Movement (PASOK) led by Andreas Papandreou. Under ND leadership Greece joined the European Communities in 1981. Karamanlis was criticised by opposing parties (which were against the prospect of entering the EEC), for not holding a referendum, despite the fact that entry into the EEC was prominent in the political platform under which New Democracy had been elected to power.

ND returned to power in a coalition government (prime minister: Tzannis Tzannetakis) with the traditional Left Party (Coalition of the Left and Progress, which at the time included the Communist Party of Greece) in 1989, subsequently participated in the grand coalition government of Xenophon Zolotas from November 1989 to April 1990 and, eventually, formed a majority government under Constantine Mitsotakis after new elections were held on 10 April 1990. The party then suffered a period of successive losses. It was defeated by a landslide in 1993 under Mitsotakis, in 1996 under Miltiadis Evert, and in 2000 under Kostas Karamanlis, nephew of the party's founder. In 2000 ND lost by 1,06% of the popular vote, the smallest margin in modern Greek history.

By 2003, however, ND was consistently leading the PASOK government of Costas Simitis in opinion polls. In January 2004 Simitis resigned and announced elections for 7 March, at which Karamanlis faced the new PASOK leader, George Papandreou. Despite speculation that Papandreou would succeed in restoring PASOK's fortunes, Karamanlis had a victory in the elections and became Greece's first center-right Prime Minister after eleven years.

ND is a member of the European People's Party (EPP), the International Democrat Union (IDU) and the Christian Democrat International (CDI).

Support

The regions that consistently support New Democracy include the Peloponnese, Central Macedonia and West Macedonia. On the other hand, the party is very weak in Crete, the Aegean Islands and West Greece. Other regions such as Central Greece and Thessaly do not have a fixed political identity. Traditionally, the conservative political forces in Greece depended on the backing of the rural population and the business elite, while liberals and then socialists counted on the backing of intellectuals and the urban population, but these distinctions have been blurred over the years, especially since in Greek society there is much social mobility.

2007 re-election

On 16 September 2007, Kostas Karamanlis won re-election with a diminished majority in parliament, and stated:"Thank you for your trust. You have spoken loud and clear and chosen the course the country will take in the next few years." George Papandreou, main opposition socialist party PASOK, accepted defeat (New Democracy party with 41.84%, and opposition party PASOK had 38.1%).[2]

2009 defeat

On 2 September 2009 Karamanlis asked President Karolos Papoulias to dissolve Parliament and call an election, although one was not required until September 2011. Parliament was dissolved on 9 September, and the Greek legislative election, 2009 was held on 4 October. New Democracy's share of the parliamentary vote dropped to 33.48% (down by −8.38, an all-time low) and they won only 91 of 300 seats, dropping by -61. The rival Panhellenic Socialist Movement soared to 43.92% (up +5.82), and took 160 seats (up +58). The 33.5% tally marked a historic low for the party since its founding in 1974. Karamanlis conceded defeat after the exit polls made the extent of the losses clear. He stated that he was resigning his offices, and would not stand as a candidate at the party convention summoned to elect his successor in November. Initial polls showed former Mayor of Athens and Foreign Minister Dora Bakoyannis leading in the race for party head.

On 29 November 2009, Member of Parliament for Messenia and former minister Antonis Samaras was elected the new leader of New Democracy by the party base. Following early results showing Samaras in the lead, his main rival Dora Bakoyannis conceded defeat and congratulated Samaras for his election.

Election results, Greek parliamentary elections 1974-2009

Year Party Leader Number of votes Percentage of votes Number of members
in the Hellenic Parliament
Position in Parliament
1974
Konstantinos Karamanlis
2,669,133
54.37%
220
Government
1977
Konstantinos Karamanlis
2,146,365
41.84%
171
Government
1981
George Rallis
2,034,496
35.87%
115
Main opposition party
1985
Constantine Mitsotakis
2,599,681
40.84%
126
Main opposition party
1989 (I)
Constantine Mitsotakis
2,887,488
44.28%
145
In coalition government with KKE and SYN
1989 (II)
Constantine Mitsotakis
3,093,479
46.19%
148
Part of an all-party coalition government
1990
Constantine Mitsotakis
3,088,137
46.89%
150
Government
1993
Constantine Mitsotakis
2,711,739
39.30%
111
Main opposition party
1996
Miltiadis Evert
2,584,765
38.12%
108
Main opposition party
2000
Kostas Karamanlis
2,935,196
42.74%
125
Main opposition party
2004
Kostas Karamanlis
3,359,058
45.36%
165
Government
2007
Kostas Karamanlis
2,994,979
41.84%
152
Government
2009
Kostas Karamanlis
2,295,967
33.48%
91 (now 85)
Main opposition party

Leadership

Leaders

References

  1. ^ The counselors of the Peripheries.
  2. ^ Yahoo.com, Prime minister's party wins Greek vote

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • New Democracy (disambiguation) — As a concept, New Democracy refers to a Maoist stage of development. The term New Democracy is also the name of several political parties around the world: Communist Party of India (Marxist Leninist) New Democracy New Democracy (Canada) (now… …   Wikipedia

  • New Democracy — ▪ political party, Greece Greek  Nea Dimokratia        conservative political party in Greece. New Democracy was founded in 1974 by Konstantinos Karamanlis (Karamanlis, Konstantinos), who oversaw the country s transition from military… …   Universalium

  • New Democracy leadership election, 2009 — The 2009 New Democracy leadership election was held on November 29, 2009, following the announcement of the resignation of Kostas Karamanlis, after more than 12 years as leader of New Democracy, the main centre right political party and one of… …   Wikipedia

  • New Democrats — This article is about the US political faction. For the Canadian political party, see New Democratic Party. For the Greek political party, see New Democracy (Greece). In the politics of the United States, the New Democrats are an ideologically… …   Wikipedia

  • New Patriotic Party — Leader Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo Addo Chairman Jake Otanka Obetsebi Lamptey[1] General Secretary Kwadwo Owusu Afriyie …   Wikipedia

  • New Zealand National Party — Rōpū Nāhinara Leader John Key Preside …   Wikipedia

  • New People's Army — NPA flag Dates of operation March 29, 1969 Leader José María Sison Motives Proletarian revolution …   Wikipedia

  • Greece — /grees/, n. 1. Ancient Greek, Hellas. Modern Greek, Ellas. a republic in S Europe at the S end of the Balkan Peninsula. 10,583,126; 50,147 sq. mi. (129,880 sq. km). Cap.: Athens. 2. a city in W New York. 16,177. * * * Greece Introduction Greece… …   Universalium

  • Greece, history of — ▪ Byzantine to modern Introduction       history of the area from the Byzantine (Byzantine Empire) period, beginning about AD 300, to the present. For earlier periods, see Aegean civilizations; ancient Greek civilization; and Hellenistic Age.… …   Universalium

  • Greece — Infobox Country native name = Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Ellīnikī Dīmokratía conventional long name = Hellenic Republic common name = Greece symbol type = Coat of arms image coat caption = Coat of arms map caption = map caption |location color=dark… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.