Reservation in India


Reservation in India

Reservation in Indian law is a form of affirmative action whereby a percentage of seats are reserved in the public sector units, union and state civil services, union and state government departments and in all public and private educational institutions, except in the religious/ linguistic minority educational institutions, for the socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or the Scheduled Castes and Tribes who were inadequately represented in these services and institutions. The reservation policy is extended for the SC and STs in representing the [Parliament of , etc. The central government of India reserves 27% of higher education [ [http://asj.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/43/3/235 de Zwart, The Logic of Affirmative Action: Caste, Class and Quotas in India, Acta Sociologica 2000; 43; 235] ] , Reservation in most states is capped at a maximum of 50%, but certain Indian states like Rajasthan have proposed a 68 % reservation which ironically includes a 14% reservation for forward castes [http://news.in.msn.com/specials/Gujjaragitation.aspx] .

Purpose

Reservations are intended to increase the social diversity in campuses and workplaces by lowering the entry criteria for certain identifiable groups that are grossly under-represented in proportion to their numbers in the general population. Caste is the most used criteria to identify under-represented groups. However there are other identifiable criteria for under-representation -- gender (women are under represented), state of domicile (North Eastern States, as Bihar and Uttar Pradesh are under-represented), rural people, etc. -- as revealed by the Government of India sponsored National Family Health and National Sample surveys. The underlying theory is that the under-representation of the identifiable groups is a legacy of the Indian caste system. After India gained independence, the Constitution of India listed some erstwhile groups as Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST). The framers of the Constitution believed that, due to the caste system, SCs and the STs were historically oppressed and denied respect and equal opportunity in Indian society and were thus under-represented in nation-building activities. The Constitution laid down 15% and 7.5% of vacancies to government aided educational institutes and for jobs in the government/public sector, as reserved quota for the SC and ST candidates respectively for a period of five years, after which the situation was to be reviewed. This period was routinely extended by the following governments and the Indian Parliament, and no revisions were undertaken for the fear of losing votes (It is a well known factFact|date=August 2008 that the so-called backward communities are active in politics and their people vote; unfortunately, the majority of highly educated Indians do not vote during the general electionsFact|date=September 2008).

Later, reservations were introduced for other sections as well. The Supreme Court ruling that reservations cannot exceed 50% (which it judged would violate equal access guaranteed by the Constitution) has put a cap on reservations. However, there are state laws that exceed this 50% limit and these are under litigation in the Supreme Court. For example, the caste-based reservation fraction stands at 69% and is applicable to about 87% of the population in the state of Tamil Nadu (see section on Tamil Nadu below).

History of the practice

India is divided into many endogamous groups, or castes and sub-castes, as a result of centuries of practicing a form of social hierarchy called the caste system. Proponents of reservation policy says that the traditional caste system, as it is practised, leads to severe oppression and segregation of the lower castes and limited their access to various freedoms, including education. Caste, according to ancient scriptures such as "Manu Smriti", is "Varnasrama Dharma", which translates to "offices given according to colour". The practice of caste in India followed this rule.

** 1882 - Hunter Commission appointed. Mahatma Jyotirao Phule made a demand of free and compulsory education for all along with proportionate reservation/representation in government jobs.
** 1891-The demand for reservation of government jobs was made as early as 1891 with an agitation in the princely State of Travancore against the recruitment of non-natives into public service overlooking qualified native people.
**1901-Reservations were introduced in Maharashtra in the Princely State of Kolhapur by Shahu Maharaj. Reservations in the princely states of Baroda and Mysore were already in force.
**1908-Reservations were introduced in favour of a number of castes and communities that had little share in the administration by the British.
** 1909- Provisions were made in the Government of India Act 1909
** 1919- Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms introduced.
** 1919 - Provisions were made in the Government of India Act 1919
** 1921-Madras Presidency introduces Communal G O in which reservation of 44 per cent for non-Brahmins, 16 per cent for Brahmins, 16 per cent for Muslims, 16 per cent for Anglo-Indians/ Christians and eight per cent for Scheduled Castes.
** 1935-Indian national congress passes resolution called Poona Pact to allocate separate electoral constituencies for depressed classes.
** 1935 - Provisions in Government of India Act 1935.
** 1942-B.R.Ambedkar established the All India Depressed Classes federation to support the advancement of the scheduled castes. He also demanded reservations for the Scheduled castes in government services and education.
**1946- Cabinet Mission proposes proportionate representation with several other recommendations.
** 1947-India obtained Independence. Dr. Ambedkar was appointed chairman of the drafting committee for Indian Constitution. The Indian constitution prohibits discrimination on the grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex and place of birth [http://www.oefre.unibe.ch/law/icl/in00000_.html Constitution of India] ] . While providing equality of opportunity for all citizens, the constitution contains special clauses "for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes". Separate constituencies allocated to Scheduled Castes and Tribes to ensure their political representation for 10 years.(These were subsequently extended for every 10 years through constitutional amendments).
**1947-1950- Debates of the Constituent Assembly.
**26/01/1950-The Constitution of India came in force.
**1953-Kalelkar Commission was established to assess the situation of the socially and educationally backward class. The report was accepted as far as Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes were concerned. The recommendations for OBC's were rejected.
**1956-Schedules amended as per Kaka Kalelkar report.
**1976-Schedules amended.
** 1979-Mandal Commission was established to assess the situation of the socially and educationally backward. Bhattacharya, Amit. cite web|url=http://www.theotherindia.org/caste/who-are-the-obcs.html|title="Who are the OBCs?"|accessdate=2006-04-19 "Times of India", April 8, 2006.] The commission didn't have exact figures for a sub-caste, known as the Other Backward Class(OBC), and used the 1930cite web
last = Ramaiah
first = A
date=6 June, 1992
url = http://www.tiss.edu/downloads/ppapers/pp1.pdf
title = Identifying Other Backward Classes
format = PDF
work =
pages = 1203-1207
publisher = Economic and Political Weekly
language =
accessdate = 2006-05-27
accessyear =
curly =
] census data, further classifying 1,257 communities as backward, to estimate the OBC population at 52%.
** 1980-the commission submitted a report, and recommended changes to the existing quotas, increasing them from 22% to 49.5%.As of 2006 number of castes in Backward class list went up to 2297 which is the increase of 60% from community list prepared by Mandal commission.
** 1990-Mandal commission recommendations were implemented in Government Jobs. Student Organisations launched nationwide agitations. Rajiv Goswami Delhi university student attempted self-immolation. Many students followed suit.
** 1991-Narasimha rao Government introduced 10% separate reservation for Poor Among Forward Castes.
** 1992-Supreme court upheld reservations to Other backward classes in Indira Sawhney Case. Also see Reservations and Judiciary section
**1995-Parliament by 77th Constitutional amendment inserted Art 16(4) (A) permitting reservation in promotions to the Schedule Castes and Schedule Tribes. Later it was further amended to include consequential seniority by 85th amendment.
** 1998-Central Government conducted large nationwide survey for the first time to estimate economical and educational status of various social groups.. The National Sample Survey puts the figure at 32% [http://www.tribuneindia.com/2006/20060611/main2.htm] . There is substantial debate over the exact number of OBC's in India, with census data compromised by partisan politics. It is generally estimated to be sizable, but lower than the figures quoted by either the Mandal Commission or and national Sample Survey [http://in.news.yahoo.com/060524/43/64i2a.html] .Mandal commission has been criticised of fabricating the data. National surveys indicated that status of OBC is comparable to Forward castes in many areas. [http://www.business-standard.com/common/storypage.php?autono=264481&leftnm=4&subLeft=0&chkFlg=]
** 2005 August 12 - The Supreme Court delivered an unanimous judgement by 7 judges on August 12, 2005 in the case of P.A. Inamdar & Ors. vs. State of Maharashtra & Ors.declaring that the State can't impose its reservation policy on minority and non-minority unaided private colleges, including professional colleges.
** 2005-93rd Constitutional amendment brought for ensuring reservations to other backward classes and Scheduled castes and Tribes in Private Educational institutions. This effectively reversed the 2005 August Supreme Court judgement.
**2006-The Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court in M.Nagraj & Ors Vs. Union of India & Ors upheld the constitutional validity of Art 16(4) (A), 16(4) (B) and proviso to Art 335.
** 2006-Reservations introduced for Other backward classes in Central Government Educational Institutions. Total Reservation went up to 49.5%. Also See Recent Development.
** 2007-Supreme Court give stayed on OBC reservation in Central Government Educational Institutions.
**2008—The Supreme Court of India on April 10 2008, upheld the Government's move for initiating 27% OBC quotas in Government funded institutions. The Court has categorically reiterated its prior stand that "Creamy Layer" should be excluded from the ambit of reservation policy. The Supreme Court avoided answering the question whether reservations can be made in private institutions, stating that the question will be decided only as and when a law is made making reservations in private institutions. The verdict produced mixed reactions from supporting and opposing quarters.Several criteria to identify creamy layer has been recommended, which are as follows:cite news|url=http://www.telegraphindia.com/1080411/jsp/frontpage/story_9123781.jsp|title=New Cutoff for OBCs|Date=April 11 2008|accessdate=2008-04-11|work=The Telegraph]

Those with family income above Rs 250,000 a year should be in creamy layer, and excluded from the reservation quota. Also, children of doctors, engineers, chartered accountants, actors, consultants, media professionals, writers, bureaucrats, defence officers of colonel and equivalent rank or higher, high court and Supreme Court judges, all central and state government Class A and B officials. The court has requested Parliament to exclude MPs’ and MLAs’ children, too.

Reservations and Judiciary

Indian Judiciary has pronounced some Judgments upholding reservations and some judgments for fine tuning its implementations. Lot of judgments regarding reservations have been modified subsequently by Indian parliament through constitutional amendments. Some judgments of Indian judiciary has been flouted by state and central Governments. Given below are the major judgments given by Indian courts and its implementation status [ [http://www.savebrandindia.org/pil_article.html www.savebrandindia.org ] ] [ [http://www.indianexpress.com/story/14983.html IndianExpress.com :: Court, quota and cream ] ] :

:Union cabinet meeting rejected Parliamentary standing committee recommendations and decided to bring reservations bill by including creamy layer (Super rich) among other backward classes. Parliament passed OBC Reservations bill through voice vote. [http://www.ndtv.com/template/template.asp?template=Reservation&id=97947&callid=1]

:AIIMS doctors started indefinite hunger strike protesting against reservations law. [http://www.teluguportal.net/modules/news/article.php?storyid=25320]

;April 2008:On 10 April 2008, the Supreme Court of India upheld the law that provides for 27% reservation for Other Backward Castes (OBCs) in educational institutions supported by the Central government, while ruling that the creamy layer among the OBCs should be excluded from the quota. [ [http://ibnlive.com/news/sc-upholds-obc-quota-keeps-creamy-layer-out/63029-3.html SC upholds OBC quota, keeps creamy layer out] ] [ [http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Supreme_Court_approves_27_OBC_quota/articleshow/2940232.cms Supreme Court okays quotas in IIMs, IITs] ]

Population data

;SC/ST:Only SC/ST population details are collected in Indian census. The SC/ST population is 24.4%.cite web
url = http://www.censusindia.gov.in/census_online/population.html
title = Population
publisher = Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India
accessdate = 2006-05-27
]

;Other Backward Classes:After 1931,caste data is not collected for non SC/ST caste-groups in census. Mandal commission estimated OBC population based on 1931 census as 52%.There is an ongoing controversy about the estimation logic used by Mandal commission for calculating OBC population. Famous psephologist and researcher, Dr. Yogendra Yadav of the CSDS [who is a known votary of Affirmative Action] agrees that there is no empirical basis to the Mandal figure. According to him "It is a mythical construct based on reducing the number of SC/ST, Muslims and others and then arriving at a number."

National Sample Survey's 1999-2000 (NSS 99-00) round estimated around 36 per cent of the country's population is defined as belonging to the Other Backward Classes (OBC). The proportion falls to 32 per cent on excluding Muslim OBCs. A survey conducted in 1998 by National Family Health Statistics (NFHS) puts the proportion of non-Muslim OBCs as 29.8 per cent.cite web
date=8 May, 2006
url = http://www.southasianmedia.net/cnn.cfm?id=292238&category=Social%20Sectors&Country=INDIA
title = 36% population is OBC, not 52%
format =
work =
pages =
publisher = South Asian Free Media Association
language =
accessdate = 2006-05-27
] .These surveys are considered as large by Oversight committee in its final report and by Dr. Yogendra Yadav. Oversight committee has used these surveys extensively in its final report. [http://oversightcommittee.gov.in/theme-nc.doc] State population of backward classes in NSS 99-00 can be found in other section of this article.

;Forward Castes

:Many political and social leaders who supports reservations for the Other Backward classes like M Karunanidhi of the DMK, Dr.Udit Raj (President, Indian Justice Party) etc normally estimate "forward castes" population as anywhere between 5-15%. [http://www.hindu.com/2006/08/11/stories/2006081104761500.htm] This figure has hotly been disputed by such famous sociologists and commentators as Prof. Andre Beteille (Delhi School of Economics), Prof. Dipankar Gupta (Jawaharlal Nehru University), Prof. Satish Desphande (Delhi School of Economics), Dr Yogendra Yadav (CSDS) and Prof. Purushottam Agrawal (Jawaharlal Nehru University). National sample survey estimates "upper caste" population almost same as Backward classes at around 36%. Family health survey combined Forward castes population along with all communities of other religions. If one excludes Backward castes of other religions then it comes roughly around 38.6% which is more than Backward castes population.

Arguments

There are several arguments provided both in support and in opposition to reservation. Some of the arguments on either side are often disputed by the other, while others are agreed upon by both sides, with a possible third solution proposed to accommodate both parties.

Arguments offered by supporters of reservation

* Affirmative Action schemes are in place in many countries including USA, South Africa, Malaysia, Brazil etc. It was researched in Harvard University that Affirmative Action programmes are beneficial to the under-privileged. [ [http://www.vpcomm.umich.edu/admissions/research/ Information on U-M Admissions Lawsuits ] ] The studies said that Blacks who enter elite institutions with lower test scores and grades than those of whites achieve notable success after graduation. They earn advanced degrees at rates identical to those of their white classmates. They are even slightly more likely than whites from the same institutions to obtain professional degrees in law, business and medicine. They become more active than their white classmates in civic and community activities. [ [http://www.mat.jhu.edu/~sormani/affirm-impact.html Study of Affirmative Action at Top Schools Cites Far-Reaching Benefits ] ] .Counter Point: Affirmative Action programmes in these countries, especially in the USA, differ significantly from the caste-based reservation system in place in India. Affirmative Action in the USA recognizes that there are multiple factors of exclusion and discrimination working in society (such as race, gender, economic factors etc) while caste-based reservations focus only on caste at the cost of addressing social justice concerns more effectively for the sake of narrow political ends.

* Affirmative Action has helped many - if not everyone from under-privileged and/or under-represented communities to grow and occupy top positions in the world's leading industries. (See the Section on Tamil Nadu) Reservation in education is not THE solution, it is just one of the many solutions. Reservations is a means to increase representation of hitherto under-represented caste groups and thereby improve diversity on campus. Counter Point: Reservation only on the basis of caste tends to only perpetuate caste in society rather than eliminate it as a factor of social consideration, as envisaged by the Indian Constitution. It also weakens the notion of democratic citizenship by evaluating a person not on the basis of his/her merits or achievements or personal characteristics, but rather on the basis of accidents of birth.

* To provide social justice to the most marginalized and underprivileged is our duty and their human right. Reservation will really help these marginalized people to lead successful lives, thus eliminating caste-based discrimination which is still widely prevalent in India especially in the rural areas. (about 60% of Indian population stays in Villages)Counter Point: Villages consist not only of the so called "lower classes" but also of the "upper castes"(30% rural population comprises upper castes according to national surveys [http://mospi.nic.in/rept%20_%20pubn/ftest.asp?rept_id=469&type=NSSO] ). The economic conditions of the latter might not be much better than the former due to the fact that India's rural areas are generally not developed and lack in basic infrastructure and education and health facilities(More than 25% of Upper castes are illiterates and 65% upper castes income is below Rs 525/Month [http://mospi.nic.in/rept%20_%20pubn/ftest.asp?rept_id=469&type=NSSO] ). In light of this, it is unfair to exclude the poor amongst the "upper castes". It is also unfair to not to exclude the rich or the influential amongst the "lower castes"(Many people from backward classes & minorities appear in Forbes rich Indians list [http://www.rediff.com/money/2006/nov/17rich.htm] ).

* Reservations in Tamil Nadu over 30 years have worked to such a level that OBCs are able to outshine the Forward Castes (See Tamil Nadu Figure Below) and hence the overall performance of the students have increased validating the argument that reservation brings out the best from the weaker sections of the society.Counter Point:It is not surprising that OBC's outshining Forward castes in Tamil Nadu where Forward castes are denied educational opportunities for more than 85 years through exorbitant reservations. We should be proud if we bring equality through our policies and should be ashamed if our policies result in reverse discrimination and generates new set of depressed classes as happened in Tamil Nadu.

* Casteism is the root cause of the suffering of more than half (according to the disputed Mandal Commission) of India's population. To eliminate casteism we need to help underprivileged people to do well in their education and share the same social status as the upper caste people. Counterpoint: The basic feature of the caste system is endogamy. To actually weaken the caste system, the government should provide incentives like reservations to people who marry outside their caste, thereby weakening the hold of the caste system in Indian Society. The fact that advanced industry is located in the south does not imply that only people gradudating from that region are employed in these companies. Instead, these companies employ people from a pan-India level.

* Reservation is everywhere in India - The head of a big firm is always the son of the company's chair, irrespective of the fact that there is another meritious person. The post of Temple priest in some temples is reserved only for a man from the Brahmin Caste, even if there is another person who knows the mantras. There exists practices of having separate temples with Gods like Ayyanar, Mariammal etc, which are situated outside the village and the priests in these temples are not Brahmins. Janitor jobs are mostly done by people from the lowest caste, with very few exceptions, which are rare enough to make headlines [ [http://www.ndtv.com/morenews/showmorestory.asp?id=88554&frmsrch=1&txtsrch=Brahmins%2Csweepers NDTV.com: Politics, National News, Analysis, Commentary, Columns, Specials ] ] There is no opposition to these kind of reservations, since these are for the benefits of "upper castes". The only opposition is the reservations in education, since those would benefit people from the "lower castes" to climb the social ladder.Counterpoint: A distinction has to be drawn between the actions of a family-owned company or a religious foundation and the policies of a state founded on the principals of Secularism and Democracy. Meritocracy does not mean father has to transfer his wealth to best person ignoring his son and mother has to feed food to best child ignoring her own child. Inheritance of family owned properties is accepted practice all over the world;Denial of rights to section of population only based on birth without considering other factors was being followed in countries like South Africa in Apartheid era and being followed only in India and Malaysia currently.

Arguments offered by anti-reservationists

* Caste Based Reservation only perpetuate the notion of caste in society, rather than weakening it as a factor of social consideration, as envisaged by the constitution. Reservation is a tool to meet narrow political ends.Counter Point: We cannot close our eyes to the problem of caste. Caste is the predominant factor of exclusion even in 21st century India. The people who voice against the caste system neither do post solution to disband the caste system nor do they drop the caste identity.

* Affirmative Action can be provided at a more comprehensive level taking into account various factors of exclusion such as caste, economic conditions, gender, kind of schooling received etc. A comprehensive scheme of Affirmative Action would be more beneficial than reservations in addressing concerns of social justice. Such a system was in place in the Jawaharlal Nehru University till 1983 [called the "Deprivation Points" system] and is used by both Universities and the industry in the USA.

* Political parties & central government paint false picture of inequality between Forward Castes and Other Backward classes without referring its own survey results . National surveys results indicate that Other backward classes are comparable to Forward Castes in many parameters. http://mospi.nic.in/mospi_nsso_rept_pubn.htm] .This was pointed out by many analysts who analysed survey results. [http://www.business-standard.com/common/storypage.php?autono=264481&leftnm=4&subLeft=0&chkFlg=] and by Oversight committee in its final report. [http://oversightcommittee.gov.in/ocrep.pdf] .Backward classes outshine Forward Castes in important parameters like business ownership, rural employment, health indicators in many states etc. Other Backward Classes are comparable to Forward Castes in landholding pattern which is used by national surveys to understand the wealthiness of various social groups.

* Allocating quotas is a form of discrimination which is contrary to the right to equality.Counter Point: The government has to formulate policies to make sure that those who've been discriminated against for centuries also get an equal chance to move up the social ladder. The Supreme Court has mandated that as long as reservation does not exceed 50% of the total seats in an institution, it does not violate the constitutional right to equality.

* There is great confusion in the "pro-reservation camp". While they clamour for 33% reservation for women in parliament and state legislatures [and do not accept caste quotas as part of women's quotas] , they do not want special consideration for women in quotas in higher education. This is implicit acceptance of the fact that there are multiple factors of exclusion and discrimination at work in society.Counter Point: The nature of discrimination against women is much different to that against the lower social class. Women were not considered subhuman in the earlier Indian society but the people of the lower caste were considered untouchables which is still widespread in rural India.

* The policy of reservation has never been subject to a widespread social or political audit. Before extending reservation to more groups, the entire policy needs to be properly examined, and its benefits over a span of nearly 60 years have to be gauged. Counter Point: Even with reservations for SCs/STs for 60 years, they have not been represented in jobs and in higher education in proportion to their population. This is proof that continued reservation is required to ameliorate their condition.

Counter Counter Point : This clearly proves that reservation in no way improves the status of the lower classes and is hence not the correct policy of affirmative action to be followed.

* Providing quotas on the basis of an accident of birth and not on the basis of competitive merit will be discriminatory to talented students, and weaken the country's competitive edge. Counter Point: Merit is an abstract notion and a social construct.

* Poor people from "forward castes" do not have any social or economical advantage over rich people from backward caste. Counter Point: Reservation is a tool to improve representation. It is not a poverty alleviation programme.

* Combination of factors like Wealth, Income, Occupation etc will help to identify real needy people. Most often, only the economically sound people make use of most of the seats reserved for "backward" castes, thus making the aim a total failurecite journal
last = Srinivas
first = M.N.
year = 1997
month = August
title = The pangs of change
journal = Frontline
publisher = The Hindu
volume = 14
issue = 16
pages =
url = http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl1416/14160670.htm
format =
accessdate = 2006-05-24
] .

* Quoting reservations as a reason for growth of Tamil Nadu & other southern states is not logical. Growth can come only by increasing capacity and improving infrastructure whereas Reservation only divides existing available resources. Reservation in Tamil Nadu has existed for 85 years, but the progress rate has gone up only for the last 20 years). [http://www2.cid.harvard.edu/cidwp/088.pdf] This could be easily attributed to Mid-day meals (which increased primary school enrollment), liberalization of higher education (the number of engineering colleges has gone up from 11 to 250), and IT revolution providing new job opportunities. All these happened in the last 20-25 years synonymous with its progress history. Gujarat, Haryana, Maharastra and Punjab were able to prosper even without exorbitant reservations for decades together like Tamil Nadu. States with high percentage of reservation does not show any significant growth difference in comparison with states which does not follow high% of reservation.Counter point: The case of Tamil Nadu can be used as an example that reservation system does not halt the overall growth and well being of the state/nation.

* There is fear that reservation once introduced will never be withdrawn even if there is a proof for upliftment of Backward classes, due to political issues. For example, in Tamil Nadu, forward castes were able to secure only 3% of total seats (and 9% in Open Competition) in professional institutions at Undergraduate level as against their population percentage of 13%. [ [http://www.hindu.com/2005/07/20/stories/2005072011970100.htm The Hindu : Front Page : Reserved classes forge ahead ] ] . This is a clear case of reverse discrimination.Counter Point: With other states reluctant on implementing reservation Tamil Nadu holds the only hope as a haven for lower caste. It would be justified to subdue Tamil Nadu if rest of India opts for a fair reservation.

* Many cite the Mandal Commission report while supporting the idea of reservations. According to the Mandal commission, 52% of the Indians belong to OBC category, whle according to National Sample Survey 1999-2000, this figure is only 36% (32% excluding Muslim OBCs) [ [http://in.rediff.com/money/2006/may/08quota.htm Quota: Just how many OBCs are there? ] ] .Counter Point: That still keeps the overall percentage of OBC and SC/ST above 50% of the population.

* This policy of the government has already caused increase in brain drain [http://www.ibnlive.com/news/iim-graduates-hit-jackpot-abroad/26292-7.html] and may aggravate further. Under graduates and graduates will start moving to foreign universities for higher education.Counter Point: Upper caste Indians were well known for the immigration pattern even before the dusk of the British Raj. Celebration of golden jubilee of IIT was celebrated in San Jose, California not because the they couldn't make it to the [IIT] but only after there graduation. In contrast Tamil diaspora to nations like Malaysia and Singapore at the end of the Slave trade was made possible due to the suppression of this population as lower caste and their look for greener pastures.

* India is a country with BC Population ranging from 1% in some North Eastern states to 66% in Tamil Nadu with many major states below 27%. Applying 27% reservation in central educational institutions all over India will deprive chances of other sections of population greatly. Already SC/ST reservation is available in all states equivalent to their population percentage. In Many Major states like Punjab, West Bengal, Haryana, Maharastra etc Forward castes students admitted will be much less than their population in Reservation Era even if they secure 100% seats in Open competition. Reference chart given.Possible solution: As claimed by some states (incidentally Tamil Nadu, which is the center of the argument of in the reservation issue, being the first to state its claim) a Federal Republic system of government may be more suited for a varied and diverse nation like India.

Other notable suggestions

The following policy changes have been suggested in order to find a solution to the problem:

Suggestions by Sachar Committee
*Sachar Committee which has studied the backwardness of Indian Muslims have recommended following scheme for identifying real backward and needy people. [http://www.milligazette.com/dailyupdate/2006/200612013_download_Sachar_Committee_Report_Indian_Muslims_status.htm]

:Marks based on Merit : 60

:Marks based on Household Income (Irrespective of caste) : 13

:Marks based on District in which person studied(Rural/Urban & Region : 13

:Marks based on Family occupation and caste : 14

:Total Marks : 100

Sachar committee has also indicated that OBC Hindus presence in educational institutions is almost equal to/close to their population. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/


] . Indian Human Resources Minister has immediately appointed committee to study about sachar committee recommendations on Indian Muslims but did not offer any comments regarding his other suggestions.

Suggestion by Centre for the Study of Developing Societies

* It has been suggested that although caste is an important factor of exclusion at work in Indian society; other factors such as gender, economic conditions, geographical disparities and kind of schooling received cannot be altogether ignored. For example, a kid studying in a village or municipal school does not enjoy the same status in society as another who has studied in an elite public school, caste notwithstanding. Some academics have argued that a better system of Affirmative Action would be one which seeks to address all the factors of exclusion at work in society which restrict a person's competitive abilities. Notable contributions in this regard have been made by Professor Purushottam Agrawal of the Jawaharlal Nehru University in the form of the Multiple Index Related Affirmative Action [MIRAA] system (see here: http://www.sabrang.com/cc/archive/2006/june06/report3.html) and by Dr. Yogendra Yadav and Dr. Satish Deshpande of the Centre for the Study Developing Societies [CSDS] .

Suggestions from others

* Reservation decisions has to be taken based on objective basis
* Emphasis should be given to proper primary (and secondary) education so that groups under-represented in higher education institutes and workplaces become natural competitors.
* The number of seats should be increased in the prestigious higher education institutes (such as IITs).
* Government should announce long term plan to phase out reservations.
* Government should promote inter-caste marriages [ [http://www.tn.gov.in/dePTsT/Tab27_05.htm Statistical Hand Book - Social Welfare ] ] in big way [ [http://www.hindu.com/2006/07/18/stories/2006071804540300.htm The Hindu : Tamil Nadu / Tirunelveli News : Assistance distributed ] ] for abolition of caste system as initiated by Tamil Nadu. [ [http://www.hindu.com/2006/01/10/stories/2006011004840300.htm The Hindu : Tamil Nadu / Tuticorin News : Welfare assistance distributed ] ] This is because the basic defining characteristic of the Caste system is endogamy. It has been suggested that providing reservations to children born of inter-caste marriages will be a surer way of weakening the caste system in society.
* Reservations should be based on economic status instead of caste-based-reservations (But the middle class who get salaries will suffer and all the landlords and business tycoons can enjoy the benefit)
* People who are tax payers or children of tax payers should not be eligible for reservation. This is will ensure that benefits reach poorest of the poor and India will achieve social justice. The people opposed to this idea say that this will encourage people not to pay taxes and will be an injustice to those who pay taxes honestly.
* Using IT the government must gather latest data on caste wise population, education attainment, occupational achievements, wealth etc. and present this information to the nation. Finally conduct a plebiscite on this issue to see what the people want. If there are significant differences what people want (as we can see in this wiki) then the government can have different castes take care of its own community by running their own educational institutions and providing employment opportunities without any government interference.

See also

* Dhangar Scheduled tribe issue
* Nationalization
* Socialism
* Caste politics in India

References

External links

* [http://www.iwebie.com/reservations-in-india Reservations in India]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/7371752.stm Critics slam India's education quotas] - BBC Article on Reverse Discrimination in the Indian Reservation System
* [http://www.antireservation.com: Anti Reservation official website, AntiReservation.Com]
* [http://radicalnotes.com/content/view/61/39 Radical Notes - Common School System and the Future of India. Anil Sadgopal. (28 Feb 2008)] (On Right to Education)
* [http://www.india-server.com/news/supreme-court-upholds-obc-quota-in-135.html Supreme Court Upholds 27% OBC Quota]
* [http://radicalnotes.com/content/view/41/39/ Radical Notes - Beyond the Judiciary - Reservation as Reparation. Saswat Pattanayak (19 April 2007)]
* [http://www.obcreservation.com/ver1/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=14&Itemid=74 Reservations: Towards a larger perspective]
* [http://www.funonthenet.in/content/view/277/31/ Anti Reservation Protest]
* [http://www.obcreservation.com/ver1/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=31&Itemid=86 Computing Backward Index]
* [http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1499633.cms Reservation as viewed by Indian industry]
* [http://www.frontlineonnet.com/fl2308/stories/20060505006400800.htm Southern record - Frontline]
* [http://www.aippg.net/forum/viewtopic.php?t=33195 Reservation policy forum article]
* [http://www.frontlineonnet.com/fl2308/stories/20060505004600400.htm Examining reservation]
* [http://www.deccanherald.com/deccanherald/apr222006/update141432006422.asp Reservation must for a healthy society]
* [http://www.sabrang.com/cc/archive/2006/june06/report3.html Multiple Index Related Affirmative Action (An Alternative Proposal)]
* [http://www.dailypioneer.com/columnist1.asp?main_variable=Columnist&file_name=prasad%2Fprasad157.txt&writer=prasad Reservation as viewed by a backward class proponent]
* [http://www.countercurrents.org/dalit-ravat180406.htm Questioning Reservation]
* [http://www.rediff.com/news/2006/jun/09guest.htm Reservations as viewed by one OBC faculty member]
* [http://www.rediff.com/news/2006/jul/25guest.htm An Alternative Suggestion]
* [http://in.rediff.com/news/2006/may/16inter2.htm Reservations have worked in Southern States]
* [http://www.business-standard.com/common/storypage_c.php?leftnm=10&autono=294131 UP introduces voluntary reservation in private sector]


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