List of enclaves and exclaves


List of enclaves and exclaves

In political geography, an enclave is a piece of land which is totally surrounded by a foreign territory, and an exclave is one which is politically attached to a larger piece but not actually contiguous with it. Many entities are both enclaves and exclaves, but there are examples of areas being one but not the other.

See Enclave and exclave for a more detailed definition of enclave, exclave, "Practical" enclave, "Practical" exclave, and Inaccessible districts.

Enclaves which are also exclaves

* ArgentinaIsla Martín García (coord|34|11|S|58|16|W) is surrounded by Uruguayan territorial waters in the Río de la Plata. In addition, the Argentine islands of Apipé (coord|27|30|S|56|54|W) and Entre Ríos are surrounded by Paraguayan territorial waters in the Paraná river, as are some small islets.
* Armenia/Azerbaijan — In Armenia, there exist three Azerbaijani exclaves. Barxudarli (coord|41|00|N|45|13|E) and Yuxari Askipara (coord|41|04|N|45|01|E) are in north-eastern Armenia. The other one, Karki (coord|39|48|N|44|58|E), is located north of the region of Nakhchivan (which is a detached fragment of Azerbaijan stuck between Armenia, Iran and Turkey). Reciprocally, there exists one Armenian exclave, a village called Artsvashen in north-western Azerbaijan (coord|40|38|N|45|31|E).
* Bangladesh/India — On the India-Bangladesh border in the Indian district of Cooch-Behar, there are 92 Bangladeshi exclaves, with a total area of 47.7 km². Similarly, there are 106 Indian exclaves inside Bangladesh, with a total area of 69.5 km². Twenty-one of the Bangladeshi exclaves are within Indian exclaves, and three of the Indian exclaves are within Bangladeshi exclaves. The largest Indian exclave, Balapara Khagrabari, surrounds a Bangladeshi exclave, Upanchowki Bhajni, which itself surrounds an Indian exclave called Dahala Khagrabari, of less than one hectare. See link to external map [http://geosite.jankrogh.com/enklaver/CoochBehar_Annotated.jpghere] .
* Belgium/Netherlands — The town of Baarle (coord|51|26|N|4|56|E) in the southern Netherlands is made up of the municipality of Baarle-Hertog, a group of 22 Belgian enclaves within the Netherlands; and of the Dutch municipality of Baarle-Nassau, which itself has one enclave in the main body of Belgium and 7 counter-enclaves inside two of the Belgian enclaves.
*Bosnia and Herzegovina — The town of Sastavci (part of Rudo municipality, Foča Region) is completely surrounded by the Serbian municipality of Priboj, in Zlatibor District.
* Croatia - The county of Dubrovnik-Neretva is separated from the rest of Croatia by the Neum municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and so is technically an enclave; however, it's connected with the mainland via Croatian territorial waters.
* Cyprus — The villages of Ormidhia and Xylotymvou (coord|34|59|N|33|47|E) are surrounded by the British Sovereign Base Area of Dhekelia. Inside this base, the Dhekalia Power Station also belongs to Cyprus, even though the station is surrounded by British land and is also divided in two by a road which is under British sovereignty.
* GermanyBüsingen, Germany (coord|47|42|N|8|42|E) is an exclave in the canton of Schaffhausen, northern Switzerland. Germany also has a group of 5 enclaves created by a railway track between the towns of Roetgen and Monschau (south of Aachen) that was granted Belgian sovereignty.
* IsraelMount Scopus was a true enclave of Israeli territory within East Jerusalem between 1949 and 1967. While Israel has controlled the whole of Jerusalem since 1967, the exact status of East Jerusalem is disputed so Mount Scopus may still be considered an enclave.
* Italy — The town of Campione (coord|45|58|N|8|58|E) is enclaved in the canton of Ticino, Switzerland, although in practice it is administered as part of Switzerland. It is part of Swiss customs, uses the Swiss franc, its inhabitants have to pay income tax to Italy, though in a reduced measure, and it is under Italian sovereignty.
* Kyrgyzstan/Tajikistan/Uzbekistan — The Fergana Valley, a region where the three countries meet, has a large number of enclaves. Barak, a small Kyrgyz village, is surrounded by Uzbekistan. Reciprocally, the Uzbek towns of Sokh (coord|39|58|N|71|08|E) and Shakhimardan as well as the two tiny territories of Qalacha and Khalmion (north of Sokh) are all surrounded by Kyrgyz territory. Also, the Tajik village of Sarvan is in Uzbek territory and the Tajik village of Vorukh (coord|39|52|N|70|39|E) along with another small piece of land near Kairagach are embodied in Kyrgyz land.
* MalawiChizumulu Island and Likoma Island (coord|12|02|S|34|40|E) are located within Mozambican territorial waters in Lake Malawi.
* Oman/United Arab EmiratesMadha (coord|25|19|N|56|14|E) is an Omani territory enclaved in the UAE, which in turn hosts the tiny territory of Nahwa, a UAE enclave within Madha.
* Russia — In the eastern part of Belarus, the Russian exclave of Sankovo-Medvezhye (coord|52|29|N|31|33|E) is made up of two villages.
* Spain — The town of Llívia (coord|42|28|N|1|59|E), an exclave in southern France near Font-Romeu, east of Andorra and close to Puigcerda.
* Uruguay — The Filomena Islands, which are surrounded by Argentinian territorial waters in the Uruguay River.

ubnational enclaves which are also exclaves

* In Australia, the Australian Capital Territory is an enclave of New South Wales. The ACT also administers the separate coastal enclave of Jervis Bay on the New South Wales south coast. The Australian constitution (written before the founding of the ACT) specified that the site for the national capital should be wholly within New South Wales.
* In Azerbaijan, the Raion of Abşeron has an exclave within Baku.
* In Ethiopia, the Benishangul-Gumuz Region has two exclaves in the Oromia Region.
* In France:
** Hautes-Pyrénées — This "département" has two exclaves in Pyrénées-Atlantiques.
** Meurthe-et-Moselle — This "département" has one exclave inside Meuse.
** Nord — This "département" has one exclave in Pas-de-Calais.
** Vaucluse — This "département" has a rather large exclave within the Drôme "département". The Enclave des Papes [http://provence-hideaway.com/203.html] was part of the possessions of the Pope in France near Avignon; it was attached to Vaucluse when annexed after the "départements" were created (see Comtat Venaissin). The Enclave des Papes contains 4 towns: Valréas, Visan, Grillon and Richerenches.
* In Germany, the city of Bremerhaven is an exclave of Bremen federal state, which is altogether an enclave in Lower Saxony.
* In India, the union territory of Puducherry (ex-Pondicherry) comprises four districts: (Puducherry and Karaikal in the state of Tamil Nadu), Yanam in the state of Andra Pradesh, and Mahé in the state of Kerala. The four districts of Pondicherry were French colonies until 1954. Until 1952, France maintained a fifth colony in India, Chandannagar, which also reported to the Governor of Pondicherry, and which was an enclave in Bengal, just upriver from Calcutta.
* In Italy, part of the Città di Castello comune, in the region Umbria is completely surrounded by region Marche.
* In Liechtenstein, many "Gemeinden" (municipalities) are fragmented (see map, right). There are three exclaves which are also enclaves: Planken and Vaduz each have one in Schaan, and Schaan has one in Planken.
* In Norway, the municipality of Malvik, Sør-Trøndelag has two small exclaves (the Jøsås farms) in the neighbouring municipality of Stjørdal, Nord-Trøndelag. As the municipalities are also in different counties, this also implies that small parts of Sør-Trøndelag are enclaves in Nord-Trøndelag. The municipality of Sandefjord has one exclave, Himberg, inside the neighbouring municipality of Larvik.
* In Panama:
** The comarca of Emberá has a rather large exclave that is enclaved by Darién Province.
** The comarca of Ngöbe-Buglé has at least four exclaves, of which two are enclaved in Chiriquí Province and two are enclaved in Veraguas Province. Chiriquí also has at least one exclave which is not an enclave.
* In Spain:
** In Andalusia, Villar is an exclave of Córdoba province surrounded by Seville province.
** CantabriaVillaverde de Trucios is a small exclave within the Basque province of Biscay.
** Castile-La Mancha — The province of Guadalajara has a tiny enclave La Canaleja in the Autonomous Community of Madrid.
** Castile and León — The province of Burgos has four exclaves: The Condado de Treviño is an enclave of the Basque province of Álava. Sajuela and Ternero are enclaves of the Autonomous Community of Rioja. La Rebolleda is an enclave of the province of Palencia. Palencia also has four exclaves which are enclaves: Cezura and Lastrilla are within Cantabria. Villodrigo and Aguanares are in the province of Burgos. Also, the province of Valladolid administers San Llorente, which is within the province of León.
** In Catalonia, the province of Girona administers Solelles de les Rovires, which is surrounded by the province of Barcelona.
** Navarre — Within the Aragonese province of Zaragoza are two enclaves, Petilla de Aragón and Baztanes.
* In South Africa, the Eastern Cape Province has an exclave which is an enclave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, containing the town of Umzimkulu.
* In Sweden many municipalities have exclaves (most notably the municipalities of Dalarna County). At least eleven of the exclaves are also exclaves of the first subnational, county, level:
** Halland County has three very tiny exclaves in Jönköping County.
** Jönköping County has one exclave in Halland County.
** Jönköping County has two exclaves in Västra Götaland County.
** Västra Götaland county has one second degree exclave inside one of the two Jönköping County exclaves.
** Uppsala County has one exclave in Västmanland County.
** Jämtland County has two exclaves in Gävleborg County.
** Västerbotten County has one exclave in Norrbotten County.
* In Switzerland:
** Aargau — Kloster Fahr is a tiny exclave of Baden district, surrounded by the canton of Zürich.
** Appenzell Innerrhoden — This canton has three exclaves, one of which, Grimmenstein, is enclaved by Appenzell Ausserrhoden.
** Berne — Münchenwiler, part of Laupen district, is entirely surrounded by the canton of Fribourg.
** FribourgBroye district has three exclaves separated by Vaud, of which two (Surpierre and Vuissens) are enclaves, and the other is bounded by Vaud and Lake Neuchâtel. Another enclave from See district – Wallenbuch – lies within the canton of Berne.
** Geneva — This canton has two small exclaves within Vaud, together forming the commune of Céligny. The larger has a shoreline on Lake Geneva.
** Solothurn — Steinhof is an exclave of this canton, enclaved by the canton of Berne.
* In Ukraine, the city of Slavutych is located geographically in the Chernihiv Oblast district, but is a political part of Kiev Oblast, thus forming an exclave.
* In the United States of America:
** In Alaska, the community of Klukwan is surrounded by Haines Borough, even though the community is part of the Hoonah-Angoon Census Area, which is in turn part of the Unorganized Borough.
** In Colorado, Arapahoe County has two exclaves within the City and County of Denver, one of which is the city of Glendale.
** District of ColumbiaReagan National Airport was built on reclaimed land in the Potomac River. The District's boundary with Virginia runs to the high-water mark on the south side of the river. Therefore, until 1945, the site was considered to be an exclave of the District. Since then, the airport is officially deemed to be part of Arlington County, Virginia but it is under exclusive federal jurisdiction and is administered as if still part of the District.
** Michigan - The community of Dakota Heights, a part of Portage Township is an enclave in Houghton
** New York — The historic extent of Ellis Island belongs to Manhattan (New York County), but the surrounding portion created by infill belongs to Hudson County, New Jersey [http://www.saveellisisland.org/site/PageServer?pagename=StructuralDevelopment] . Liberty Island (site of the Statue of Liberty) also lies on the New Jersey side of the Hudson River.
** The lands within numerous Indian reservations have been fragmented, with privately owned real estate intermixed with tribal, city, county, state, and federal authorities in a bewildering array of jurisdictional geographies.

Enclaves which are not exclaves

"See also List of countries that border only one other country."

Some enclaves are sovereign states, completely surrounded by another one, and therefore not exclaves. Three such sovereign countries exist:
* The Kingdom of Lesotho, embedded inside South Africa
* The republic of San Marino, enclaved within Italy
* Vatican City, within the city of Rome, in Italy

Also, the disputed Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh is an enclave in Azerbaijan. The region is under the military control of local Armenians, with tacit backing from the government of Armenia. Nagorno-Karabakh has declared itself independent, but no other government (including Armenia) has recognised this status.

ubnational enclaves which are not exclaves

* In Australia:
** In New South Wales, the City of Broken Hill is surrounded by the Unincorporated Far West Region.
** In South Australia:
*** The District Council of Coober Pedy is surrounded by the Outback Areas Community Development Trust.
*** The City of Mount Gambier is surrounded by the District Council of Grant.
*** The Municipal Council of Roxby Downs is surrounded by the Outback Areas Community Development Trust.
** In Western Australia, the Town of Narrogin is surrounded by the Shire of Narrogin.
* In Austria, Vienna is an enclave in Lower Austria. Interestingly, Vienna was also Lower Austria's capital until 1986.
* In Azerbaijan, Several cities are administratively separate from the rayons and form enclaves. These include Mingachevir, Naftalan, Shaki, Khankendi/Stepanakert (in Nagorno-Karabakh), Yevlakh, and Nakhichevan.
* In Belarus, Minsk city is an enclave in Minsk Province.
* In Belgium, the Brussels-Capital Region is an enclave within the Flemish Region, and within the province of Flemish Brabant.
* In Brazil:
**In Goiás: Portelândia is surrounded by Mineiros.
**In Mato Grosso do Sul: Ladário is surrounded by Corumbá.
**In Rio Grande do Sul: Arroio do Padre is surrounded by Pelotas.
**In São Paulo: Águas de São Pedro is surrounded by São Pedro.
* In Cambodia, Phnom Penh Municipality is surrounded by Kandal Province.
* In Canada: In Quebec, the city of Westmount, the town of Mount Royal, and, collectively, the municipalities of Hampstead, Côte Saint-Luc and Montreal West (Montréal-Ouest) are all enclaves in the city of Montreal.
* In Colombia: In the Capital District, La Candelaria municipality is an enclave of SantaFé.
* In the Czech Republic, Prague is not part of the Central Bohemian Region, although it is the region's capital.
* In Denmark, Frederiksberg is an enclave of Copenhagen.
* In Ethiopia, Addis Ababa city and Harari Region are two of the four enclaves in Oromia Region.
* In Finland: In Uusimaa region, the town of Kauniainen is enclosed by the city of Espoo. The two are located west of Helsinki, in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area.
* In France: In Côtes-d'Armor département, the commune of Plessix-Balisson is surrounded by the commune of Ploubalay.
* In Germany:
** Berlin is an enclave in Brandenburg.
** Bremen is an enclave in Lower Saxony. Bremen in its turn has an exclave with access to the sea called Bremerhaven, 60 km to the north.
* In Hungary: the city of Budapest is an enclave within Pest County, of which it is the capital (although it does not form part of it).
* In India: the city of Dadra, an exclave of the Union Territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, is a true enclave of the state of Gujarat.
* In Kazakhstan, the cities of Almaty, Astana, and Baikonur are administratively separate from the provinces in which they are enclaved.
* In Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek is an independent city within Chuy Province, although it is the province's capital.
* In Latvia, the cities of Daugavpils, Jelgava, Rēzekne, and Riga are surrounded by and independent from the districts with the same names.
* In Lithuania, a few city municipalities are enclaved in the district municipalities of the same names, including Šiauliai, Panevėžys, and Alytus.
* In Malaysia, the Federal Territories of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya are enclaves of the sultanate of Selangor.
* In Mali, the Bamako Capital District is enclaved in Koulikoro Region.
* In Mexico, in the state of Nuevo León, the municipality of Hualahuises is surrounded by the municipality of Linares.
* In Mongolia, the municipality of Ulaanbaatar is surrounded by but independent from Töv Province.
* In New Zealand, the Kawerau District territorial authority is completely surrounded by the Whakatane District.
* In Niger, the capital district of Niamey is surrounded by the department of Tillabéri.
* In the Republic of China:
** Taipei City is an enclave of Taiwan Province and Taipei County.
** Taichung and Chiayi cities are an enclaves of Taichung County and Chiayi County, respectively.
* In Romania, Bucureşti-Ilfov development region is enclaved by the Sud (South) development region. The municipality of Bucharest is also an enclave of Ilfov County.
* In Russia:
** Adygea republic is an enclave in Krasnodar Krai.
** Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug is an enclave within Chita Oblast.
** Moscow is an enclave in Moscow Oblast, although it is the administrative centre of Moscow Oblast. Also, some small exclaves of Moscow in Moscow Oblast exist. Also, St. Petersburg is the administrative centre of Leningrad Oblast, being an enclave in it, although this enclave is not true as it has access to Baltic Sea.
** Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug is an enclave within Irkutsk Oblast, but the two subjects are scheduled to merge on 1 Jan 2008.
* In South Korea, Gwangju city is surrounded by Jeollanam-do province.
* In Switzerland, the two half-cantons of Appenzell are enclaved by the Canton of St. Gallen. Appenzell Innerrhoden is mostly surrounded by Appenzell Ausserrhoden, and both are completely surrounded by St Gall.
* In Syria, the governorate of Damascus is surrounded by the governorate of Rif Dimashq.
* In Tajikistan, the Dushanbe RRS is enclaved by Karotegin province.
* In Trinidad and Tobago, the Borough of Arima is surrounded by the Tunapuna-Piarco Regional Corporation.
* In Ukraine, the city of Kiev is independent of surrounding Kiev Oblast, although it is the oblast's administrative center.
* In the United Kingdom:
** The English unitary authorities of Nottingham, Derby, Stoke-on-Trent, and Leicester are enclaves in the counties of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, Staffordshire, and Leicestershire, respectively.
** In Cambridgeshire: the City of Cambridge is a local government district completely surrounded by the district of South Cambridgeshire.
** The City of London is an enclave within the ceremonial county of Greater London. It forms its own ceremonial county. Also, the rest of Greater London consists of London boroughs, whilst the City is not a London borough.
* In the United States of America:
** In Alaska, Ketchikan Gateway Borough is surrounded in all directions by the Prince of Wales-Outer Ketchikan Census Area of the Unorganized Borough.
** In Arizona:
*** The Hopi Reservation is surrounded by the Navajo Reservation.
*** The city of South Tucson is an enclave in the city of Tucson.
** In Arkansas, the City of Cammack Village is an enclave of Little Rock.
** In California:
*** In 1956, Newark defected from the proposed incorporation of the communities of Washington Township as the city of Fremont. It is now an incorporated city surrounded by Fremont.
*** Piedmont incorporated in 1907 to avoid annexation by Oakland, and is now surrounded by Oakland.
*** The city of San Fernando is an enclave in the city of Los Angeles. Beverly Hills and West Hollywood together form another. Santa Monica borders the Pacific Ocean on one side but it is otherwise completely surrounded by the City of Los Angeles
*** The city of Signal Hill is entirely surrounded by the city of Long Beach.
*** The city of Villa Park is an enclave of city of Orange.
** In Florida, the town of Baldwin is an enclave within the city of Jacksonville. The Village of Lazy Lake, Florida is contained entirely within the borders of the city of Wilton Manors.
** In Georgia (U.S. state), Payne City is an enclave within the city of Macon, similarly Remerton is an encalve of Valdosta.
** In Indiana, after the creation of Unigov (the merged government of Indianapolis and Marion County) in 1970, four communities that did not fully merge with Indianapolis – Beech Grove, Lawrence, Southport, and Speedway – became enclaves of Indianapolis.
** In Kansas, the city of Eastborough is entirely surrounded by Wichita
** In Kentucky, when the governments of Louisville and Jefferson County merged in 2003, a bewildering array of enclaves was created, as all other incorporated cities in Jefferson County retained their status as separate cities.cite web|url=http://www.lojic.org/apps/products/cart/download.cfm?productfile=neighmb4x3.pdf |title=Urban Neighborhoods, Municipalities & Census-Designated Places: Jefferson County, Kentucky |publisher=Louisville/Jefferson County Information Consortium |date=2007-06-24 |format=PDF |accessdate=2007-06-28 Note that this map clearly marks the pre-merger boundaries of Louisville.]
***The following enclaves existed in pre-merger Louisville:
****Audubon Park
****Glenview Hills
****Hills and Dales
****The combination of Kingsley, Seneca Gardens, Strathmoor Manor, and Strathmoor Village
****Meadowview Estates
****Parkway Village
****Wellington
***Three other cities were, and still are, enclaved in cities other than Louisville:
****Norbourne Estates is an enclave of St. Matthews.
****Richlawn is a separate enclave of St. Matthews.
****Woodland Hills is an enclave of Middletown.
***The merger created many other enclaves within the portion of Louisville Metro that includes pre-merger Louisville but excludes all other pre-existing cities, an entity defined by the United States Census Bureau as the "Louisville-Jefferson County balance":
****Creekside
****Fincastle
****Hickory Hill
****Hollow Creek
****Hollyvilla
****Lynnview
****Shively
****Spring Mill
****Thornhill
****The combination of Cambridge, Houston Acres, Lincolnshire, and St. Regis Park
****The combination of Minor Lane Heights and South Park View
****The combination of Poplar Hills, Watterson Park, and West Buechel
****The aforementioned cities of Middletown, Norbourne Estates, Richlawn, and St. Matthews are part of a large enclave within the "balance", which also includes Anchorage, Bancroft, Barbourmeade, Beechwood Village, Bellemeade, Bellewood, Blue Ridge Manor, Broeck Pointe, Brownsboro Farm, Brownsboro Village, Crossgate, Douglass Hills, Druid Hills, Forest Hills, Glenview, Glenview Manor, Goose Creek, Graymoor-Devondale, Hurstbourne, Hurstbourne Acres, Indian Hills, Jeffersontown, Langdon Place, Lyndon, Manor Creek, Maryhill Estates, Meadow Vale, Meadowbrook Farm, Mockingbird Valley, Moorland, Murray Hill, Northfield, Norwood, Old Brownsboro Place, Plantation, Riverwood, Rolling Fields, Rolling Hills, Spring Valley, Sycamore, Ten Broeck, Westwood, Wildwood, Windy Hills, and Woodlawn Park. The boundary of this enclave is irregular enough that several portions of the "balance" are themselves enclaves of this area. Note also that the entire Ohio River between the northern and southern low-water marks is part of the "balance", not this enclave.
** In Michigan:
*** The city of Center Line is completely surrounded by Warren.
*** Highland Park and Hamtramck border each other, but the two together are completely surrounded by Detroit.
***The city of Lathrup Village is completely surrounded by Southfield.
** In Missouri, the cities of Gladstone and North Kansas City are separately surrounded by Kansas City.
** In Montana, when the governments of Butte and Silver Bow County merged in 1977, the town of Walkerville voted not to join the consolidated government, thus becoming an enclave.
** In New Jersey:
*** The Borough of Englishtown in Monmouth County is completely surrounded by the Township of Manalapan.
*** The Township of Medford Lakes is completely surrounded by Medford.
*** The Borough of Princeton, home of Princeton University, is completely surrounded by Princeton Township.
*** The Borough of Lakehurst in Ocean County is completely surrounded by Manchester Township.
*** The Borough of Metuchen in Middlesex County is completely surrounded by Edison Township.
*** The Borough of Jamesburg in Middlesex County is completely surrounded by Monroe Township.
** In North Dakota, the city of Prairie Rose is an enclave of Fargo.
** In Ohio:
*** In Montgomery County, there are several cities with enclaves and exclaves. Dayton has one exclave, while surrounding several encalves that belong to the cities of Trotwood and Riverside. Riverside also has several exclaves that border more than one city as well as additional parcels that are connected to the city only by a roadway. Clayton contains several enclaves surrounded by Englewood and one that is completely surrounded by Union. Other than Dayton's exclave, the international airport, these enclaves and exclaves were formed by municipalty-township mergers in the 1990s.
*** The cities of Minerva Park, Bexley, Whitehall, and Valleyview are all enclaves of Columbus. The cities of Worthington and Riverlea together form another enclave of Columbus.
*** The city of Norwood is an enclave of Cincinnati. The cities of Elmwood Place, to the north, and St. Bernard, to the south, together form another enclave of Cincinnati.
** In Oregon, the city of Maywood Park is surrounded by Portland, which annexed the surrounding lands after Maywood Park incorporated.
** In Pennsylvania, every county in the state other than the counties of Fulton, Philadelphia, Pike and Union contains at least one municipality in another municipality. Allegheny County, among others, contain numerous enclaved municipalities.
** In Tennessee, the cities of Red Bank and Ridgeside are enclaves in the city of Chattanooga.
** In Texas:
*** The cities of Alamo Heights, Balcones Heights, Castle Hills, Hill Country Village, Hollywood Park, Kirby, Leon Valley, Olmos Park, Shavano Park, and Terrell Hills are all enclaves of San Antonio. [http://maps.sanantonio.gov/website/COSAMaps/viewer.asp?res=1024&ver=true.]
*** The cities of Bellaire, West University Place, and Southside Place together form an enclave of Houston. The cities of Bunker Hill Village, Hedwig Village, Hilshire Village, Hunters Creek Village, Piney Point Village, and Spring Valley Village together form another enclave of Houston.
*** The cities of Highland Park and University Park, collectively known locally as the "Park Cities", together form an enclave of Dallas. In addition, the city of Cockrell Hill is also an enclave of Dallas.
***The city of Beverly Hills is an enclave of Waco.
***The cities of Dalworthington Gardens and Pantego together form an enclave of Arlington.
** In Virginia, several county seats are enclaved in the counties that they serve, but are not part of the counties, plus some other cities are enclaved within counties. This situation exists because under Virginia law, all municipalities that are incorporated as "cities" are legally independent of any county. The Virginia cities enclaved within counties are:
***Bedford, enclaved within and the county seat of Bedford County
***Buena Vista, enclaved within Rockbridge County
***Charlottesville, enclaved within and the county seat of Albemarle County
***Covington, enclaved within and the county seat of Alleghany County
***Emporia, enclaved within and the county seat of Greensville County
***Fairfax, enclaved within and the county seat of Fairfax County
***Harrisonburg, enclaved within and the county seat of Rockingham County
***Lexington, enclaved within and the county seat of Rockbridge County
***Martinsville, enclaved within and the county seat of Henry County
***Norton, enclaved within Wise County
***Roanoke and Salem together form an enclave within Roanoke County. The Roanoke County Courthouse is located in Salem, but the rest of the county government is located in the unincorporated community of Cave Spring.
***Staunton, enclaved within and the county seat of Augusta County
***Waynesboro, enclaved within Augusta County
***Winchester, enclaved within and the county seat of Frederick County
** In Wisconsin, the village of Thiensville is an enclave of the city of Mequon in Ozaukee County.
* In Uzbekistan, Tashkent is separate from surrounding Toshkent Province, although it serves as its capital.
* In Yemen, Sana'a municipality is surrounded by Sana'a Governorate.
* In Zimbabwe, Harare is an enclave in the province of Mashonaland East.

Exclaves which are not enclaves

* Angola: Cabinda is bounded by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of the Congo, and the Atlantic Ocean.
* Azerbaijan: Nakhichevan is bounded by Armenia, Iran, and Turkey.
* Cyprus ("de facto"): Two portions of land in the island's Southeast, in addition to the enclaves mentioned above, are cut off from the rest of the Greek Cypriot territory by the British Sovereign Base Area of Dhekelia. They are bounded by the base and the Mediterranean Sea, and the larger one also is bounded by a United Nations Buffer Zone. The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus also has an exclave in the island's Northwest, Kokkina/Erenköy, which is bounded by the buffer zone and the Mediterranean.
* East Timor: Oecussi-Ambeno is bounded by Indonesia and the Savu Sea.
* France: French Guiana (an Overseas Department), in South America, is bounded by Suriname, Brazil, and the Atlantic Ocean.
* Oman: Musandam is bounded by the United Arab Emirates and the Strait of Hormuz.
* Russia: Kaliningrad Oblast is bounded by Lithuania, Poland, and the Baltic Sea.
* Spain: Ceuta, Melilla, Peñón de Alhucemas, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, and the Islas Chafarinas (the "Plazas de soberanía") are bounded by Morocco and the Mediterranean Sea.
* United States: Alaska is bounded by Canada, the Arctic Ocean, the Bering Sea, and the Pacific Ocean. Point Roberts, Washington is bounded by Canada and the Strait of Georgia. The Northwest Angle, the northernmost part of Lake of the Woods County, Minnesota is bounded by Canada and the Lake of the Woods. Elm Point, Minnesota is bounded by Canada and the Lake of the Woods. Alburgh, Vermont is bounded by Canada and Lake Champlain.

ubnational exclaves which are not enclaves

* In Austria, the transfer of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol to Italy after World War I left the county of Tyrol in two parts.
* In Belgium, the Flemish Region has an exclave, the municipality of Voeren (Fourons), whereas Wallonia also has an exclave, the municipality of Comines-Warneton (Komen-Waasten). The territory of the German-speaking Community of Belgium is also composed of two parts separated by a part of the French Community. Apart from Baarle-Hertog, there are two municipalities consisting out of non-contiguous parts: Ixelles - Elsene in the Brussels Capital Region and Mesen in West-Flanders.
* In Bosnia and Herzegovina, Posavina Canton is part of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina situated between Republika Srpska and Croatia. In this canton, Orašje is adjacent to Brčko District, which belongs to both entities, but Odžak is a true exclave.
* In Brazil:
**In Goiás: Sítio d'Abadia was cut in two as a result of the expansion of Alvorada do Norte.
**In Mato Grosso: Barra do Bugres was cut in two as a result of the expansion of Salto do Céu and Reserva do Cabaçal.
**In Pará: Senador José Porfírio was cut in two as a result of the formation of Anapu.
* In China, Xianghe County, Sanhe City, and Dachang Hui Autonomous County, lodged between the municipalities of Beijing and Tianjin, together make up an exclave of the prefecture-level city of Langfang in Hebei province.
* In Finland: In Central Finland, the former municipality of Säynätsalo is now an exclave of Jyväskylä municipality.
* In France, the commune of Ménessaire is an exclave of the department of Côte-d'Or between Nièvre and Saône-et-Loire.
* In Iceland, the capital of Reykjavík has an exclave suburb some forty kilometers from it, separated from the city proper by another municipality, Mosfellsbær.
* In Italy:
** The Comune di San Colombano (named after the Irish missionary Saint Columbanus) is an exclave of the Province of Milan between the provinces of Lodi and Pavia.
** The comune Verucchio, in the Emilia-Romagna region, includes an exclave between the Marche region and the Republic of San Marino.
* In Japan, Kitayama Village and Kumanogawa Town of Wakayama prefecture are located in the border between Mie and Nara prefectures.
* In Liechtenstein, seven of the eleven municipalities are in two or more pieces. In addition to the enclaves mentioned above, Vaduz has four exclaves; Schaan has three; Planken, Balzers, and Eschen each have two; and Triesenberg and Gamprin both have one.
* In Malaysia, Cape Rachado is an exclave of state of Malacca, which lies on the coast of Negeri Sembilan.
* In Mexico: Calica and Xel-Há in the municipality of Cozumel in Quintana Roo State have two poligons of land bounded by the Solidaridad Municipality but with a Coast.
* In Moldova, Raionul Cahul and Raionul Taraclia both have one exclave, and the autonomous territory of Gagauzia has three.
* In the Netherlands, Amsterdam Zuidoost is cut from other parts of the municipilaty of Amsterdam by land that belongs to the municipilaties of Ouder-Amstel and Diemen.
* In Norway, the municipalities Asker and Bærum are separated from the rest of the county of Akershus by land that belongs to the counties of Oslo, Oppland and Buskerud and Oslofjorden.
* In the Philippines:
** In the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao: the municipality of Datu Saudi-Ampatuan in Maguindanao is separated into two by Datu Piang and Mamasapano.
** In the National Capital Region, Caloocan City is divided by Valenzuela City.
** In SoCCSKSarGen:
*** Cotabato City is separated from the rest of this region by the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao.
*** Sarangani province is divided by General Santos City, but waters are contiguous.
** In Zamboanga Peninsula:
*** Isabela City is part of this region (although it is the capital of the ARMM province of Basilan), but it is separated from it by Basilan Strait.
*** Zamboanga del SurZamboanga City, a chartered city, is unofficially part of this province but is separated from it by Zamboanga Sibugay.
* In Poland, Sławków commune is an exclave of Będzin county on the border between Małopolskie voivodeship and Śląskie voivodeship, to which it administratively belongs.
* In Portugal, as a consequence of administrative reforms during the 19th century (in the 1830s, then again in the 1850s, and to a much lesser extent in the 1890s), there are no subnational enclaves and only three subnational exclaves persist on the municipal level:
** Montijo, divided into 8 "freguesias" (Portuguese for civil parishes), 3 of which are 20 km due East of the other 5. The 'main', Western part of its territory (where the municipal seat stands and where most of its inhabitants live) is five times smaller that the 'secondary' part. To go from the Western part to the Eastern, you have to pass by territory belonging to the municipalities of Alcochete and Palmela, or at least Palmela (going cross-country).
** Oliveira de Frades, divided into 12 "freguesias", 2 of which are a few kilometers due South-East of the main part. To go from the main body to the exclave you have to pass through territory belonging to the municipality of Vouzela.
** Vila Real de Santo António, divided into 3 "freguesias", one of which is a few kilometers due West of the other two. The 'main', Eastern part of its territory (where the municipal seat stands and where most of its inhabitants live) is more than three times smaller that the 'secondary' part. To go from the Eastern part to the Western, you have to pass by territory belonging to the municipality of Castro Marim, or go by sea, as all 3 "freguesias" face the Atlantic Ocean to the South.
* In Samoa, A'ana, Palauli, Satupa'itea, and Va'a-o-Fonoti districts each have one exclave, and Gaga'emauga district has two.
* In Spain:
** Rincón de Ademuz is an exclave of Valencia province in Valencia autonomous community, between the provinces of Teruel in Aragon and Cuenca in Castile-La Mancha.
** In Castile-La Mancha, Anchuras is an exclave of the Ciudad Real province between Toledo province and the Extremaduran province of Badajoz.
** Between the provinces of Zamora and León there is an exclave with the cities of Roales and Quintanilla del Molar belonging to the province of Valladolid.
** La Cepeda is an exclave of the Autonomous Community of Madrid located between the provinces of Segovia and Ávila.
** The province of Palencia possesses an exclave Berzosilla between the provinces of Cantabria and Burgos.
** Orduña is an exclave of the province of Biscay located between the provinces of Álava and Burgos.
* In Switzerland:
** Appenzell Innerrhoden — Both parts of the district of Oberegg are bounded by Appenzell Ausserrhoden and St. Gallen.
** Bern — Clavaleyres is surrounded by Fribourg and Vaud's exclave. (The secession of the new canton of Jura in 1979 left Bern temporarily with another exclave, Laufental, bounded by Jura, Solothurn, Basel-Country and France. Laufental joined Basel-Country in 1994.)
** ObwaldenEngelberg is a large piece of this canton separated by Nidwalden.
** Schaffhausen — The only canton lying mostly on the north bank of the Rhine, it is cut into three parts by German corridors to the Rhine. The middle part is the largest, and embraces the German enclave of Büsingen. The upper and middle parts border on Thurgau, the middle and lower parts on Zürich.
** Solothurn — This canton has two exclaves, Dorneck and Thierstein, both bounded on the south by Basel-Country and on the north by France.
** VaudAvenches district is separated from this canton by the canton of Fribourg.
* In the United Arab Emirates
** Dubai, Ajmān, Ras al-Khaimah, and Fujairah Emirates each have one exclave.
** Sharjah Emirate has four exclaves, one of which is Nahwa.
* In the United States of America:
** In Alaska, the Unorganized Borough is separated into multiple sections.
** Kentucky — The westernmost part of Fulton County is a piece of land known as the Kentucky Bend, located inside a loop of the Mississippi River, detached from its mother state. The only road in the area goes south into Tennessee. This exclave exists because the Mississippi, which forms the boundary between Missouri (right bank) and Kentucky/Tennessee (left bank), crosses latitude 36°30', which defines part of the border between Kentucky and Tennessee, three times.
** In Louisiana, a portion of St. Martin Parish is separated by Iberia Parish. A portion of West Feliciana Parish is separated by Concordia Parish. A portion of Madison Parish is separated by Warren County, Mississippi.
** In Massachusetts, Norfolk County has two exclaves: Brookline between Middlesex and Suffolk counties, and Cohasset on the coast of Plymouth County.
** In Michigan, Quincy Township, Houghton County is divided into two parts by the city of Hancock
** In New Jersey, the Township of South Hackensack, in Bergen County, is divided into three separate parts as a result of other municipalities having seceded from it.
** In New Mexico, Sandoval County has an exclave. During World War II, Los Alamos County was created out of parts of Sandoval and Santa Fe Counties, for the convenience of the Manhattan Project. That portion of Sandoval County which is within the San Ildefonso Indian Reservation, about 3 km², became an exclave bounded by Los Alamos County on the southwest, Santa Fe County on the east and Rio Arriba County on the north.
** In Pennsylvania, numerous municipalities in the southeastern part of Delaware County have exclaves. For example, Springfield Township has an exclave separated from the main body of the township by the village of Swarthmore; Darby Township consists of two separate non-contiguous areas; and part of Upper Darby is separated from the main body of the township by Aldan and Lansdowne.

Pene-enclaves and pene-exclaves

Pene-enclaves and pene-exclaves are regions that are enclaves (resp., exclaves) "for practical purposes", without meeting the strict definition. For instance, being contiguous with the main region but not connected by road.

* The Spanish towns Ceuta and Melilla on the north coast of Africa.
* The British overseas territory of Gibraltar, on the south coast of Spain.
* Oecussi-Ambeno, a fragment of East Timor geographically within the Indonesian part of Timor (West Timor), but accessible from the sea.
* Cabinda, a territory north of its mainland of Angola, locked between the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Congo.
*Russian Kaliningrad Oblast, located between Poland and Lithuania, which, before World War II, was the northern half of the German province of East Prussia, itself an exclave after World War I.
* Croatia: The southern portion of Dubrovnik-Neretva County, including the historic city of Dubrovnik, is bounded by Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, and the Adriatic Sea. Territorial waters are contiguous, however. Neum, Bosnia and Herzegovina's only sea access, is sandwiched between the two portions of this county.
* At least eight places in the United States cannot be reached by land except through Canada:
** Point Roberts in northwestern Washington;
** the Northwest Angle in Minnesota, a peninsula bordering Lake of the Woods;
** Elm Point, Minnesota, a small piece nearby where the coastline of the Lake of the Woods dips slightly south over the border;
** a similar unnamed sliver of land just west of Elm Point. (Both of these are in western Lake of the Woods County, Minnesota, near the northeast corner of Roseau County, Minnesota, just south of the southeast corner of Manitoba);
** the town of Alburgh, Vermont is on a peninsula that extends south from Québec in Lake Champlain.
** Province Point, the end of a peninsula east of Alburgh.
** Estcourt Station, Maine does not have public road access to the rest of Maine. Instead, Estcourt Station's houses, store and gas station access Rue Frontiere, a street on the Canadian side of the border in Pohenegamook, Quebec.
** Although the state of Alaska is itself an exclave of the United States and cannot be reached by land except through Canada (road access is primarily via the Alaska Highway), the town of Hyder, Alaska can only be reached by road from Stewart, British Columbia. There is no road from Hyder to any other point in Alaska.
*The Russian village of Dupki is on the Estonian (west) coast of lake Peipus.
*Canada: St. Regis, Quebec: Part of the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation on the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River, it is attached by land to the St. Regis Mohawk Reservation in New York State; road access to the rest of Canada is only available through New York State.
** The territorial water of Canada completely surround that of the French territorial collectivity of St Pierre and Miquelon except for a corridor 10.5 NM (19.4 km) wide stretching 200 NM (370 km) south to open sea.
**Campobello Island, New Brunswick can be reached by road only by driving through the United States, across the border bridge. Connection with the rest of Canada is by ferry.
*An area north of Tourém, Portugal, is cut off from the rest of Portuguese territory by the lake Encoro de Salas, being surrounded by Spanish territory. It is accessible by a road bridge, but otherwise does not border the rest of Portugal.
* Copacabana in Bolivia, and the surrounding promontory are separated from the rest of Bolivia by Lake Titicaca, only joining by land to Peruvian territory.
* Brunei: Temburong District is bounded by Malaysia and Brunei Bay. Territorial waters are contiguous, however.
* Turkey: The European section of Turkey is bounded by Greece and Bulgaria. Note that despite the fact that the European section and the Asian sections of Turkey are not geographically contiguous, there are two connecting bridges in Istanbul.
* Netherlands: Part of the province of Zeeland, namely Zeeuws Vlaanderen is accessible by land only through the country of Belgium though it is accessible by sea from the rest of the province of Zeeland. There is a tunnel, the Westerscheldetunnel, which also links Zeeuws Vlaanderen to the rest of the province.

ubnational pene-enclaves and pene-exclaves

* In Indonesia, the province of Yogyakarta is a coastal enclave of Central Java province with access to Indian Ocean in the south.
* In the Netherlands, the province of Overijssel has two exclaves on the Gelderland bank of the IJssel river opposite the towns of Olst and Wijhe, in which the villages of Marle (north exclave), Welsum and Welsumerveld (south exclave) are situated. There are cable ferries between Olst and Welsum and between Wijhe and Vorchten in the municipality of Heerde (there is no direct connection between Marle and the rest of Overijssel).
* In the United States of America:
** The town of Carter Lake, Iowa, occupied a meander on the left bank of the Missouri River, until 1877 when flooding caused the river to jump its banks, shortening the main stream. The meander became an oxbow lake and Carter Lake now found itself on the right bank, attached to Nebraska. A lengthy court case ensued; the Supreme Court of the United States held that the sudden change in the river's course did not change the original boundary, and Carter Lake was still part of Iowa. ("Nebraska v. Iowa", 143 U.S. 359 (1892)). The Court delayed a final decree to allow Nebraska and Iowa to reach an agreement consistent with its holding, which they did. (145 U.S. 519 (1892)). All roads into Carter Lake run through Omaha, Nebraska. For similar geographic reasons there are many slices of Mississippi River states that are now on the "wrong" side of the waterway.
** Humarock, legally part of Scituate, Massachusetts, was separated from the rest of the town in the Blizzard of 1898, in which the mouth of the North River shifted. The island is only accessible via a bridge which connects it to Marshfield, Massachusetts.
** Long Island, situated in Boston Harbor in Massachusetts, is part of the City of Boston yet remains accessible by road only from Quincy, Massachusetts.
** The town of Sandwich, Massachusetts is partially-separated in its northern portion by the Cape Cod Canal and is only accessible by road through the neighboring town of Bourne.
** The construction in 1895 of the Harlem River Ship Canal isolated Marble Hill, a small portion of the northern tip of Manhattan (New York County). Initially an island, it was later physically connected to the Bronx by the filling of Spuyten Duyvil Creek. It remains politically part of Manhattan, to which it is connected by the Broadway Bridge. Thus, it is part of the Borough of Manhattan and New York County, but not the island of Manhattan
** The "Lost Peninsula" in Monroe County, Michigan, can only be reached via Toledo, Ohio. It is otherwise surrounded by Maumee Bay in Lake Erie. ( [http://maps.google.com/maps?f=q&hl=en&q=monroe,+mi&ll=41.736223,-83.456655&spn=0.009111,0.02429 Map] )
** California: The City and County of San Francisco has an exclave on Alameda Island, across San Francisco Bay and adjoining Alameda County. The exclave came into being as land on the border between the two counties was reclaimed from the Bay to build the Naval Air Station Alameda, now decommissioned. This small piece of open space cannot be reached from San Francisco (except by boat) without passing through Oakland and Alameda.
** Also in San Francisco Bay, there is a small (5.37 acres) piece of land on the eastern end of Angel Island that belongs to the City and County of San Francisco. The rest (99.3%) of Angel Island lies in the town of Tiburon, which is in Marin County.
** The port community of San Pedro, California is part of the City of Los Angeles but is connected to the rest of the city only by a narrow strip of land known as the Harbor Gateway, four city blocks wide and several miles long.
** The community of San Ysidro borders Mexico and is part of the City of San Diego. It is joined to San Diego proper by a thin strip of territory in San Diego Bay. Between San Ysidro and San Diego proper are the cities of Chula Vista and National City.
** Virginia: The Eastern Shore, comprising Accomack County and Northampton County, is located at the southern tip of the Delmarva Peninsula. It is connected to the rest of Virginia by the 23 mile (37 km) long Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel.
** Delaware: Salem County, New Jersey in New Castle County At least two parcels of land on the east (New Jersey) side of the Delaware River belong to the state of Delaware (the bulk of which is west of the river) and not to New Jersey. This is because within the "Twelve Mile Circle", the entire Delaware River, to the low water mark, is the territory of Delaware and not New Jersey (unlike many other river borders where the border is at some intermediate point in the river itself). As a result, certain areas (including the Killcohook National Wildlife Refuge and a portion of the Salem Nuclear Power Plant) on the New Jersey side of the river that have been expanded by adding fill into areas that were historically below the low water mark are considered part of Delaware and not New Jersey. Areas that have been built on fill are considered Delaware Territory . Both of these areas are only accesable by land by traveling through New Jersey.
** North Carolina: Knotts Island in Currituck County is only accessible by road through Virginia Beach, Virginia via a narrow strip of land from the west. A 45-minute ferry connects the island to the rest of Currituck.
** Michigan: The Upper Peninsula is attached by land to Wisconsin. It can be reached from the Lower Peninsula of Michigan by the 5 mile (8 km) long Mackinac Bridge.
* In Switzerland:
** Lucerne has two pieces separated from the main territory by the Vierwaldstättersee; one borders Schwyz, the other Nidwalden.
** Nidwalden's district of Hergiswil is separated by an arm of the Vierwaldstättersee.
** One of the pieces of Fribourg is a large exclave bounded by Vaud and Lake Neuchâtel.
** Appenzell Innerrhoden has three small exclaves, two of which border on both Appenzell Ausserrhoden and on Sankt-Gallen.
** Vaud has one exclave, Avenches, bordered by Lake Neuchâtel, Fribourg and the tiny Bernese exclave of Clavaleyres. The coast of Lake Neuchâtel is thus in seven pieces belonging to four cantons: clockwise from the north they are Neuchâtel, Bern (main), Vaud (Avenches exclave), Fribourg (main), Vaud (main), Fribourg (exclave), Vaud (main).
* In India:
** The Union Territory of Daman and Diu consists of two coastal enclaves in the state of Gujarat.
** Pondicherry is a Union Territory which is composed of Pondicherry City and Karaikal (coastal enclaves of Tamil Nadu), Yanam (coastal enclave of Andhra Pradesh) and Mahe (coastal enclave of Kerala).
** Mahe can be reached by Pondicherry people by travelling via Tamilnadu and kerala
** Yanam can be reached by Pondicherry people by travelling via Tamilnadu and Andhra Pradesh
** Karaikal can be reached by Pondicherry people by travelling via Tamilnadu state.
** Pondicherry have thirteen enclaves in Tamilnadu and Tamilnadu have Nine Enclaves in PondicherryPondicherry and Tamilnadu have Tamil as common language, so there is no issue between people movements.
* In the United Kingdom:
** A small part of Shropshire, near the Welsh border and south-east of Montgomery, is disconnected from the rest of England by road.

Inaccessible districts

* Adutskis railway station straddles the Lithuania/Belarus border. Trains pass through Lithuanian territory while travelling to and from Belarus, and platforms are in both Belarus and Lithuania. Nowadays, the station is mainly used for freight.
* The Austrian municipality of Jungholz is surrounded by German territory virtually everywhere, except at one point: the top of a mountain.
* The Kleinwalsertal, a valley part of Vorarlberg, Austria, can be reached by road from Oberstdorf, Germany, only.
* The Swiss village of Samnaun could initially only be reached by road from Austria. Thus in 1892 the village was excluded from the Swiss customs territory. The exemption was maintained even when in 1907-1912 a road was built to the Engadin valley.
* For similar reasons the Italian Livigno valley near the Swiss border is excluded from EU VAT area.
*Some villages in eastern Estonia can only be reached by a road which ventures inside Russian territory. One can drive on the road without any visa, but it is forbidden to stop before coming back to Estonia.
*Several farms on the border between Denmark and Germany.
*The village of Lutepää in eastern Estonia, reached by road only by traversing Russian territory.
* A valley, which includes five villages, called Macahel in northeast of Turkey can only be reached by road via Batumi in Georgia by vehicles, and as the snow shuts the paths which are completely within the borders of Turkey in winter, the road via Batumi is the only way for getting there.
* In the United States of America:
** The Alaska Panhandle, though connected geographically, is inaccessible by road from the rest of the state. One must drive through Canada to reach the area from elsewhere in the state.
** Hyder, Alaska, itself being located in a state that is an exclave of the United States, is in a location where because of mountains and rugged terrain, it can only be reached by road from the adjacent community of Stewart, British Columbia in Canada, thus it could be considered a practical enclave from both the U.S. mainland and from the rest of state of Alaska.
* There are three pene-exclaves of Russian territory which can be accessed only via the Lithuanian town of Vištysis. The border is officially undemarcated, and there are proposals to change the boundaries around this area.
* The Campobello Island in New Brunswick, Canada, can only be reached by road through a bridge linking the island to the U.S. state of Maine.
* The municipality of Tornio in Finland has one pene-enclave unreachable directly by land from Finnish territory, and the neighbouring Swedish municipality of Haparanda has two similar pene-enclaves unreachable directly from Swedish territory.
* Chalet des prés; two buildings in Switzerland that can only be accessed via France.
* Also, Les Etoles and Les Places are two French hamlets, accessible only via Swiss territory.
* Os de Civis in Spain is inaccessible via any other part of Spanish territory, one has to travel via Andorra.
* Properties 79/3 and 79/4 at Trosterud in the Norwegian municipality of Rømskog is only accessible by road via a small tract following the vista of the Norwegian–Swedish state boundary. [ [http://geosite.jankrogh.com/borders/trosterud.htm Jan S. Krogh's Geosite on the Trosterud farms] ]
* Close to Narvik in Norway, a road enters Swedish territory. It does not connect with any other Swedish road before it enters Norwegian land once more. [ [http://geosite.jankrogh.com/borders/other/soerdalen.htm Jan S. Krogh's Geosite on Sørdalen valley] ]
* In Italy, the village of Bagni di Craveggia can only be reached by travelling through the Canton of Ticino in Switzerland. The village never became part of Switzerland as the pastures surrounding it were owned by the people of Vigezzo Valley, rather than the people of the Swiss Onsernone Valley, at the end of which the village is situated. Consequently, the Swiss franc is commonly used.
* On the San Marino/Italy border, there is Italian land east of the river San Marino that does not join to any other part of 'dry' Italian territory. This area is only a few metres wide, and follows the river's course for around 500 metres, and is close to the Strada del Lavoro.
* The western-most region of County Monaghan in the Republic of Ireland contains a pene-enclave jutting into County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom). There are two inaccessible districts. Drumard in the Republic of Ireland is inaccessible directly by road from any other part of the Republic; the village of Summerhill in Northern Ireland is similarly inaccessible from the rest of Northern Ireland. The A3 (Northern Ireland) and N54 (Republic of Ireland) road crosses the border 4 times in a short distance. See N54 here: http://www.transport.ie/upload/general/7616-0.pdf
* The Russian settlement of Majole Kulisko is separated from the rest of the country by the Kuuleski River; the village is otherwise surrounded by Estonian territory.
* An area of marshy land, approximately convert|1|mi|km|sing=on south of Tiong, Mauritania is owned by Senegal, but is inaccessible from any other part of Senegal. Coastal waters, however, are contiginous.
* Mpalila Island in Namibia can only be reached from the rest of the country by travelling through Botswana.

ubnational inaccessible districts

* United States of America:
** Riker's Island, the jail complex of the City of New York, is considered to be in the borough of The Bronx, but is only accessible via the Riker's Island Bridge, which terminates in the Borough of Queens.
** Roosevelt Island in New York City is part of the Borough of Manhattan, but is accessible by bridge only from the Borough of Queens. (A tramway and subway connect it to Manhattan, the subway to Queens as well. An automobile elevator on the Queensboro Bridge is no longer in operation.)
** Similarly, Manhattan's borders often extend to the shorelines of the other boroughs so that, for example, certain piers extending from the Brooklyn waterfront are part of Manhattan but accessible only from Brooklyn. Ellis Island (see above) has a bridge connecting it to New Jersey.
** Theodore Roosevelt Island in the Potomac River is part of Washington, D.C., but only accessible by a footbridge from Virginia. Although the Theodore Roosevelt Bridge from Washington to Virginia passes over the island, one cannot exit from the bridge onto the island.
** Coast Guard Island in the Oakland estuary is part of Alameda, California, but only accessible via a bridge from Oakland, California.
*United Kingdom
** The village of Pentreheyling in Shropshire, England cannot be reached from any other settlement in England by road without first passing through Wales (see [http://www.multimap.com/map/browse.cgi?client=public&GridE=-3.11670&GridN=52.53020&lon=-3.11670&lat=52.53020&search_result=Pentreheyling%2CShropshire&db=freegaz&cidr_client=none&lang=&keepicon=true&place=Pentreheyling,Shropshire&pc=&advanced=&client=public&addr2=&quicksearch=Pentreheyling&addr3=&scale=100000&addr1= map] ).
** In Flintshire, Wales, on the Dee estuary, there are several bits of marshland that are separated from other bits of Wales.
** Also in Wales, there is a small area of land south of Wyastone Leys which is inaccessible from any other area of Wales directly by road, being separated by land and the River Wye.
** There are several small areas north of the village of Part-Y-Seal are inaccessible from Wales directly, these include one farm, two river banks and a small island in the River Wye.
** National rail services connecting north and south Wales must pass through England.
** There are two parts of Scotland inaccessible from anywhere else other than travelling through England; these are Edrington Castle and the village of Cawderstanes, which is accessible to the rest of Scotland by footbridge only. Also a small area of land adjacent to a weir on the River Tweed, north of the B6350, due south of Coldstream and due south west of Cornhill on Tweed which can only reach the rest of Scotland directly by crossing the weir.
**Likewise, on the English side of the English/Scottish border, the hamlet of High Cocklaw is not accessible directly from any other part of England except via footpath.
*South Korea:
**Incheon Metropolitan City: Ganghwa Island is administered by Incheon, but is connected by bridges to Gyeonggi Province.
**Yeongjong Island, where Incheon International Airport is located, is administered by Jung-gu, but is connected by bridge to Seo-gu. (A "gu" is a geo-political subdivision of S. Korea's metropolitan cities).
*Philippines:
** Three municipalities and two cities of Laguna are separated by the municipality of Santo Tomas, Batangas (a portion of SLEX crosses the municipality) from the rest of the province.
** Some coastal barangays in Canaman, Camarines Sur do not have direct connection to barangays in poblacion. People from some coastal barangays in Canaman have to pass Camaligan via Barangays of Sua and Dugcal or Naga City via Bicol River before reaching poblacion.
*Malaysia
**Cameron Highlands, Malaysia's largest tea-growing region, lies in the state of Pahang but is only accessible via Tapah in the state of Perak.

*People's Republic of China:
**Most of Chongming Island at the mouth of the Yangtze is administered as Chongming County of the Shanghai municipality, which is connected to the rest of Shanghai by a tunnel. However, two small villages on the north side, Haiyong (海永乡) and Qilong (启隆乡), are administered by Haimen and Qidong county-level cities, respectively, both of which are part of the Nantong prefecture-level city of the Jiangsu province. There is no road connection between these villages and the rest of Jiangsu.

Historic enclaves/exclaves

* Bremen-Verden, Swedish Pomerania, and Wismar, Swedish enclaves in Germany after the Peace of Westphalia.
* Cheikh Saïd - former French enclave near Aden
* Comtat Venaissin
* Dadra and Nagar Haveli
*East Pakistan (1955-1971), now Bangladesh, was an exclave from Islamic Republic of Pakistan, if one considers West Pakistan, site of the capital Islamabad, mainland. There were 1600 kilometers of foreign territory separating the east and west wings of Pakistan. East Pakistan accounted for 70% of the exports of the country and was more populous than West Pakistan.
*East Prussia, a German exclave during the Weimar Republic: it was separated from Germany after World War I, when Poland regained access to the Baltic Sea (Polish corridor). East Prussia (essentially the old Duchy of Prussia) is now divided into Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia (see above), the Warmian-Masurian Voivodship in Poland, and Klaipėda County in Lithuania.
*Forbidden City - The last emperor of the Qing Dynasty of China, Emperor Henry Puyi, succeeded the throne in 1909. In 1911, revolution broke out and the Qing army was defeated. According to the treaty signed between the Qing court and the government of the newly formed Republic of China (ROC), Puyi preserved the emperor title and alongside other rights, maintained certain government organs in the Forbidden City mainly for management of the Forbidden City and other palaces, management of imperial families, etc. Inside the Forbidden City it still flew the Dragon Flag of the Qing Dynasty. In 1924, the treaty signed in 1911 was revised unilaterally by the ROC government, abolishing the Puyi's title of Emperor, his right to live in the Forbidden City and other related arrangements.
*Fort of São João Baptista de Ajudá a Portuguese enclave within Dahomey/Benin until 1961 (de facto) and 1975 (de jure).
*Gwadar - till 1958, Omani coastal enclave inside Pakistan
*Lado Enclave
*Ifni
*Kowloon Walled City - enclave inside Kowloon, Hong Kong. Question of jurisdiction led to hands-off approach adopted by People's Republic of China, Hong Kong and the United Kingdom until solution was agreed upon.
*Kwang-Chou-Wan
*Mount Scopus (in Jerusalem) was an Israeli exclave in Jordan between 1948 and 1967, before being reunited with West Jerusalem following the Six Day War. It is still an exclave on a political level, since Israel's annexation of the connecting territory is unrecognized.
*Port Arthur
*Portuguese India
*Jiaozhou Bay
*Shanghai - British, American, and French Concessions, and Shanghai International Settlement
*Verenahof
*Walvis Bay was a South African exclave in Namibia, before being transferred from South African jurisdiction and incorporated with Namibia in 1994, four years after that country's independence.
*Wei-Hai-Wei
* West Berlin, before the reunification of Germany, was "de facto" a West German exclave, enclaved by East Germany. Many small West Berlin land areas, such as Steinstücken, were in turn separated from the main body of West Berlin, some by only a few meters. "De jure" all of Berlin was ruled by the four Allied powers (as an enclave of East Germany); this meant that West Berlin could not send voting members to the German Parliament, and that its citizens were exempt from conscription.
*Zadar
*Various historical foreign concessions.

Temporary enclaves

Sometimes land is ceded temporarily to another country as a form of legal fiction.
* Suite 212 at Claridges Hotel in London was ceded by the United Kingdom to Yugoslavia on June 17 1945 to allow Crown Prince Alexander, whose parents were in exile, to be born on Yugoslav soil. [cite web|url=http://www.christopherlong.co.uk/pri/cropri.html|author=Christopher Long|title=A Regal Bid Too Far?|accessdate=2006-12-15|date=1991-10-25|quote=I was born on Yugoslav territory at Claridges Hotel in London, 1945, on June 17, and this was done in agreement with the British Government.]
* Camp Zeist, a former United States Air Force base in the Netherlands, was, in 2000, temporarily declared sovereign territory of the United Kingdom, in order to allow the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial to take place.
* In 1943, the maternity ward at the Ottawa Civic Hospital in Canada was temporarily declared part of the Netherlands so that the birth of Princess Margriet, Princess Juliana's daughter, could be claimed to have taken place on Dutch territory.

References

*cite book |title = WAITING FOR THE ESQUIMO: An historical and documentary study of the Cooch Behar enclaves of India and Bangladesh | first = Brendan R. | last = Whyte | publisher = University of Melbourne (doctoral dissertation) | id = ISBN 0-7340-2208-5 | year = 2002, revised 2004 | location = Melbourne
**University of Melbourne ePrints repository has an [http://eprints.infodiv.unimelb.edu.au/archive/00001443/ abstract] and a [http://eprints.infodiv.unimelb.edu.au/archive/00001443/01/whyte.pdf complete reprint] (PDF: 13.59 MB).
**Chapter 1 (pages 1-24) is a general survey of international enclaves, with a table "Enclaves of the world since 1996" on page 5.
* [http://geosite.jankrogh.com/exclaves.htm Jan S. Krogh's Geosite]
* [Pondicherry Map] [http://www.mapsofindia.com/maps/pondicherry/pondichery.html]


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