- Har Gobind Khorana
name = Har Gobind Khorana
caption = Har Gobind Khorana
birth_date = birth date and age|1922|1|9
Raipur, Multan, Punjab, British India
MIT(1970 - ) University of Wisconsin, Madison(1960-70) University of British Columbia(1952-60) Cambridge University(1950-52)Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (1948-49)
University of Liverpool(Ph.D.) University of the Punjab, Lahore(B.S.)(M.S.)
known_for = First to demonstrate the role of
Nucleotidesin protein synthesis
Nobel Prize in Medicine(1968)
Har Gobind Khorana, or Hargobind Khorana (born
January 9, 1922) is an Indian-American molecular biologist. He was awarded the Nobel prize (shared with Robert W. Holleyand Marshall Warren Nirenberg) in 1968 for his work on the interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis. Khorana and Nirenberg were also awarded the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prizefrom Columbia Universityin the same year. He became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1966. He currently lives in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United Statesserving as MIT's Alfred P. Sloan Professor of Biology and Chemistry, Emeritus.
Early life and Education
Khorana was born in Raipur, Kabir Wala, Multan, a poor village in
British Indiawhich is in present Pakistan. His father was the village "patwari", or taxation official. He was homeschooled by his father, and he later attended D.A.V. Multan High School. He finished his B.Sc. from Punjab University, Lahore in 1943 and M.Sc from Punjab University in 1945. In 1945, he began studies at the University of Liverpool. After earning a PhD in 1948, he continued his postdoctoralstudies in Zürich(1948-49). Subsequently, he spent two years at Cambridgeand his interests in proteins and nucleic acids took root at that time. In 1952 he went to the University of British Columbia, Vancouver and in 1960 moved to the University of Wisconsin-Madison. In 1970 Dr. Khorana became the Alfred SloanProfessor of Biology and Chemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technologywhere he worked until retiring in 2007. He is a member of the Board of Scientific Governors at The Scripps Research Institute, and currently holds Professor Emeritus status at MIT.
Khorana married Esther Elizabeth Sibler, who is of
Swissorigin, in 1952. They have three children: Julia Elizabeth (born May 4th, 1953), Emily Anne (born October 18th, 1954), and Dave Roy (born July 26th, 1958).
Khorana’s work & Nobel Prize
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) with two repeating units (UCUCUCU → UCU CUC UCU) produced two alternating
amino acids. This, combined with the Nirenberg and Leder experiment, showed that UCU codes for Serineand CUC codes for Leucine.
RNAs with three repeating units (UACUACUA → UAC UAC UAC, or ACU ACU ACU, or CUA CUA CUA) produced three different strings of amino acids.
RNAs with four repeating units including UAG, UAA, or UGA, produced only dipeptides and tripeptides thus revealing that UAG, UAA and UGA are
With this, Dr. Khorana and his team had established that the mother of all
codes, the biological language common to all living organisms, is spelled out in three-letter words: each set of three nucleotidescodes for a specific amino acid. Their Nobel lecture was delivered on December 12, 1968. Dr. Khorana was also the first to synthesize oligonucleotides, that is, strings of nucleotides. He was the first to isolate DNA ligase, an enzyme that links pieces of DNA together. These custom-designed pieces of artificial genes are widely used in biology labs for sequencing, cloningand engineering new plants and animals. This invention of Dr. Khorana has become automated and commercialized so that anyone now can order a synthetic gene from any of a number of companies-- one merely needs to fax the genetic sequenceto one of the companies to receive an oligonucliotide with the desired sequence.
Lasker Award, 1967
Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize1968
Nobel Prize for Medicine1968
National Medal of Science1987
* [http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1968/khorana-bio.html Nobel biography]
* [http://web.mit.edu/chemistry/www/faculty/khorana.html Homepage] - MIT, where he works presently.
* [http://www.cumc.columbia.edu/horwitz/ The Official Site of Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize]
NAME= Khorana, Har Gobind
Indian-American molecular biologist
DATE OF BIRTH=
January 9 1922
PLACE OF BIRTH=
Raipur,Punjab, British India
DATE OF DEATH=
PLACE OF DEATH=
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Har Gobind Khorana — 200px Har Gobind Khorana Nacimiento 9 de enero, de 1922 Raipur, Multan … Wikipedia Español
Har Gobind Khorana — est un biologiste indien, né le 9 janvier 1922 à Raipur en Inde et mort le 9 novembre 2011. De famille pauvre et de mère analphabète, il fait sa première année d école en plein air au bord du désert du Ràjasthàn. À l aide de bourses, il obtient… … Wikipédia en Français
Har Gobind Khorana — Die Nobelpreisträger des Jahres 1968: ganz links Khorana, daneben von links nach rechts Robert Holley, Luis W. Alvarez, Marshall Warren Nirenberg, Lars Onsager, und Kawabata Yasunari Har Gobind Khorana (* wahrscheinlich 9. Januar 1922 in Raipur,… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Medizinnobelpreis 1968: Robert William Holley — Har Gobind Khorana — Marshall Warren Nirenberg — Die drei amerikanischen Wissenschaftler erhielten den Nobelpreis für »ihre Interpretation des genetischen Codes und dessen Funktion bei der Proteinsynthese«. Biografien Robert William Holley, * Urbana (Illinois) 28. 1. 1922, ✝ Los Gatos… … Universal-Lexikon
Gobind Khorana — Har Gobind Khorana Har Gobind Khorana (* 9. Januar 1922 in Raipur, Punjab (im heute pakistanischen Teil)) ist ein indisch US amerikanischer Molekularbiologe und Nobelpreisträger. Khorana gelang 1970 als erstem die künstliche Synthese eines Gens.… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Gobind Khorana — Har Gobind Khorana Har Gobind Khorana. Har Gobind Khorana est un biologiste indien né le 9 janvier 1922 à Raipur en Inde. De famille pauvre et de mère analphabète, il fait sa première année d école en plein air au bord du désert du Ràjasthàn. À l … Wikipédia en Français
Khorana,Har Gobind — Kho·ra·na (kō räʹnə), Har Gobind. Born 1922. Indian born American biochemist. He shared a 1968 Nobel Prize for the study of genetic codes. * * * … Universalium
Khorana, Har Gobind — born Jan. 9, 1922, Raipur, India Indian born U.S. biochemist. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Liverpool and later taught in Canada and the U.S., from 1970 at MIT. He shared a 1968 Nobel Prize with Marshall Warren Nirenberg and Robert … Universalium
Khorana , Har Gobind — (1922–1993) Indian–American chemist Khorana, who was born at Raipur (now in Pakistan), gained his BSc (1943) and MSc (1945) from the University of Punjab. He then traveled to Liverpool University to work for his doctorate. On receiving his PhD in … Scientists
Khorana, Har Gobind — (n. 9 ene. 1922, Raipur, India). Bioquímico estadounidense nacido en India. Obtuvo su Ph.D. en la Universidad de Liverpool. Más tarde fue docente en Canadá y EE.UU., y desde 1970 en el MIT. En 1968 compartió el Premio Nobel con Marshall Warren… … Enciclopedia Universal