- Kambojas and Cambodia
Cambodia or Kambodia is the English transliteration of the French name "
Kambodge", which name stands for SanskritKamboja (Persian " Kambujiya" or " Kambaujiya"). In Chinese historical accounts, the land was known as Chenla. The ancient inscriptions of Cambodia always refer to this name as Kambujaor Kamvuja rather than the standard Kamboja. [E.g: "Shri Kambujendrasantankamhiruha"---Inscriptions du Cambodge Vol I, p 149, G. Coedes] Kamboja was the name of the Indo-Iranian tribeand their country originally located in Pamirs and Badakshanin Central Asiabut later some clans of this people had moved south and transplanted colonies in eastern and Central Afghanistanalso. During early second century BCE, some clans of this people in alliance with the Sakas, Pahlavas, and Yavanas had entered Indiaand spread into Sindhu, Sauvira, Punjab, Rajasthanand Saurashtra/ Gujaratfrom where they spread further into Central, Eastern and Southern India. It is believed that a group from amongst these south-western Kambojas (i.e. Gujarat/Saurashtra) had sailed to Southeast Asiaand founded the Kambuja colonyin the Mekongvalley of the Indo-ChinaArchipelago.
Political vs cultural connections
It was first pointed by Dr D. B. Spooner that there is a connection between the very name "Kambodia" and the
Persian borderland Kamboja. [May I not also note that the very name Kambodia seems reminiscent of the Persian border-land Kamboja?—"Journal of Royal Asiatic Society", 1915, p 447] It has been held by some that the Vedic name Kamboja from north-west had got transplanted into Indo-China by the process of Aryanisation or Sanskritisation, where the sacred geography of Sanskrit classics was replicated and the old Sanskrit names with their hallowed topography were faithfully adopted by far-flung rulers in their anxiety to garner prestige."India: A History", 2001, p 176, Grove Press, John Keay] But, it is added here that while this may be true for names like Ayodhya, Mathura, Kusumpura, Vaishali, Indrapuri, Hastinapura, Dvaravatietc which names may have been adopted in the south-east because of their hallowed topography as they all belonged to the sacred geography of Aryavarta, but the names like Kamboja, Gandhara, Takshsila, Rajapura, Singanagari (Sinhapura of Salt Range?), Rumadesa (Rumaveise) etc which were considered a part of the Bahikadesa (outlier country) and therefore, the land of the despised Mlechcha or barbaric people, were not reputed around this time for their sacred or hallowed geography. Even Albert Weberfrankly states that it is certainly very strange as to why only this name was precisely chosen to name Farther India as the Kamboja ["The History of Indian Literature", 2000 (edition), p 178, Albrecht Weber - "Sanskrit literature".] .
The references to these names in the Javan and Kambodian legends clearly implies that there was a direct historical and political rather than cultural connection with the Far East ["Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country", 1981, p 358, Dr J. L. Kamboj.]
Bombay Gazetteer writes: "Fair ground can therefore be claimed for the presumption that the leading position given to Kamboja, Gandhara, Taxila and Rumadesha in Javan and Kambodian legends and place-names is a trace of an actual and direct historical and political connection between the northwest of India and the Malay Archipelago". ["Bombay Gazetteer" Vol I, Part I, p 491).]
Ancient inscriptional and literary evidence quite supports the above view.
Modern research reveals that there had been direct historical and political relations between the Indo-Iranian Kambojas and the regions/countries like southern India,
Sri Lanka, Burma, Suvaranabhumi (Malay Peninsula) and the Kambuja of Indo-China Archipelago. The historical connections between Kambodia and the Indo-Iranian Kambojasappear to go back to first few centuries of Christianera. This relates to the time-frame when the Kambojas from Central Asia had out-spread into south-west and southern India in alliance with the Sakas, Pahlavas and the Yavanas etc. Initially, the intercourse between the Kambojas and Indochinese Kambuja was purely commercial but with time it had evolved into political and colonial relationship. In ancient inscriptions of Kambuja, the Kambuja rulers expressly state themselves from the lineage of the Kambujas. The Baksei Chamkrong inscriptions dated 947 AD tries to link the lineage of Kambuja ruling family to a legendary prince Kambu and Aphsara Mera. ["Inscriptions du Cambodge", Vol I, p 149, G Coedes; Indianised States of Southeast Asia, 1968, p 66, George Coedes ] This mythical connection was apparently designed by over-flattering court purohits of the Cambodian ruling family to give a divine and noble origin to the Kambuja rulers which should accord with their royal splendour and worldly glory. Probably, the conditions of time had necessitated this device since the Kambojas at this time had come to be regarded as of the Mlechcha and barbaric status in the eyes of orthodox Brahmanical class. Thus, instead of directly admitting that king Rajendravarman II was of the Kamboja lineage, the Baksei Chamkrong inscriptions instead follows a round-about way to attribute to him a divine lineage from sage-prince Svayambhuva Kambu (i.e. Kambuja=Kamboja) and Apsara (celestial nymph) Mera. [cf: George Coedes, "Inscriptions du Cambodge", II, pp. 10, 155] The modern scholars do not believe the Kambu-Mera legend on the origin of the Kambuja rulers of Cambodia. ["Aryan and non-Aryan Names in Vedic India, Data for the linguistic situation, c. 1900–500 B.C", p 18, fn 98, Michael Witzel [http://www.people.fas.harvard.edu/~witzel/Lingsit.pdf] ; Also cf: …."the name Camboja, like so many others of Indo-China since the days of Ptolemyis of Sanskrit origin, being apparently a transfer of the name of a Tribe and country on the N. W. frontier of India, Kamboja, supposed to have been about the locality of Chitral or Kafiristan. Ignoring this, fantastic Chinese and other etymologies have been invented for the name" (Hobson-Jobson Dictionary) [http://www.bibliomania.com/2/3/260/1270/19908/1/frameset.html] .] [According to Serge Thione (France), there is nothing to support the existence of a historical character called Kambu, a word which does not look very Khmer either. The myth should be overturned. From the name Kambuja, the name of a man Kambu was invented. At the time countries were often called by the name, or the title, of the rulers. Hence the need to give a meaning to the word Kambuja that Khmers could not understand, thus providing a political etymology. But no Kambu is known in Indian literature whereas Kambuja or Kamboja are well attested, and a long time before Indians set foot on the shores of Indochina (an area which was neither Indian nor Chinese before the second or the first centuries B.C.) (See: "On Some Cambodian Words", Thai-Yunnan Project Newsletter, Department of Anthropology, Research School of Pacific Studies, ANU, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia, Article contributed by Serge Thione)] [Parskar Gryhamsutram (2.1.23) spell the usual Kamboja as Kambuja. Markandeya Purana (8.1-6) as well as in Srimad Devi Bhagawatam (5/28/1-12) etc refers to the Kamboja clan as Kambu. Ashoka's Rock Edicts V & XIII located at Peshawarwrite Kamboj as Kamboy or Kambo. According to J. W. McCrindle, Kamboja (=Afghanistan) is Kaofu (Kambu) of Hiuen Tsang ("Alexander's Invasion", p 38; See also "Some Kshatriya Tribes of Ancient India", p 235, Dr B. C. Law). The Tuthagataguhya-Sutra of Ratnakuta Collections of the Buddhist religion uses the word Kieufieu (i.e. Kaofu of Hiuen Tsang) for the Kamboja. The reference Kieufieu of Tuthagataguhya-Sutra stands translated variously as Kampoce, Kampochih, Kapoch and Kapoce and Kampotse etc in the Tibetan religious texts. Numerous Muslim writings of mediaeval era spell the Kamboj clan as Kambu as well as Kambo. Obviously, Kambu/Kambo are corruptions of Kambuj/Kamboj and relate to Indo-Iranian terms Kambujiya/Kamboja]
Evidence of commercial connections
Buddhisttexts like Ankuravathu section of PetavatthuJataka attests that a direct caravan route (known as Kamboja-Dvaravat marga) existed between ancient Kamboja (Pamir-Badakshan) and port of Dvaravati in Saurashtra peninsula [:Yassa atthaya gacchama Kambojam dhana-haraka
:ayam kamdado yakkho imam yakkham nyamase |
:imam yakkham gahetvaana sadhuken pasaham va
:yanam aropayitvana khippam gacchama Dvarakam|
::— " (Ankuravathu section of Petavathu Jataka, verses 257-258)"] In ancient times, Saurashtra had been a great center of trade where merchants from various nations used to flock ["Life as depicted in Jain canons", p 273, Celje, 1947, J. C. Jain; "Geographical Data in Early Purana", 1972, p 321, Dr M. R. Singh]
Ancient Sanskrit texts like "
Kautiliya" " Arthashastra", " Brihat Samhita", " Mahabharata" and " Ramayana" etc attest that, besides being formidable warriors ("Shastr-opajivins"), the ancient Kambojas were also noted as excellent traders, agriculturists and cattle-culturists (varta-opajivins). [
Kautilya's "Arthashastra" lists Kamboja with Saurashtra and says that same form of politico-economic constitutions (varta-shastr.opajivin) obtained in these two ancient martial republics. It attests both of them as living by warfare, trade, agricultureand cattle-culture.
i.e. "Kamboja. Sauraastra.ksatriya.shreny.adayo vartta.shastra.upajivinah || 11.1.04 ||"
Brhat-Samhitaof Varaha Mihiraalso attests the Kamboja as " shastra-vartta" nation i.e living by warfare, trade, agriculture and cattle-culture.
i.e. "Panchala Kalinga Shurasenah Kamboja Udra Kirata shastra-varttah" || 5.35ab ||
*"Mahabharata" also attests the fact that the Kamboja lived by warfare and varta when it states that the Kambojas to be as terrible as Yama (i.e. god of death) in warfare and as rich as
Kubera(i.e. the god of treasure).
i.e. "Kambojah.................yama vaishravan.opamah...|| MBH 7.23.42 ||".]
The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea makes mention of several sea ports beginning with
Barbaricumat the mouth of the Indus, followed by Barygaza (Bharukachcha, modern Bharoch), Soparaka ( Sopara), Calliena (Kalyan) and Muziris (in Kerala) etc all located along the west coast of India southwards. Besides these more important seaports, there were also lesser ports like Sindan, Dvaravati, Kamboika ( Kambojika, on gulf of Khambat) and Gandhar (near Bharukachcha) etc. The important international ports of Barbaricum, Bharukachcha, Dvaravati, and Soparaka were easily accessible for international trade and the merchants from Kamboja, Gandhara, Sindhu, Sauvira, and Saurashtra used to sail from these ports on the country's western coast. Huge trade ships carrying merchandise from Kamboja, Gandhara, Sindhu, Saurashtra etc in western India are said to have been sailing from there directly to southern India, Sri Lanka, south Myanmarand Suvarnabhumi. [ [http://www.vri.dhamma.org/newsletters/nl9712.html] .]
The ports of Gandhara and Kamboika located in south-east Saurashtra probably also served as residential headquarters for the traders from Gandhara and Kamboja.
It is also significant that early Buddhist literary sources from north India refer to the northerners as being involved in trade in horses. ["Vinaya Pitaka", III, 6; Játaka, Vol II, 287, Fausboll] Evidence exists that horse merchants from Kamboja were in active trade as far as Ceylone. This trade had been going on with eastern, western and southern India as late as medieval ages. King Devapala (810–850 CE) of
Bengal, king Vishnuvardhana of Hoysaladynasty (1106–1152 CE) of Mysoreand king Vallabhadeva of Pandya kingdom (12th century) located in extreme southern tip of India, had powerful fleets of Kamboja horses in their cavalry. Dr Don Martino observes: The traders from north-west Kamboja had been conducting trade in horses with Sri Lanka following west coast of India since remote antiquity. ["Epigraphia Zeylanka", Vol II, No 13, p 76] According to Dr E. Muller also, "… (with time) the Kambojas had adopted the Mussalmancreed and used to trade all along the west coast of India from Persian Gulfdown to Ceylone and probably further-east…" ["Journal of Royal Asiatic Society", XV, p 171, E. Muller]
Kamboja and Yavana Colonies in Sri Lanka
There are a number of indications that the Indian expansion in the first few centuies AD was commercial in origin. ["Indianised States of Southeast Asia", 1968, p 19, G. Coedes] Sinhalese inscriptions from Koravakgala at Situlpahuwa in the Hambantota district contain the word "Kaboja"' (Sanskrit "Kamboja") and attest the existence of one Grand Trade Guild of the Kambojas ("Kabojhya Mahapugyana") ["Archaeological Survey of Ceylon", Inscription Register No 1118.] and one Kamboja Sangha ("Gote-Kabojhyana") ["Archaeological Survey of Ceylon", Inscription Register No 316.] in Anuradhapura in ancient Sinhala. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Kambojas/removed#KAMBOJA_SRI-LANKA_CONNECTIONS] . This evidence incontrovertibly proves that the Kambojas were actively involved in the international trade by sea with
Ceylonand other nations beyond. ['The diffusion of Indian Civilization and its "great tradition" to the extreme south of the peninsula occurred in the earliest stages not by land but by sea......In the half millennium before Christthere was sea traffic between the coasts of Gujarat and Sind, and Ceylon, which laid the basis for the development of civilization in that island...... The earliest attractions of the far southern coasts were pearls and gems, which brought merchants, and ultimately the script, religions and the dynastic traditions..... Hiun Tsangrefers to the international trading activities of the Simhalas and several early Brahmi inscriptions in Ceylon mention the Kamboja merchants in Sinhala' (Extracts taken from: "The Beginnings of Civilization in South India", "Journal of Asian Studies", Vol. 29, No. 3 (May, 1970), pp. 603-616, Clarence Maloney)] Scholars believe that these inscriptions date back to at least third or second century BCE or earlier. There is also a reference to one "Kamboja-gama" i.e a village named Kamboja in the Rohana province of Anuradhapura. The Pali text "Sihalavatthu" of about fourth century CE, attests that a group of people called the Kambojas (p 109) were in Rohana on the Island of Tambapanni i.e "Sri Lanka". ['In the past, the story goes, in the island of Tambapanni, (also) called the isle of Lanka, where the (three) Jewels were established, a certain elder by the name of Maleyyadeva, famous for the excellence of his supernatural power and knowledge, lived in Rohana province supported by (alms given in) the village of "Kamboja' " (Ref: "Nirvana and Other Buddhist Felicities", Cambridge Studies in Religious Traditions, Steven Collins....See APPENDIX 4, Selections from the Story of the Elder Máleyya i.e Máleyyadevattheravatthu).] [See also: "Ships and the Development of Maritime Technology on the Indian Ocean", 2002, pp 108-109, David Parkin and Ruth Barnes.] [Also see: "The Archaeology of Seafaring in Ancient South Asia" (Cambridge World Archaeology) 2003, p 206, Himanshu Prabha Ray, Norman Yoffee, Susan Alcock, Tom Dillehay, Stephen Shennan, and Carla Sinopoli (14 August, 2003) - Cambridge University Press. ] Similarly, the Yona colonists are also attested to have been settled in "Pandukabhaya" in Anuradhapura["Mahavamsa" (Chapter X, Trans: Wilhelm Gieger) says that King Pandukabhaya (ruled 437 BCE-367 BCE) built his capital city Anuradhapura in the 4th century BCE. This capital city had gates, suburbs, streets, places of worship and a separate quarters for the "Yonas" (Greeks).] [See also: "History of Ceylon", Vol I, Part I, p 89, Dr S. Parnavitana.] [Mahavamsa also claims: "From Kashmira came Uttina with 280,000 Bhikshus, from Pallavabhoga came Mahadeva with 460,000 Bhikshus and from Alasanda, the city of the Yonas, came the thera (elder) "Yona Mahadhammarakkhita" with thirty thousand bhikkhus to participate in the foundation ceremony of the Maha Thupa ("Great stupa") at Anuradhapura" (Mahavamsa, 12.37-39). The above evidences indicate that the Yonas or Yavanas had access to Sri Lanka and were operating as Buddhist missionaries and probably traders as well.] who were also probably a group of traders from the north-west. Several Iranian records speak of an embassy from Sri Lankan king to Iranian emperor Anusharwan (Ruled 531 AD-578 AD). Sri Lankan king is reported to have sent the Persian emperor ten elephants, two hundred thousand pierces of teakwood and seven pearl divers.
For Ancient Inscriptions of Sri Lanka and the Kambojas, see: [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Kambojas/removed#KAMBOJA_SRI-LANKA_CONNECTIONS]
Kamboja merchants in the Indo-China Peninsula
There is a Buddhistic reference to a trader and "Arhant" named "Bahya" who was native of Bharukachcha (modern Bhroach) in south-east Sauarashta/Gujarat.Apadana, (P.T.S.), Vol II, 476] He engaged himself in trade, voyaging in a sea ship. Seven times he sailed down the Indus and across the sea and returned safely home. On the eighth occasion, while on his way to Suvarnabhumi, his ship was wrecked, and he floated ashore on a plank, reaching land near Soparaka. [Entry 'Bahya' in [http://www.metta.lk/pali-utils/Pali-Proper-Names/baahiya.htm "Online Buddhist Dictionary of Pali Proper Names"] ; also see: "Dictionary of Pali Proper Names", Vol I, G. P. Malalasekera] This Buddhist evidence verifies that (1) trade ships plied between upper
Induscountries and the sea ports like Bharukachcha and Soparaka and (2) between Bharukachcha/Soparaka and Suvarnabhumi & further beyond as far as Indo-China as well. Other Buddhist texts also attest that there was a regular trade between Bharukaccha, Soparaka and Suvarnabhumi [See e.g. Jataka, Ed. Fausboll, III.188] and also between Suvarnabhumi and Benares (Molini), [Jataka, IV.15] Suvarnabhumi and Mithila, [Jataka VI.34] Suvarnabhumi and Savatthi, [Petavatthu Commentary (P.T.S.).47] and Suvannabhumi and Pataliputra. [Petavatthu Commentary (P.T.S.).271] Ancient Buddhist texts also attest that the distance between Sri Lanka and Suvarnabhumi was seven hundred leagues and with a favourable wind it could be covered in seven days and nights. ["Manorathapurani", Anguttara Commentary, Vol I. p 265; [http://www.metta.lk/pali-utils/Pali-Proper-Names/suvannabhuumi.htm] ] This powerful ancient evidence indisputably proves that the traders from Sri Lanka were in active trade with Suvarnabhumi and other states of Southeast Asia. Since both the Kambojaand Yona trading groups were already operating in Sri Lanka where they had set-up their trade-posts in Anuradhapura, it is perfectly reasonable to conclude that the lure of gold, spices, Sandalwood, Eaglewood and Camphor of Suvarnabhumi and other Southeast Asian states had tempted these merchants to venture further into Suvarnabhumi as well as into Indo-Chinese Archipelago. [ According to Dr S Levi, it was the lure of gold that attracted India to El-Dorado of the Far East. G. Coedes also writes: "India obtained gold from Siberia by way of caravans that crossed Bactria, but great movements of the peoples of Central Asia in the last two centuries before Christian era had cut this route and deprived India of the gold it needed. India therefore imported great numbers of gold coins from Roman empire during first century AD to meet her demand. This caused huge trade imbalance and the king Vespasian had to arrest the flight of coins to avert great threat to Roman economy. It is possible that the desire to find another source of gold was one of the reasons for exodus of adventurers toward the Golden Chersonese" ("The Indianized States of South East Asia", 1968, G. Coedes, p 20). ] It is therefore perfectly logical to assume that the Kamboja traders must have established another commercial settlement or colony in Indo-China in Southeast Asia as well. Very interestingly, there is also an ancient reference to a "Kambojagama" in Thailand, located south-east of Haripunjaya, in lower Menam. ["Indianised States of Southeast Asia", 1968, p 161, George Coedes; "Documents sur l'histoire politique et religieuse du Laos occidental", BEFFEO XXV, pp 82-83, 162-171; Annals du Siam II, pp 36-43] [There is also a reference to battle between the Kambojas of Ligor and the Monsof Haripunjaya (Lamphun) in various Pali Chronicles of composed in Chiangmai e.g: "The Chamadevivamsa, The Jinakalamali and The Mulasasna etc"; See also: The Indianised States of Southeast Asia, 1968, p 161, (cf also: p 136), George Coedes. These Pali Chronicles of refer to a "Kambojaraja" named "Sujita" who ruled in Ligor in Central Malaya. He attacked Mon kings Atrasataka (Arbaka or Baka) of Upper Menam and king Ucchittha of Lavo (Lopburi) of Lower Menam and seizes control of Lower Menam from the Mons (op cit, p 136, G. Coedes). Though G. Coedes speculates that Kambojaraja Sujita may have been Suryavarman-I, but the Pali story seems to relate to prior times. This Pali legend indicates that the Kambojas did have their earlier stronghold in Ligor in Central Malay. Later, the same Kambojas set-up a Kambojagama in Lavo, in lower Menam, after they seized control of lower Menam from the Mons.] Apparently, this "Kambojagama" implies another Kamboja settlement in Far East known after that one in Sri Lanka. The Kamboja traders-colonists seem to have reached Malay Peninsulafrom Sri Lanka via sea-route and then from Malay-Peninsula, following the "Takola-Mart" land-route, they appear to have reached Lavo or Lopburi in Thailand where they founded "Kambojagama", and then onwards, they may have reached Mekong Basin where they founded the "Kambuja" or "Kamboja" commercial settlement in Bassac near Vat Ph'u hills. The "Takola-Mart" land-route referred to above was discovered in the recent past by "Quaritch Wales" and has been mentioned in his book "The Way to Angkor" ["Studies in Indian History", p 42, K. M. Panikker] The reference to a battle between the Kambojas of Ligor and the Mons of Haripunjaya (Lamphun) based on various ancient Pali Chronicles composed in Chiangmai ("The Chamadevivamsa, The Jinakalamali and The Mulasasna") reveals that there had been an earlier Kamboja stronghold in Ligor in Central Malaya as well, from where the Kambojas had expanded into lower Menam. The launching pad for trade with Malaya (Suvarnabhumi) and Indo-Chinese states was obviously the Kamboja commercial settlement of Anuradhapura in Sri Lanka. The new commercial colony in Thailand was named "Kambojagama" and that in Vat-Ph'U near Bassac in Indo-China was named Kambuja understandably after the traders' clan/country name. [We are led to represent the eastward expansion of Indian Civilization at the beginning of Christian era as the result of commercial enterprises as a result of continual outflow of seamen originally recruited from among "merchants of the sea" of whom many types are depicted in the ancient Buddhist literature and who had particular devotion to Buddha Dipankara. Great number of Jataka tales, says Dr S. Levi have dealt with maritime adventures; the sea and seafaring clearly occupied an important place in the life of India at the time when these tales were conceived ] [According to celebrated G Coedes, there are number of indications that the Indian expansion in the first centuries AD was commercial in origin ("The Indianised States of Southeast Asia", 1968, p 19, George Coedes] [On the founding of the kingdoms in the Far East, George Coedes also states that the founding of these kingdoms i.e the transformation of a simple commercial settlement into an organised political state could have come in two different ways...(1) either an Indian imposed himself as the chief over a native population that was more or less strongly impregnated with Indian elements (2) or else a native chief adopted the civilization of the foreigners, strengthening his power by being Indianised. The change must have occurred in both ways. In cases of the first type, however, where the dynasty was purely Indian in origin, it is hardly possible that it could long remain so because of mixed marriages the immigrants of necessity entered into. ("Indianised States of Southeast Asia", 1968, p 24, G Coedes). This observation of G. Coedes seems to be very true for the Kambujas. George Coedes further observes that the Indian civilization of Southeast Asia was the civilization of an elite and not that of whole population whose beliefs and way of life are still very insufficiently known.]
The trail is clearly visible
The foregoing discussion demonstrates that from the Kamboja located in north-east Afghanistan, the
Kambojmerchants travelled to Gujarat/Saurashtra following either the well known Kamboja-Dvaravati land route or the water-course of river Indus. The landlocked port of "Kamboi" (Kamboika < Kambojika) and the "Gulf of Kambey" (Khambat or Kambat) in Saurashtra carry the unmistakable relics of the Kamboj presence in Gujarat. [It is pointed that the port of Vallabhi (Kambay or Khambat aka Gajni) was a flourishing sea port of Saurashtra which had been used for conducting sea trade with southern India, Sri Lanka, eastern India, Burma, Suvarnabhumi and Indo-China peninsula during the times of Maitrakarulers of Vallabhi.] From Gujarat following sea-route, the Kambojas sailed to Sri Lanka. The presence of 'Grand Trade Guild of Kambojas' ("Kabojhiya-mahapugiyana") as well as one 'Kamboja Sangha or Corporation' ("Gota-Kabojhi(ya] na") in ancient Anuradhapura province and one "Kambojagama" (Kamboja village) in Rohanaprovince in Sri Lanka verify ancient Kamboj trade-activities in that island. From Sri Lanka, the Kamboj traders/colonists took sea-route in Indian Oceanand reached Ligor (Central Malaya) which also seems to have formed another Kamboja commercial stronghold in Malay Peninsula. From Malay Peninsula following the "Takola-Mart land route", they reached central Thailand. The ancient "Kambojagama" located in the south-east of "Haripunjaya" in lower Menam verifies "Kamboja settlement" in Thailand as well. On further movement, the Kamboj colonists apparently reached "Bassac" near Vat-Ph'u hill in Mekong valley where they founded the well-known Kambuja or Kamboja colony of Indo-China. The above trail seems to be quite logical and scientific and probably leaves no room for suspicion or scepticism.
In the first century, AD, numerous Indians migrated to
Javaand settled down there for trade and commerce ["Hindu Culture in Greater India", 1949, p 29, Swami Sadananda.] as well as for spread of Buddhism. According to Chinese Buddhist records, "Guna Varman", grandson of the king of Kabol, arrived in China by way of Ceylon and Java in 424 AD and made his way to Capital of the Sung Dynasty of China. ["Journal of Royal Asiatic Society", April 1903, p 369, M. Anesaki.] See link: [http://books.google.com/books?id=-IUAAAAAMAAJ&vid=OCLC04208864&dq=Kamoj+Kambojas&jtp=125] . Within a few years of his departure, the ex-prince renounced his crown for monk's bowl, and came to convert the people of Chopo (Java) to Hinayana. The king of Java is sais to have built a Chaitya in his honor in Java. This evidence abundantly attests that the Kamboja-Dvaravati Route was alternatively used for travelling from Kamboja in north-west to Java and China via Ceylon; and that the land of the Kambojas and Gandharas in the north-west was in direct intercourse not only with Ceylon but also with Malaya/Java and further beyond with Indochina and China as well. Also the "Varman", the Kshatriya surname of the prince of Kabol powerfully connects the Kabol princes with Kambuja since the princes of Kambuja also used "Varman" as part of their names, and also traced their lineage to Aryan "Kambujas". This evidence sufficiently proves that the "Kambuja Varman rulers" of Kambodia may indeed have been connected with north-west Kambojas.
From commercial to political arena
With time, the Kamboja trade settlement in the land of abundance i.e Mekong basin grew in importance and assumed wider political dimensions. Possibly, the Kamboja trading community was soon followed by some adventurous Kamboja Chieftain (probably the
Kambuof the Cambodianlegends) accompanied by a band of soldiers who gave a political twist to the story and converted the commercial settlement into organised political State to be known as the Kambuja kingdom.
Some scholars like John Keay express doubts as to how could the Kambojas located in the extreme north-west of Indian subcontinent are related to the Kambuja rulers of Indo-China when the two were separated by a distance more than 3000 thousands miles! The answer to John's question is very simple as follows:-
"The merchants from Kamboja were already settled in ancient Sri Lanka prior to Christian era as is powerfully attested by numerous ancient epigraphic inscriptions of Sri Lanka. The distance, therefore, was never 3,000 miles (5,000 km) but much less and easy to traverse. Moreover, the incidence is not unique in history. We have somewhat similar analogy though separated in time by more than thousand years, in respect of the European traders who also came to India and Far-East as traders but later grew in power and became masters of the Indian subcontinent and of Cambodia. If the traders from European countries, located thousands of miles away could do it in India and Far East in seventeenth century AD, then the Kamboja traders from Saurashtra/Gujarat or better still from Sri Lanka could also have done it easily in the nearby Indo-China in 5th/6th centuries as well".
Legends about Kambuja
There are several myths on the origin of Kambuja kingdom in Southeast Asia.
An old tradition, written in the
Baksei Chamkronginscription, dated 947 A.D, explains that word Kambujaderives from the name of Svayambhuva Kambu, a learned prince from Arya-desa who reached Indochinapeninsula and married a nymph named Mera ("probably an indigenous maid") and founded the Kambuja or Kamboja dynasty in South East Asia[Southeast Asian Exodus: From Tradition to Resettlement, 1980, p 36,Elliot Tepper; Burroughs Dictionary: An Alphabetical List of Proper Names, Words, Phrases, 1987, p 200, George T. McWhorter; Inscriptions du Cambodge, II, pp. 10, 155, George Coedes.] . The union of Kambu and Mera, whose merged names probably also explain the origin of the term 'Khmer', produced a line of kings from which the Angkor sovereigns claimed descent [Khmer, the Lost Empire of Cambodia, 1998, p 26, Thierry Zephir; The World and South East Asia, 1972, p 377, Oswald Leopold Ziegler; Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings of the Names for Over 5000, p 72, Adrian Room.] . Robert Casey supposes that name "Kambuja" is etymologically related to the name "Kambu" as "Kambu+ja", where "ja" in Sanskrit is said to mean "son or descendant". Hence, Kambujas, the sovereigns of Angkor, according to Casey's interpretation, mean the "descendants of prince Kambu" [Four Faces of Siva, Indianapolis, 1934, p 88-100, Robert Casey: Bobbs-Merrill Company.] .
Commenting on the Kambu-Mera legend, Dr J. L.Kamboj writes that the Kambu legend seems to imply that some learned and adventurous chieftain from Kamboj lineage managed to reach Mekong basin and laid the foundations of Kambuja in Indo-China. According to Dr Kamboj, name Kambu and Kambuj are apparently corrupted forms of the standard Sanskrit term Kamboj ["Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country", 1981, pp 359-60] .
According to another legend, " 'A certain king of Adityavamsa of Indraprastha (near Delhi), being displeased with one of his sons, named Phra Thong, drove him out of his kingdom. The prince arrived in the country of Kok Thlok (the Khmer name of Kamboja meaning the land of the Thlok tree) where ruled a
Champrince who was dispossessed of his throne by the newcomer. One evening, the prince meets a Nagi of marvelous beauty on the sandbank by the rising tide with whom he immediately falls in love and makes his queen. The Naga-raja (the king of the Nagas), bride's father, increases his son-in-law's kingdom by drinking the water that covered the country, builds him a capital city and changes the name of the country to Kambuja or Kamboja' " [ Indian Cultural Influence in Cambodia, 1964, p 273, Dr B. R.j Chatterjee; Buddhist Studies in Honour of Walpola Rahula, 1980, p 249, Walpola Rāhula, Sōmaratna Bālasūriya; Asiatic Mythology: A Detailed Description and Explanation of the Mythologies, 1994, p 192, C. Huart, H. Maspero, J. Hackin, et al.] .
Another popular legend prevalent in Kambuja says that "In the country of Rome or Romaveisei, not far from Takkhsinla (Taxila), reigned a great and wise king. His son, the Vice king, Phra Thong by name- having done wrong, was banished and after many adventures, settled in Cambodia ["Die Volker der Oestlichen Asion", Vol I, p 393, Dr Adolph Bastian.] ["A History of Architecture in All Countries, 1876, p 665, James Fergusson ] [Short Studies in the Science of Comparative Religions, 1897, p 76,James George Roche Forlong.] . The time is not indicated but we gather from the context that it must have been 4 th century" " [Op cit. p 665, James Fergusson.] [See Link: [http://books.google.com/books?id=bNgDAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA665&dq=Camboja+wise+phra+thong] .] [Cf: Lotus Land: Being an Account of the Country and the People of Southern Siam, 1906, p 14, Peter Anthony Thompson.] . It is worth remembering that the Rumadesa or Rumaveisei was the ancient name of salt-range area located to the north-west Punjab. ["Studies in Geography of Ancient and Medieval India", p 62, n 2, Dr D. C. Sircar, Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, pp 355-56, Dr J. L. Kamboj ] Thus, Romaveisei or Rumadesa country was very contiguous to the ancient Kamboja which fact certainly implies that the young prince referred to in this Cambodian legend may have been the learned prince Kambu (Kamboj) referred to in the Kambu-Mera legend of Cambodia [It is an established fact that in ancient times the region between
Kabulto Kashmirwas populated by Serpent (Naga) and Sun (Aditya) worshipping people and was commonly called Kamboja (Refs: The Sun and the Serpent: A Contribution to the History of Serpent-worship, 1905, p 127-128, Charles Frederick Oldham - Serpent worship; Tree and Serpent Worship: Illustrations of Mythology and Art in India in the first and fourth century after Christ, 2004 (ed), p 46, James Fergusson; History of Indian and Eastern Architecture, Vol III, 1876, pp 297, 665/666, James Fergusson; Mémoires de la Société académique indo-chinoise, 1879, p 89, Société académique indo-chinoise, Paris; Short Studies in the Science of Comparative Religions Embracing All the Religions of Asia, 1998, p 76, J. G. R. Forlong).] .
The earliest known members of the Kamboja royal family in Kambuja from the lineage of sage-prince Kambu are prince Srutavarman (little son of prince Kambu), prince Shreshthavarman, prince Viravarman and princess Kambuja-rajalakshami.
On Soma Nagi and Apsara Mera legends
There is a very close anology between the mythical origin of the Pallavas of
Kanchiand of the Kambujasof Cambodia. Hermit Kaundinyavs "Nagi Soma" legend on the geneaological origin of the royal dynasty of Funanhas its counterpart in the Ashvathama vs "Nagi" legend in the geneaological myth of the Pallavas as described in the Rayakotto Copper plates. Again HermitKambu vs "Apsara Mera" legend on the geneaologyof the Kambuja kings of Kambodia has its close anology and kinship in the Ashvathamavs "Apsara Madani" legend on the origin of Pallavas as stated in some other copper plates of the Pallavas. According to Victor Goloubew, the Nagi legend takes its origin from the Scythians and plays a paramount part in the lands penetrated by the Pallavas and their culture. ["Les legendes de le Nagi et de l'Apsaras", "Bulletin de l'Ecole Francaise d'Extreme-Orient", Victor Goloubew; "The Legends of Nagi and the Apsras, Administration and Social Life Under the Pallavas" – 1938, p 25, Cadambi Minakshi] The Nagi legend of the Scythians, which Goloubew finely connects with the legends in Tamil literature in the Pallava Copper-plates as well as in the Cambodian annals, testifies to the spread of the Scythian legend from Central Asia to South of India as well as in the far Eastern kingdom of Kambhoja. [ Victor Goloubew speaks of the spread of the legend in the South of India and in the far Eastern kingdom of Kambhoja, see: "Administration and Social Life Under the Pallavas" - 1938, P 20, Cadambi Minakshi.] According to Cadambi Minakshi, the Nagi legend of the Scythians, which is also connected with legends in Tamil literature and Pallava copper-plates as well as the annals of Cambodia, deserves a special significance regarding the Pallava identity with Iranian Pahlavas. [ "Administration and Social Life Under the Pallavas" – 1938, pp 20, 25, 39, Cadambi Minakshi.] According to George Coedes, the Kambu vs "Apsara Mera" legend on the genealogy of Kambuja kings of Cambodia shows a close kinship with the geneaological myth of the Pallavas of Kanchi. ["Indinised States of Southeast Asia", 1968, p 66/67, G Coedes] Thus, it can be seen that the Scythian Nagi legend reveals close affinities and connections of the Pallavas of Kanchis with the Pahlavas of Central Asia. Likewise, the legend also connects the same Pallavas/Pahlavas with the Kambuja/Kambojas of Cambodia. Thus if north-western Pahlavas were indeed the originators of Pallava dynasty of Kanchi, then the Kambojas of North-west could also similarly be believed to have been the originators of the Kambuja dynasty of Cambodia. It needs to be emphasised here that a very close connection of the Sakas (Scythians), the Kambojas and the Pahlavas has been stated in numerous ancient Sanskrit texts like "Mahabharata" "Valmiki" "Ramayana" and the " Puranas" etc. In the Puranic literature, the Sakas, Kambojas Yavanas, Pahlavas and Paradas have been noted as closely allied tribes and have been referred to as "pañca.gana" (five hordes). [See for example, "Brahama Purana", 8.36; Harivamsa 14.4] "Ramayana" ["Ramayana" 1.52-55] also closely associates the Kambojas with the Pahlavas and the Sakas. So much so, according to "Mahabharata" evidence, the Sakas, Yavanas, Pahlavas and the Tusharasoldiery from Scythiahad joined the Kurukshetra Warunder the supreme command of Sudakshina Kamboja. ["Mahabharata" 5.19.21-23 etc] These outlandish tribes were all located in the Scythian belt in Central Asia and, therefore, were followers of a common culture and social customs, predominantly Iranic. Thus, based on Nagi/Apsara legends, it can be safely stated that the Kambuja ruling family of Cambodia had also its origin in north-western Kambojas of Indo-Iranian affinities.
The appearance of certain iconographic motives, of Iranian affinities, from Cambodia--viz: the pre-
Angkorian iconographyof images of Suryawith their short tunics, short boots and sashes similar to those of Zoroastrians; the cylindrical tiara of the statues of Vishnu; the mysterious "Scythian Brahman" mentioned several times in Khmer inscriptions; the name "Kambuja", obviously derived from the Iranian "Kamboja; and finally, the discovery at Oc Eoin western Cochin Chinaof an intaglio representing libation to fire and of a cabochon with a Sassanideffigy abundantly furnish tangible proof of Funan's relations with Iranian world. ["The Journal of Asian Studies" – 1956, P 384, Association for Asian Studies, Far Eastern Association (U.S.); "The Hinduized States of Southeast Asia: A Review" by LP Briggs - "The Far Eastern Quarterly", 1948 – JSTOR; "Indianized State of South East Asia", 1968, pp 46-47, George Coedes]
Vasishtha, Agasti, Kaundinya and Kambhoja connection
Vasishthaand Agasti were brothers and sons of Mitravaruna (Mithravaruna). Sage Vasishtha had several sons including Shakti, Indra Pramati, Kundina etc. From Vasishtha began the Vasishtha clan of the Brahmanas, from Kundina, the "Kaundinya" line and from Agasti the "Agastya" line of Brahmanas. There are several references in ancient Sanskrit literature which indicate close connections between the Vasishthas and ancient Kambojas. [See: Chudakarma Samskaara, Paraskara Grhyam-Sutram verse 2.1.23 (Commentary), Pt Harihar; Vamsa Brahmana (1.18-19) of the Sama Veda[http://titus.fkidg1.uni-frankfurt.de/texte/etcs/ind/aind/ved/sv/vb/vb.htm] ; Harivamsa Purana 14.01-19; Vayu Purana 88.127-43; Brahma Purana 8.35-51; Brahamanda Purana 3.63.123-141; Shiva Purana 7.61.23; Vishnu Purana 5.3.15-21, Padama Purana 6.21.16-33 etc; Valmiki Ramayana, Balakanda, 1.55 ] Sage Vasishtha and his descendants were mostly active in the Aryanisation of north and north-western India. But sage Agasti, sage Kundina and their descendants played active role in the Sanskritizationof southern India. One sage Kaundinya finds reference in Satapatha Brahamana (14-155,20) as well as in Mahabharata. There are numerous references to the Kaundinyas in Indian inscriptions and Tamil literature. Southern Indian recension of Ramayana refers to one Kambhoja sage who was close friend of sage Agasti and had his hermitage on the banks of river Godavari (See "Abduction of Sita": Panchavati: [http://www.indiangyan.com/books/otherbooks/shri_rama/panchabati.shtml] ). This epic reference, if to be believed, indicates that the seers from the Agastya, Kambhojaand Kaundinya lines were all involved in the Aryanisation of southern India. It appears likely that after these seers and missionaries had completed the Aryanisation of southern India, they had transplanted themselves to Southeast Asia including Suvaranabhumi and Indo-China in order to expand the boundaries of Aryan India. ["India and the World", p 156, Dr Buddha Parkash] Thus, we find respective references to sage Kaundinya as well as to prince Kambu or Kambuja (i.e. "Kamboja"), the founders of kingdom of Funan as well as of Kambuja as referenced in the ancient Kambodian legends.
For Kamboja-Vasishtha connections, see also:
Brahmanism of Ancient Kambojas
uryavamshi (solar) vs Chandravamshi (lunar) kings
Funan line of kings is said to have belonged to the lunar (Chandravamsa) lineage of
Kshatriyas. Likewise, the Kambuja line of kings is stated to have belonged to the solar (Suryavamsa) lineage. ["Cultural Heritage of India", Vol II, Dr S. K. Chatterjee, Inscriptions Sanskrites de Champa et Cambodge, p 30] This proves that so-called sage "Kaundinya" as well as the learned prince "Svayabhumva Kambu" (or Kambuja) were both from the Kshatriya lineage since SOLAR and LUNAR lineages are attributed to the Kshatriyas only. Therefore, it appears likely that Kaundinya, the so-called founder of Funan colony in Indo-China was probably a Kshatriya chief who became known as Kaundinya possibly because his family priests belonged to Kaundinya gotra Brahmins. Further, the family name of the kings of Kambuja is stated to have been "Cha'li" which means Kshatriya. ["Indianized States", 1967, pp 65, 213, G. Coedes; also Paul Pelliot, trans and ed. "Memoires sur les coutemes du Cambodge", BEFEO, II, p 123; Le Fou-nan, p 272] [ As per Aitreya Brahmana evidence, for the purpose of performance of Yajna/other religious rituals, the gotra of a Kshatriya would be same as that of his family priest/Chaplain/Purohit (i.e. A Kshatrya's gotra is the same as that of his family priest for religious functions/rituals etc..... See "Aitareya Brahmana", Ch 32, Kanda, 7, verse 25; Also see "Asvalayana Srauta-Sutra" XII,15; Also: "Some Kshatrya Tribes of ancient India", 1924, p 13-14, Dr B. C. Law; also see: "Vaisnavism, Saivism and minor Religious Systems" p 12, Sir R. G. Bhandarkar etc). It is because of this fact that the ancient Licchavis though Varatya Kshatriyas(See: "Manusmiriti" verse X.22; also see: "Jaiansutra", Part II, S.B.E., Vol XLV, p 321), have been called Vasetthas or Vasishthas in the Buddhist and Jaina sacred texts since their family purohits or priests were the Vasishtha Brahmanas (op cit. p 13-24, 150, Dr B. C. Law). Buddhist and Jaina Canonical works specifically inform us that that the Licchivis were Vasitthas or Vasishthas. Lord Buddha also spoke to the Licchavis as Vasishthas e.g. Licchavika ahansu. Anyadapi Bhagvan. Bhagavanaha, anyadapi Vasittha. Bhutapurvah Vasittha atitmadhvane Pancale Janapada Kampillanagare raja Brahmdatto nama rajyam karesi (Mahavastu Avadana--- see: "Le Mahavastu" edited by R. Senart, Vol I, pp 286, 289, 300); "Life of the Buddha", p 97ff, Rockhill; "Sacred Books of the East", XXII, p xii; Jainasutras, S.B.E. Vol XXII, p 193, Jacobi etc). Similarly, the Mallas, though Kshatriyas (Manusmriti X.22) are also addressed as Vasitthas (see: "Digha Nikaya", (Pali Text Series), Vol III, p 209)] [Further, though the Pallavas of Kanchi were from the Pahlavas (Iranian stock), who have been noted as one of the five well known Kshatriyas of Puranic accounts ("pānca-ganah") (i.e. Sakas, Kambojas, Yavanas, Pahlavas, Paradas), but still in their inscriptions, they are called "Bharadwajas" i.e of Bhardwaja Brahmin gotra since their purohits were Bharadwaj Brahmins, said to be from Ashvathama lineage.] If this evidence is to be believed, then we may have to accept that the founder-colonists of Funan and Kambuja dynasties were from Kshatriya lineage and were probably the Kambojas from Gujarat/Saurashtra.
Alternative views on routes of immigration
We have stressed here that the Kamboja colonists of Kambuja in Indo-China were from Saurashtra/Gujarat who had their "trade-posts" already operative in Anuradhapura in Sri Lanka. To all probability, it was a Kamboja section from Gujarat (or better from Sri Lanka) who had sailed to Far East as traders/merchants and colonised Kambuja in Indochina around centuries of AD. But alternatives views have also been suggested. According to Dr. P. C. Bagchi, the Kambojas who had set-up the Kambuja colony in Indo-China were a
nomadictribe of Central Asia and had reached Mekong basin via Tibet, following the land route behind the Himalayans. ["India and Central Asia", p 117, Dr P. C. Bagchi] It is interesting to note that Brahmanical Sanskrit text Brahma Purana, believed to be a creation of 5th century AD, attests one section of the Kambojas to have been living near Tibet/ Assam. The province Khamba of Tibet still carries the relics of Sankrit Kamboja. ["Brahma Purana", 53.19; "Critical Study of the Geographical Data in Early Puranas", p 168, Dr M. R. Singh; "Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country", 1981, pp 310, 328] Probably, they were a section of the Kashmiri/Pamiran Kambojas who may have receded to Tibet in the wake of Kushanpressure during first or second century AD. Noted scholar Sir James Fergusson has also listed one of the possibilities that the Kambojas might have followed the land route behind the Himalayan to reach Indochina ["History of Indian and Eastern Architecture", p 666, James Fergusson] Celebrated George Coedes also states that the penetrations of the colonists to Southeast Asia may have been through the narrow valleys of rivers originating in China and the confines of Tibet. ["Indianised States of Southeast Asia", 1968, p 11, G. Coedes] Chiang Kien, a Chinese Envoy to Bactria(127 BCE) leaves us evidence of the Bamboos and textiles being imported from South-west China and sold in the local markets of Afghanistan. On his enquiry, he learnt that these goods were first brought to East India through Yunnan, Burma-Tamralipti from where they came all the way to North India-Afghanistan following apparently the famed Uttarapathaland route. ["The History and Culture of Indian People, The Age of Imperial Unity", Vol II, p 644, Dr A. D. Pusalkar, Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr K. M. Munshi.] All these references sufficiently indicate the existence of alternative land routes by which the colonists including the Kambojas might have landed into Indo-China.
Opinions of some scholars
:Dr B. R. Chatterjee:
*"The descendants of the Kambojas are the modern Kambohs. Among 84 clans (gotras), the names of which are said to have been derived from the name of Siva, figure people of Maga reminding us of the Iranian Magi, and Kamari or Khamari, providing us with a probable explanation of the name Khmer, the people of Kamboja desa par excellence" [ Dr B. R. Chatterjee, [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0004-3648(1961)24%3A3%2F4%3C253%3AACTATK%3E2.0.CO%3B2-D "A current Tradition among the Kambojas of North India relating to the Khmers of Cambodia"] , "Artibus Asiae", Vol XXIV, p 253-254.] .
:Dr P. C. Bagchi & Dr S. Chattopadhyaya:
*"The Kambojas, a nomadic tribe, lived beyond Himalayas in
Central Asia. One of their branches entered India in very early times and after a while lost its identity as distinct people by merging into the local population, but other batches of them must have entered east Tibetand the valley of Mekongfrom another direction. By this assumption only, we can explain why the name Kambuja was given to the kingdom founded in the middle valley of the Mekong. In eastern Tibet their name can be traced in the name of the province of Khams and it was probably from this region that the Kamboja invasion of Assam took place in later times. A branch of them migrated to North Bengal at an early period though their actual invasion came at a later date" [ Journal, 1943, p 110, Greater India Society - India; India & Central Asia, p 117, Dr P. C. Bagchi; Racial Affinities of Early North Indian Tribes, 1973, p 76, Dr Sudhakar Chattopadhyaya - Ethnology India.]
*"The Indian colonists from north-west India (i.e. Kamboja, Gandhara, Romadeisha, Taxila) had reached Kambodia via Sea Ships launched from Suarashtra/Gujarat sea coasts of western India. Numerous legends and traditions with regard to Java and Kambodia are still prevalent in Gujarat/Kathhiawad regions which show that Gujarat seacoasts had been the launching pads for these sea-adventures to the Far East. These legends further shed light on trade relations between Java/Kambuja and the north-west India during first few centuries of Christian era". ["Bombay Gazetteer", Vol I, Part I, P 490] [http://books.google.com/books?vid=0R3-R7tpEUMU6YFrCTFpb0E&id=0bkMAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA498&lpg=PA491&dq=Java+Cambodia+Kamboja&num=100 link] .
:Prof Specht's views:
*"The people by whom this Punjab and Kashmir influence may have been introduced from north (into Cambodia) are the people who still call themselves Khmers to whose skill, as builders, the magnificence of Cambodian temples, lakes and bridges is apparently due. The resemblance of Cambodian and Kabul valley work of art recalls the praise of the Chinese writers of Han (BC 206 – AD 24) and Wei (AD 386 – 556) dynasties, of the craftmen of Kipin i.e Kophene or Kamboja -- that Kabul valley, whose skill was not less remarkable in sculpture and chiseling stones than in working gold, silver, copper and tin into vases and other articles". ["Journal Asiatique", II, 1883, p 333 and note 3, Specht; also: Java and Cambodia, "Bombay Gazetteer Presidency", 1904, Bombay.] Ninth century record of Pehova mention one architect Achyuta, son of Rama of Kambojas. [(Epigraphia Indica, I, p 243.]
*"The art of Angkor Vat dates only from ninth century. It is a mixture of Persian (Iranian) and Indo-European origin..." ["Meru to Can-cun - An Ethno-Historical Journey", 2004, p 254.] .
:Prof. Chandra Chakraberty:
*"The Kambojas were a
Sakatribe, possibly mixed with other Caspianclans who through Tibet, settled in Mekong Valley, known after them as Kambuja ["The Racial History of India", p 153, Chandra Chakraberty.]
:Phillip Baker's views:
*"Tibbetts (1957: 40) mentions two other places where
Arabs may have lived during the century; they were banned from China: Champaand Funan. While there again appears to be no conclusive evidence in either case there were certainly Muslims established in Champa by the eleventh century ("A History of South-east Asia" - 1955, Page 29, Daniel George Edward Hall; also Hall, 1981, p 221). There are also grounds for thinking that Persians may earlier have been established in Funan. The name Kambuja applied by the Khmers to their kingdom from not later than tenth century, is thought to be linked to the Persian Kambojas (Hall 1981: 31, 105)" ["Atlas of languages of inter-cultural communication in the Pacific, Asia and the Americas" by International Council of Philosophy & Hu - "Language Arts & Disciplines" – 1996, p 644, Phillip Baker; See also: "A History of South-east Asia", 1968, p 31, D. G. E. (Daniel George Edward) Hall ] .
:Dr R. K. Mukerjee:
*Dr R. K. Mukerjee, a distinguished Indian historian and scholar: "The far-famed ancient regions of India such as Gandhara, Kamboja, Kalinga, Dasarana, Malava, Sriksetra and Ayudhya etc had transplanted themselves across the seas into Indo-China". ["Culture and Art of India", 1959, p 221, Dr R. K. Mukerjee; cf also: "Fundamentals Unity of India (From Hindu Sources)", p 130, Dr R. K. Mukerjee.]
:Sir James Fergusson:
*"According to Sir James Fergussan: 'It must be born in mind that the country around
Taxila, including Kandhahar, Kabuland Udyana(in Swat valley) in ancient time was called Camboja[Tree and Serpent Worship: Illustrations of Mythology and Art in India in the first and fourth century after Christ, 2004 (ed), p 46, James Fergusson; History of Indian and Eastern Architecture, 1876, pp 28, 665/666 James Fergusson .] and it was the head-quarters of Serpent-worship. The architecture of Kashmirbears considerable resemblance to that of Cambodia. There is a general consensus that the Kambujascame from India. If this were so, it seems certain that it was not from the east coast that they migrated. The Indians who introduced Buddhismand Buddhist architectureinto Javawent there from Gujerator the country on the west-coast. This hardly seems doubtful, and there is a greater probability of a migration from upper Indus to Cambodia than from Gujerat to Java' " [History of Indian and Eastern Architecture, 1876, pp 665, 666 James Fergusson.] . "Ceylon was always addicted to Snake-worship and may have formed a half way house [The Kamboja presence in Sri Lankais is powerfully attested from several ancient epigraphs found in that Island. They belong as early as to third century BCE, according to Dr S. Paranavitana. For further information, see: Kamboja colonists of Sri Lanka.] . On the other hand, it is by no means improbable that migrations may have taken place behind the Himalayas; in fact, that the religion of the two countries was derived from some common center in northern India......The point is stressed here that there must have been a connexion between the two countries (i.e. Sri Lanka and Cambodia), and that the traditions of Cambodia point to Taxilaas their parent seat" [History of Indian and Eastern Architecture, 1876, p 666, James Fergusson.] [Adiparava of Mahabharata talks of Naga king, Takshaka, who had killed king Prikshita. Thereafter Prikshita's son Janmejya revenged on the Nagas by killing all the Nagas/snakes in Takshila region of north-west. It is noteworthy that this Takshasila city was in Gandhar and Gandharans and ancient Kambojans were real cousins as well as neighbors in the extreme north-west of India] [Cambodian temples were apparently designed to represent the cosmic "Mt. Meru" (Pamirs), the original home of the Aryans. The central sanctuary of the "Angkor Vat" temple complex represents Mt. Meru, the five towers symbolize Meru's five peaks, the enclosing wall represents the mountains at the edge of the world. "Mt Komudha" of Indian traditions is the name of mountainous region, north of Mt Meru (Pamir). In the anterior epic age, this was the name given to high table-land of the Tartary to the north of Himalaya (i.e Hindu Kush), from where the Aryansmay have pushed their way southwards into Indian Peninsulaand preserved the name as a relic of old mountain worship (Thomson). Now as is also well known now, Mt Meru (Pamirs) was also the original home of the Indo-Iranian Kambojas. It is therefore believable that the Kamboja colonists of Indo-China had carried this name and concept with them as a sweet memory of their past connections with the sacred Pamirs.] [ cf: "The wonderful character of the (Angkor) temple's structure points to Grecian or Roman models; the architecture, says Fergusson, is a sort of Roman Doric, the ornaments (bassi-relievi) are borrowed from the Ramayana and Mahbharta, and fade into Hindoo myths. The people are Indian, and the aborigines are an abject race. Dr Bastian says that local tradition " makes their ancestors come from MYAN-Rona, or ROMA-VisEI, not far from Tagcasna", which according to Fergusson is Taxila, the first Aryan capital of Northern India, and about which Alexander and his hosts long hung. "Taxila, as already shown, was a N capital for ages; and Fergusson, quoting Wilford, says that the ancient people of Taxila came from a country called Kamboja"; their capital was Indra-prastha (Inthapata-poori) and Siam became their Ayoodhia, or Ayoodthya, or Oud. Kashmeer Hindoo-Naga temples, were of Grecian Doric; and here, in far East Kambodia, we see the later Roman Doric." ("See: "Rivers of Life", Part 1, or "Sources and Streams of the Faiths of Man in all Lands Showing the Evolution of Faiths from the Rudest Symbolisms to the Latest Spiritual Developments", 2002, p 110, J. G. R. Forlong - Kessinger Publishing)" ".] .
*"Writes G. Coedes: "Perhaps the reign of this foreigner (i.e Indian prince Chan-ta'n who seized the throne of Funan in 357), coming after the exchange of embassy with Murundas (Kushanas), accounts for some connections we are tempted to establish in several fields between Funan and ancient Cambodia on the one hand and the Iranian world on the other. We will see later that at the end of fifth century, the servant of a king of Funan bore the name or title of Chiu-ch'ou-lo, which could be identical with title Kujula in use among the Kushans. A little later, in seventh century, we see a Scythian (Saka) Brahman arriving from Dekkan and marrying the daughter of king Ishanvarman I. The pre-Angkorian iconography of images of Surya, with their short tunics, short boots and sashes similar to those of Zoroastrians, is clearly of Iranian inspiration. Perhaps these images represent the sun considered as a Magian or Scythian Brahman., who is designated by the name Sakabrahmana in Angkorian epigraphy. Even the cylindrical coiffure of the pre-Angkorian images of Vishnu can be regarded as showing Iranian influence. It is true that the immediatev model for this hair style is found in the sculpture of the Pallavas of Kanchi, but we also know that one group of scholars is convinced of the northern origin of the Pallavas, maintaining that they are descendants of the Pahlavas. Finally, even the name of the Kambujas, the heirs of Funan, may be related to the Iranian Kambojas. It would be imprudent for the moment to push these comparisons too far, but the discovery at Oc Eo in western Cochin China of an intaglio representing libation to fire and of a cabochon with a Sassanid effigy has furnished tangible proof if Funan's relations with Iranian world". [Indianized State of South East Asia, 1968, p 47, George Coedes. See Link [http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=iDyJBFTdiwoC&oi=fnd&pg=PR10&sig=h8TM5D4-p50_2J6Nak34xYrITOc&dq=Kambojas+Iranian&prev=http://scholar.google.com/scholar%3Fq%3DKambojas%2BIranian%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26sa%3DG] ; "The Hinduized States of Southeast Asia: A Review by LP Briggs" - "The Far Eastern Quarterly", 1948 – JSTOR]
:Dr Buddha Parkash:
* "A Kushan prince Chan-ta-n, who had transplanted himself into Indo-China is said to have seized the throne from the ruling dynasty of Funan. Following this, the Shakas and some other related people also entered Indo-China. It is reasonable to believe that the Kambojas had joined this move and set up a Kambuja colony in the north of Funan kingdom. [India and the World, 1964, 155, Dr Buddha Parkash] "The author of the Vayu Purana uses Kushadvipa for Kumudadvipa. This Kumuda is the Komdei of Ptolemy and represents an Iranian tribe living in the frontiers of ancient India, especially in the Badakshan region. In the succeeding centuries, a section of these people had settled on the Indian plains. It is believable that at the start of Christian era, a section of this people had also moved to South-East Asia and settled in what later came to be known as Kambuja. They went to other places as well". ["India and the World", 1964, p 71, Dr Buddha Parkash]
:Walpola Rāhula and Sōmaratna Bālasūriya:
*"A legend says that the Kambojas, who played an important role in the Mahabharata War migrated (after the victory) eastwards across the Bay of Bengal and settled down in modern Cambodia giving their name to the country...". [ Buddhist Studies in Honour of
Walpola Rahula– 1980, P 242, Walpola Rāhula, Sōmaratna Bālasūriya; cf: Theosophist Magazine (January 1958-August 1958), (2003), p 99, Kessinger Publishing. ]
*"Kambuja, the ancient name of Cambodia in South east Asia, has possibly derived its name from that of the Kambojas, a
Hindutribe who colonized the Country". ["Tribes of Ancient India", 1977, p 18, Mamta Choudhury.]
:The Indian Review:
*"Camboj (Cambodia) was colonised by Indians coming from Kambhoj (a country near Taxila.) There is a reference to Indian migration in 65 B. C, and Haddon says that the Javanese
ballads tell of an Indian princewho came to Java about 78 or 120 AD where he found a nomadic people" ["The Indian Review", Vol XXVII, Jan to DEc 1926, p 652, edited by G.A. Natesan, G.A. Natesan & Co, Original from the University of Michigan.] .
*"It has been suggested that enterprising people from Gujarat and north gave the names of their original homes to their new ones wherever they settled or colonized. Thus Cambodia is from Kamboja in Kabul, Madura, in the south is from Mathura, as also Muttra on the coast of Ceylon,
Arabiaand Java………………". [ "Cultural History of Gujarat" – 1965, P 76, Bernard Brodie.]
: I. M. Muthanna:
*"According to the great Indologists, the Civilization of Burmese and Tibetans is derived from India. The Burma or Brahma is purely of Indian origin. Lower Burma or
Peguhad been conquered by emigrants from Eastern India and there have been regular flow of people between India and South-East Asia. About the colonization of Cambodia, it was said, that about the 4th century AD, a band of adventurers of Takshashila, called Kambhoja, that great university centre of northern India, set off to South-East Asia where they founded a kingdom called Cambodia" " . ["People of India in North American: (part First)" – 1975, P 2, I. M. Muthanna.]
*"The Kamboj originally lived in Kamboja located at the foot of Indian
Caucasus. From there they proceeded to the shores of the distant Pacific oceanand established the Kingdom of Kamboj which is now Cambodia. ["The Social History of Kamarupa", 1983, p 132, Nagendranath Vasu".]
:Dr J. L. Kamboj:
*"The ancient Kambojas are known to have been living in Pamir- Badakshan. With time, section of them crossed Hindukush and settled not only in Kabol, Gandhar and Kashmir but during second/first centuries BCE, in alliance with Shakas, Yavanas and Parthavas they had spread into Sindhu Sauvira, Gujarat-Kathiwad, Rajasthan, Punjab as well as eastern and southern parts of India as well. A group from these Kambojas had later went to South-East Asia and set-up a Kambuja colony in Mekong basin in Indo-China…..……..The Kambojas who founded the Kambuja colony in Mekong basin came from north-west Kamboja following the land route through Siam and Laos". [ "Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country", 1981, p 360, 364, Dr J. L. Kamboj]
*"Until fifth century AD, the Parthians, Shakas and the Kambojas had been ruling in northern/north-western parts of India. The Kamboja kingdom of the north-west became a first target to the Hunas in 470 AD in which the Kambojas appear to have lost the battle. These were indeed difficult times for the Kambojas since little later they had also lost Kathiawad- Gujarat to the invaders. As a consequence, a section of the Kambojas had left India either via Bengal and Burma, following a land route via
Siamand Laosto Indo-China or else after the destruction of Vallabhi in Saurashtra, they left Gujarat, sailed along west coast of India following sea route via Sri Lanka, reached Indo-China and founded the Kambuja kingdom there". ["Tarikh-i-Kambohan", p 132-133, Chaudhury Bawauddin]
:O. P. Paliwal:
*'There is a community known as Kamboj living in northern India. They have been associated both with Gandhara (present
Kandhaharin Afghanistan) region of Ancient India and with the Cambodia in SE Asia. J. L. Nehru writes in his "Discovery of India" that the settlers gave old Indian names to their settlements in Cambodia. Thus, Cambodia as it is known today was ancient Kamboja, which was an important city in ancient Gandhara. Great epic "Mahabharata" mentions the role of the Kamboj army in the battle of Kurukshetra. Kambuj army and Kamboj prince Sudakshin had taken part in the great war on the side of Kauravasagainst the Pandavas. Kamboj also find mention in Brahmanda Purana, one of our eighteen Puranas, supposed to have been written between second and fourth century AD. The Indian settlers in Cambodia called themselves Kamboj and thus began the era of Khmerization of the then prevailing civilization in the Orient' ["Cambodia, Past and Present", 1991, pp I-viii, 1-8, O. P. Paliwal.] .
:Journalist Rama Rao:
*"Kambhojas are anciently mentioned to live in the region of Punjab and there is an echo of a migration to somewhere on the Godavari. Later from there seafarers and adventurers gave the name to a region of southeast Asia --Kampuchea or Cambodia. "' [ [http://www.fortunecity.com/greenfield/tree/21/pplmanu.htm Ancient racism, from the guys who invented it ] ]
:Prof Sudarshan Tiwari:"Commenting on verses (X.43-44) of Manusmriti, [:shanakaistu kriya-lopadimah "Kshatriya-jatayah".
:vrashalatvam gata loke brahmna-darshanen cha. ||43|
:Paradah Pahlavash-Chinah Kirata Daradah Khashah. ||44|
:— "(Manusmriti, X/43-44)"] Prof Tiwari writes as under: "Shakas were white skinned tribes according to legend on contests between Vasishtha and
Viswamitraof the epics. According to Manusmriti(X.43-44), they, along with Paundrakas, Odras ("who are called Andhras in Indian history"), Dravidas, Kambojas ("the Vermas who later ruled Cambodia"), Yavanas, Paradas, Pahlavas (the Verma Kings of later Mamallapuram), Chinas(Chin rulers of China?), Kiratas(rulers of Nepalmountains), Daradas, and Khasasas 'Varatya Kshatriyas' (Kalluka's comments) …… " [ [http://www.south-asia.com/sarosh/A05articles1.htm] ]
Besides the above, numerous other scholars also accept the historical relationships between Indo-Iranian Kambojas and Kambodia.0
ome hints on India's commercial intercourse with the Far-East
*There are numerous references in Indian texts, accounts of Arab travelers, Chinese historical accounts, old inscriptions as well as the magnificent ruins of ancient monuments like Angkor and
Borobudurwhich demonstrate India's ancient connections with the Far East. The old stories in Sanskrit contain many accounts of perilous sea voyages and ship-wrecks. Non-Indian accounts like those from the Greeksand Arabs show that there was a regular maritime intercourse between India and the Far East, at least, as early as first century BC. ["Discovery of India", p 200-202, Jawahar Lal Nehru] Ancient books like Kathasagara, Buddhist Jatakas etc refer to the fascinating regions of the Far East including Suvarnabhumi, the fabulous "Land of Gold.". ["The Soul of India" - by Amaury de Riencourt p.158-162] Evidence shows that wave after wave of traders, colonists, priests and craftsmen reached southern Asia, Ceylon, Siam and distant Cambodia both from east and west coasts of India. A prince from Gujarat is said to have embarked with 5000 followers in 6 large and about 100 small vessels and settled at Matarem in the center of the Java in 603 AD. Extensive trade and commerce was carried on with Gujarat and other countries, and the bay of Matarem was filled with adventurers from all parts. ["History of Java", II, p. 87, Sir Stamford Raffles (1781-1826; "Periplus of the Erythrean Sea" - W.H. Schoff p. 245] The Indian colonists brought Indian art and architecture into Far East where the Indian sculptureachieved its greatest triumphs ". [ Ancient Indian Culture At A Glance - By Swami Tattwananda p. 214] Passenger ships plied regularly between the Gujarat, Ceylon, Gangesand Malay Peninsula (Suvarabhumi) in the middle of the first millennium A.D. ["ALL GRATITUDE TO MYANMAR", Vipassana Center News Letter, Vol. 7, No. 10 : 14 December 1997, by S. N. Goenka [http://www.vri.dhamma.org/newsletters/nl9712.html] ; "The Soul of India" - Amaury de Riencourt p.158-162] "There is a confirmation of the account we have of the large ships from the time of Agatharcides down to the 16th century, the ships of Gujarat which traversed the Indian Ocean in all ages." (Dr V. A. Smith)
*According to Pandit Nehru: "From the first century of the Christian era onward wave after wave of Indian colonists spread east and south-east reaching Ceylon, Burma, Malaya, Java,
Sumatra, Borneo, Siam, Cambodia, and Indo-China. ………. There appear to have been four principal waves of colonization from the first century A.C. and in between there must have been a stream of people going eastwards. But the most remarkable feature of these ventures was that they were evidently organized by the state….. The Cambodia, as it is known now, was called Kamboja, which was a well known town in ancient India, in Gandhara or the Kabul Valley. This itself indicates roughly the period of this colonization, for at that time Gandhara (Afghanistan) must have been an important part of Aryan India". ["The Discovery of India", 1985, p 202-205, Jawahar Lal Nehru]
*Cultural Heritage of Ancient India observes: "The impact of Indian trade and culture in the neighboring countries is traced as early as third century B.C. if not earlier. Indians migrated in large numbers to
Malaysiaand Indonesiain ancient times. We find place-names in Sanskrit in Sumatra, Java, Champa, Kambuja, Suvarnabhumi and Suvarnadvipa bearing unmistakable evidences of the early cultural and commercial, if not political, colonisation of the Western Pacific by the Indians. The earliest inscriptions so far traced in Champa ( Vietnam), Java and Borneo were inscribed in the Brahmiscript of north Indian variety and in Sanskrit language........Indian merchants, princes, priests, monks, and intellectuals both Brahmanical and Buddhist cooperated intensively with the gifted indigenous populations. Thus the foundation was laid of the "Greater Indian Concept" which was predominantly a cultural expression of the collaboration of the races and nations….." ["Cultural Heritage of Ancient India", Atlantic Highlands, N.J., Humanities Press, 1983, pp 112-113, S.K. Maity]
*Prof Ratanlal Joshi writes: "Kashmir has not only been the source for the development of Sanskrit literature but the stories of "Mahabharata", "Ramayana" and Buddha spread throughout Asia, China, and Japan from this region only. It was from Kashmir that Indian culture along with Sanskrit literature and Buddhism traveled to various countries of Asia and merged with their cultures. Even today, this is visible in the cultures of Indonesia,
Philippines, Malaya, Kamboj (Cambodia) and Siam. Kashmir has acted as a launch-medium to spread the Indian culture all over Asia. It was a medium and a central point from which Indian culture spread from Sri Lanka to Central Asia and from Egyptto Japan.... The China and Kambodia are also known to have been receiving their consignments of saffronfrom Kashmir.....". Further, according to the same author, the Kambojas had also ruled over Kashmir. Mahabharata (VII.4.5) also informs us that the Kambojas had ruled over Kashmir. ["Karana Rajapuram gatva Kamboja nirjita-stvaya MBH VII.4.5 & MBH 7.91.39-40".] Thus, the above text from Prof Joshi also implies that cultural and commercial intercourse existed between Kashmir/Kamboja of north-west the Kambuja/Cambodia of Southeast Asia. ["Kashmir: The Fountainhead of Indian Culture", by Ratanlal Joshi [http://www.koausa.org/Crown/fountain.html] .]
Prince Norodam Sihanouk and Indian Kambojas
Prince Norodom Sihanouk, king of Cambodia visited India in March 1955. The Indian Kambojas organized grand meeting on March 18in New Delhiwhere the prince was honored and was presented an "Abhinandan Patra" on behalf of the "'All India Kamboj Mahasabha", by its President, Dr Ganga Singh Soni. Remarked prince Sihanouk "I am fortunate to be among my Indian Kamboj brethren and am proud of my ancient blood connection with the Indian Kambojas....". On special invitation from the Cambodian prince, a four member delegation of the Indian Kambojs comprising Dr Ganga Singh Soni, S. Hazara Singh Jossan, Col Lal Singh Turna and S. Himat Singh Thind visited Cambodia on November 13, 1959to participate in the "Jalutsava" celebrations which is a national festival of Kambodia. The Kamboj delegation was given a wide publicity and rousing royal reception in Cambodia and its members were treated as special Guests of the State of Cambodia. ["Kamboj Itihaas", 1972, pp 283-291, H. S. Thind; "These Kamboj People", 1979, p 160, Kirpal Singh Dardi; cf also: "Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country", 1981, p 360, Dr J. L. Kamboj]
Intermarriages and blood mixing
The colonists and the ruling families of Kambuja who originally came from north-west Kamboja, for reasons of convenience, married with the local elites and thus there apparently occurred a blood mixing between the original population and the new colonists, at least, at the surfacial layer. This possibility has also been accepted by G Coedes and other scholars on this subject.
Books and magazines
*"Les Etats hindouises d'Indochine et d'Indonesie," 1964, George Coedes
*"Indianised States of Southeast Asia," 1968, George Coedes
*"Inscriptions du Cambodge," Vol I, George Coedes
*"Bulletin de la Société des études indochinoises, Société des études indo-chinoises"
*"Bulletin de la Societe des Etudes Indochinoises, volume 24, Pierre Dupont"
*"A History of South-east Asia," 1955, Daniel George Edward Hall
*"The Journal of Asian Studies," 1956, Association for Asian Studies, Far Eastern Association (U.S.)
*"Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country," 1981, Dr J. L. Kamboj
*"The Kambojas Through the Ages," 2005, S. Kirpal Singh
*"Ancient Buddhist texts 'Petavathu Jataka', 'Sihalavattu', etc."
*"These Kamboj People," 1979
*"Kaamboj Itihaas," 1972, H. S. Thind
*"India and the World, Hoshiarpore, 1961, Dr Buddha Parkash"
*"The foundamental Unity of India (From Hindu Sources), 1914, p 130, by Radhakumud Mookerji"
*"Bombay Gazetteeer," Vol I, Part I
*"Artibus Asiae," Vol XXIV, Dr B. R. Chatterji
*"India and Central Asia," Dr P. C. Bagchi
*"Indian Antiquary," II, 1883, Prof Specht
*Inscriptions of Kambuja, Dr R. C. Majumdar
*"On Merchants and Monsters: Common Motifs in Tales from Medieval China and 19th-century Bukhara," by Siamak Adhami
*"History of Ceylone," Vol I, Part by Dr S. Parnavitana.
*"The Archaeology of Seafaring in Ancient South Asia", [Cambridge World Archaeology] , 2003, Himanshu Prabha Ray, Norman Yoffee, Susan Alcock,
Tom Dillehay, Stephen Shennan, Carla Sinopoli
*"Ships and the Development of Maritime Technology on the Indian Ocean, 2002, David Parkin, Ruth Barnes"
*"The Sun and the Serpent: A Contribution to the History of Serpent-worship, 1905, Charles Frederick Oldham"
*"Tree and Serpent Worship: Illustrations of Mythology and Art in India in the first and fourth century after Christ, 2004 (ed), James Fergusson"
*"History of Indian and Eastern Architecture, 1899, James Fergusson"
*"Mémoires de la Société académique indo-chinoise, 1879, Société académique indo-chinoise, Paris"
*"Short Studies in the Science of Comparative Religions Embracing All the Religions of Asia, 1998, J. G. R. Forlong"
*"Rivers of Life, Part 1, or Sources and Streams of the Faiths of Man in all Lands Showing the Evolution of Faiths from the Rudest Symbolisms to the Latest Spiritual Developments, 2002, p 110, J. G. R. Forlong - Kessinger Publishing"
*"Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency," by Bombay (Indian state); read pages 491 & 498 to 500 [http://books.google.com/books?vid=0R3-R7tpEUMU6YFrCTFpb0E&id=0bkMAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA498&lpg=PA491&dq=Java+Cambodia+Kamboja&num=100 link]
*"A Current Tradition among the Kambojs of North India Relating to the Khmers of Cambodia," Dr B. R. Chatterji'; read pp 253-254 [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0004-3648(1961)24%3A3%2F4%3C253%3AACTATK%3E2.0.CO%3B2-D link]
Migration of Kambojas
History of Sri Lanka
Kamboja colonists of Sri Lanka
Sage Kambu Swayambhuva
*All Gratitude To Myanmar: [http://www.vri.dhamma.org/newsletters/nl9712.html]
*International Relations in Ancient and Medieval Lanka: [http://www.lankalibrary.com/phpBB/viewtopic.php?p=3009&%20-%2040k]
*The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: [http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/periplus.html]
*International Trade Of Sindh From Its Port Barbaricon (Banbhore) 200 BC to 200 AD: [http://www.panhwar.com/Article60.htm]
*A Tribute to Hinduism - Seafaring in Ancient India: [http://www.atributetohinduism.com/Seafaring_in_Ancient_India.htm]
*Early Indian Trade and the Traders: [http://education.vsnl.com/atreyi/early_trade.html]
*On Merchants and Monsters: Common Motifs in Tales from Medieval China and 19th-century Bukhara: [http://indiaculture.net/talk/messages/128/10363.html?1073923318]
*The Beginnings of Civilization in South India: Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 29, No. 3 (May, 1970), pp. 603-616, Clarence Maloney
*A Tribute to Hinduism - Seafaring in Ancient India: [http://www.atributetohinduism.com/Seafaring_in_Ancient_India.htm]
*Kambojas and Kambodia: [http://www.kambojsociety.com/kambodia.asp]
*Indianized State of South East Asia: G Coedes, 1968; Read pp 46-47:
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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