- Ian Standish Monteith Hamilton
Infobox Military Person
name=Sir Ian Standish Monteith Hamilton
lived=16 January 1853 — Death date and age|1947|10|12|1853|1|16|df=yes
caption=Sir Ian Hamilton
United States of the Ionian Islands
Gordon Highlanders Commandant, School of Musketry at Hythe Colonel- 9th Royal Scots, 3rd Manchester Regiment, and the Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders 7th Brigade( South Africa) Mediterranean Expeditionary Force
battles= Second Anglo-Afghan War
First Boer War Mahdist War North West Frontierskirmishes Second Boer War Russo-Japanese War
World War I (
Battle of Gallipoli)
awards=Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George
Distinguished Service Order Territorial Decoration Order of the Red Eagle Order of the Crown (Prussia) Spanish Order of Merit Order of the Sacred Treasure
Christian Monteith Hamilton; Duke of Marlborough
Aide-de-campto Sir Frederick Roberts(1882-1893); Military Secretaryto C-in-C for India, Sir George White(1893-95)
Quartermaster-General, India(1895-1897) Chief of Stafffor Lord Kitchener(1899-1901) Quartermaster-General(1903-05)
General Officer Commanding Southern Command (1905-09)
Adjutant-Generalof the Army (1909-10)
General Officer Commanding Mediterranean and Inspector-General of Overseas Forces (1910-1914)
Commander-in-Chief of Home Forces (1914-1915)
Lieutenant of the Tower (1918-20)
Rector of the University of Edinburgh(1932-35) GeneralSir Ian Standish Monteith Hamilton GCB GCMG DSO TD (16 January 1853 — 12 October 1947) was a general in the British Armyand is most notably known for commanding the ill-fated Mediterranean Expeditionary Forceduring the Battle of Gallipoli.
Hamilton was politically a Liberal. He spoke German, French and Hindustani, was considered charming, courtly and kind. He appeared frail, yet was full of energy. He was twice recommended for the
Victoria cross, but on the first occasion was considered too young, and on the second too senior. [Carlyon, Les. (2002). "Gallipoli," p.17.] He was wounded in the wrist in the First Boer War(1881) at the Battle of Majuba, leaving his left hand almost useless. His left leg was shorter than the right, as a result of a serious injury falling from a horse.
Different people came to hold differing opinions of him. Prime minister
Herbert Asquithremarked that he had 'too much feather in his brain', whereas Charles Bean, war correspondent covering the Gallipoli campaign considered he had 'a breadth of mind which the army in general does not possess'. He opposed conscription and was considered less ruthless than other successful generals. [Carlyon, p. 18.]
He wrote a volume of poetry and a novel contemporarily described as risqué. Works included "The fighting of the future", "Icarus", "A jaunt on a junk", "A Ballad of Hadji" and "A Staff officer's Scrapbook". Witing in the introduction of his "Gallipoli Diary", he commented: "There is nothing certain about war except that one side won't win". [Hamilton, Ian. (1920). "Gallipoli Diary," p. __.]
Hamilton's father was Colonel Christian Monteith Hamilton, former commander of the 92nd Highlanders. His mother Corinna was the daughter of the third
Viscount Gort. His mother died giving birth to his brother, Vereker. He was educated in Cheam, Surrey and then at Wellington college. His father then sent him to stay with General von Damimers, a Hanoverian who had fought against Prussia. He married Jean Muir in 1887, daughter of a Glasgowbusinessman.
Hamilton was filmed as part of a war documentary 'Forgotten Men' in 1934 (aged 81). [cite web| url=http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0418691/#comment |title=Forgotten Men|date=1934|accessdate=2008-06-02]
Sandhurstmilitary academy in 1870, the first year that entrance to the army was by examination rather than by purchasing a commission. In 1871 he joined the Suffolk regiment but shortly after transferred to the second battalion Gordon Highlandersstationed in India, taking part in the Afghan War.
First Boer Warhe was present at the battle of Majuba, where he was injured and then taken prisoner. He returned to England to recover, where he was treated as a hero and introduced to Queen Victoria. In 1882 he was made captain and took part in the Nile expedition of 1884-1885, becoming brevet major and winning the Khedive's star. In burma 1886-1887 he became Brevet Lieutenant Colonel. In Bengal from 1890-1893 he became Colonel in 1891 together with a D.S.O.. 1893-1895 part of Chitral Expedition as military secretary to Sir George White, commander in chief of forces in India. 1895-1898 Deputy Quarter Master General in India. 1897-1898 commanded the third brigade in the Tirah Campaign, where his left arm was injured by a shell.
Second Boer Warhe was attached to the Natal Field Force as acting adjutant general and commanded the infantry at the Battle of Elandslaagte. He took part in the Battle of Wagon Hillat Ladysmith and was frequently mentioned in despatches. He was knighted in 1902, was promoted major general, received a K.C.B.and became Chief of Staff to Lord Kitchener. The war correspondent Winston Churchilltold of his campaign from Bloemfonteinto Pretoriain " Ian Hamilton's March" (London, 1900, reprinted as the second half of "The Boer War"), having first met Hamilton in 1897 when they sailed on the same ship. Hamilton travelled 400 miles from Bloemfontein to Pretoria fighting 10 major battles with Boer forces and fourteen minor ones, and was recommended twice for the Victoria Cross(which was considered inappropriate because of his rank).
In 1904-1905, Hamilton was the military attaché of the Indian Army serving with the Japanese army in
Manchuriaduring the Russo-Japanese War. Amongst the several military attachés from Western countries, he was the first to arrive in Japan after the start of the war. [Chapman, John and Ian Nish. (2004). [http://sticerd.lse.ac.uk/dps/is/IS475.pdf "On the Periphery of the Russo-Japanese War," Part I, p. 53 n42,] Paper No. IS/2004/475. Suntory Toyota International Centre for Economics and Related Disciplines (STICERD), London School of Economics and Political Science(LSE).]
This military confrontation between a well-known European army and a less-familiar Asian army was the first time the tactics of entrenched positions for infantry were defended with machine guns and artillery. This was the first twentieth century war in which the technology of warfare became increasingly important, factors which came to dominate the evolution of warfare during World War I.
Hamilton wrote that cavalry was obsolete in such a conflict, though many cavalry forces were deployed in World War I by the British army. He became a supporter of non-traditional tactics such as night attacks, and the use of aircraft.
Kitchener appointed Hamilton to command the Allied expedition to gain control of the
Dardanellesstraits from Turkeyand capture Constantinoplein March 1915. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ANZAC_Day Beginnings of the Memorial Day] Hamilton was 62 and had been in charge of Land defenses for England. Whilst a senior and respected officer, perhaps more experienced in different campaigns than most, he was considered too unconventional, too intellectual and too friendly with politicians to be given a command on the western front. [Carlyon, pp. 16-17.] Hamilton was not given a chance to take part in planning the campaign. Intelligence reports were poor and grossly underestimated the strength of defending forces and their willingness to fight. It was conceived that a force of 70,000 men would be adequate to rapidly overpower the defenders.
The plan to take control of the Dardanelles and open a new front in the war had been considered in various forms in 1914. In November that year, British ships shelled the outer forts, causing the magazine at Seddülbahir castle to explode. In December, a submarine entered the channel and attacked a Turkish battleship, Çannakkale. Both these events raised the hopes of the British that an easy victory might be had, but as a consequence the Turks set about laying mines through the channels to prevent ships approaching and strengthened the fortifications. On 3 January 1915
First Sea Lord, Admiral Fisherpresented a plan to the War council for a joint naval and military attack, using 75,000 troops, but only if the attack could be launched immediately. By 21 January, he wrote privately to Admiral Jellicoethat he could not approve the plan unless 200,000 men were available. Churchill himself, as First Lord of the Admiralty, had initially suggested in September 1914 that the support of 50,000 men would be needed.
An attempt was made commencing 19 February to take the strait using naval power alone. For the large ships to approach and shell the forts, the mines had to be cleared. The mines could not be cleared because of inadequate minesweepers, and the ongoing shell fire from the forts. The plan had been conceived with the idea of only sending second-rate ships which were considered expendable. On 18 March the British and a squadron of French ships mounted a more determined attack, with the result that three were sunk and three disabled by undiscovered mines. There was little effect on the defenders, except to cause them to expend the majority of their ammunition. Churchill ordered admiral
John de Robeckto continue the operation, but De Robeck, replacing the intended commander of the fleet, Admiral Sackville Carden(who had become ill) saw no sense in losing further ships, and withdrew. It was then decided that an invasion by troops would be required. Had the bombardment continued it is likely the defending guns would have ceased firing for lack of shells, the minesweepers could have worked effectively and the British ships could have moved in to their objectives. [Carlyon, pp. 65-72.] . Hamilton became responsible for organising armed landings. He had no specialised landing craft, the disparate troops he had been given had no training, and supplies for the army had been packed in ways which made them difficult to access for landings. Hamilton believed that the navy would make further attacks during his landings. The navy, realising likely losses and fundamentally opposing the idea that tactical losses of ships was acceptable declined to mount another attack. The Turks had been allowed two months warning from the first serious navy attack to prepare ground defences before the follow-up ground landing could be mounted, and they used the time effectively. [Carlyon, pp.79-83.]
In retirement, Hamilton was a leading figure in the
ex-servicemen organization, the British Legionholding the position of Scottish President. He was also a founding member and vice-president of the Anglo-German Associationin 1928 which promoted pro-German sentiment in Britain. Hamilton remained with the Association after Adolf Hitler's rise to power and described himself as "an admirer of the great Adolph [sic] Hitler", dismissing " Mein Kampf" as a youthful excess. Hamilton also expressed anti-Semiticsentiments and supported a proposed ban by the Association on Jewish members—the ban was not implemented, instead the Association dissolved on 2 April 1935 in light of the worsening situation in Germany. [Kershaw, Ian. (2004). "Making Friends with Hitler: Lord Londonderry and the British Road to War," pp. 54-56.]
* 1905 -- "A Staff officer’s Scrap-book during the Russo-Japanese War, Vol. I."
* 1907 -- [http://books.google.com/books?id=4h0bAAAAYAAJ&dq=A+Staff+officer%E2%80%99s+Scrap-book+during+the+Russo-Japanese+War&lr=&client=firefox-a&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 "A Staff officer’s Scrap-book during the Russo-Japanese War, Vol. II."] London: E. Arnold; New York: Longmans, Green. [http://www.worldcat.org/wcpa/oclc/10080215 OCLC 10080215]
* 1920 -- [http://books.google.com/books?id=NckEAAAAMAAJ&q=Gallipoli+Diary&dq=Gallipoli+Diary&lr=&client=firefox-a&pgis=1 "Gallipoli Diary."] New York: G.H. Doran. [http://www.worldcat.org/wcpa/oclc/580456 OCLC 580456] .
* Carlyon, Les A. (2002). [http://books.google.com/books?id=ilU_AAAACAAJ&dq=Gallipoli+Carlyon&client=firefox-a "Gallipoli."] New York: Pan Macmillan. 10-ISBN 0-732-91128-1; 13-ISBN 978-0-732-91128-7
* Jenkins, Roy. (2001). [http://books.google.com/books?id=MQ6SHAAACAAJ&dq=Churchill:+A+Biography&client=firefox-a "Churchill: A Biography."] New York:
Macmillan Publishers. 10-ISBN 0-452-28352-3; 13-ISBN 978-045-228352-7
* Kershaw, Ian. (2004). [http://books.google.com/books?id=X5wOAAAACAAJ&dq=Making+Friends+with+Hitler:+Lord+Londonderry+and+the+British+Road+to+War&lr=&client=firefox-a "Making Friends with Hitler: Lord Londonderry and the British Road to War."] London: Allen Lane, 10-ISBN 0-713-99717-6; 13-ISBN 978-0-713-99717-0
* (Hamilton's Gallipoli war diaries)
* [http://www.greatwardifferent.com/Great_War/British_Front/Hamilton_01.htm hamilton] biography page for Hamilton
* [http://www.1914-1918.net/hamilton-bio.htm 14-18 website] Ian Hamilton biography
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Ian Standish Monteith Hamilton — Sir Ian Hamilton, ca. 1915 Ian Standish Monteith Hamilton GCB GCMG DSO (* 16. Januar 1853 auf Korfu; † 12. Oktober 1947 in London) war ein britischer General und führte im Ersten Weltkrieg die Mediterranean Expedition … Deutsch Wikipedia
Ian Standish Monteith Hamilton — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Ian Hamilton. Sir Ian Standish Monteith Hamilton (né le 16 janvier 1851 – décédé le 12 octobre 1947). Militaire britannique. Biographie Sa carrière militaire commence en 1871, il sert alors en Inde et en Afrique … Wikipédia en Français
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Ian Hamilton's March — is a book written by Winston Churchill. It is a description of his experiences accompanying the British army during the Second Boer War, continuing after the events described in London to Ladysmith via Pretoria .WritingChurchill had officially… … Wikipedia
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Hamilton, Sir Ian — ▪ British general in full Sir Ian Standish Monteith Hamilton born Jan. 16, 1853, Corfu, Ionian Islands [Greece] died Oct. 12, 1947, London, Eng. British general, commander in chief of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force in the unsuccessful… … Universalium
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