Recorded history


Recorded history

Recorded history can be defined as history that has been written down or recorded by the use of language, whereas history is a more general term referring simply to information about the past. [ [http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=history Dictionary.Com Definition of "History"] ] It starts in the 4th millennium BC, with the invention of writing. The period before this is known as prehistory.

Archaeology is the excavation and study of artifacts in an effort to interpret and reconstruct past human behavior. [Petrie, W. M. F. (1972). [http://books.google.com/books?id=t8ESAAAAYAAJ Methods & aims in archaeology] . New York: B. Blom] [Gamble, C. (2000). Archaeology the basics. London: Routledge.] [Wheeler, J. R. (1908). Archaeology [a lecture delivered at Columbia University in the series on science, philosophy and art, January 8, 1908] . New York: Columbia University Press.] [Barton, G. A. (1900). [http://books.google.com/books?id=tNQ2AAAAMAAJ Archaeology and the Bible] . Green fund book, no. 17. Philadelphia: American Sunday-School Union 1816 Chestnut Street.] In the study of ancient history, archaeologists excavate the ruins of ancient cities looking for clues as to how the people of the time period lived. Perhaps most of what is known of the ancient world comes from the accounts of antiquity's own historians. Although it is important to take into account the bias of each ancient author, their accounts, are the basis for our understanding of the ancient past. Some of the more notable ancient writers include: Manetho, Valmiki, Vatsyayana, Vyasa, Kalidasa, Chanakya, Sun Tzu, Herodotus, Josephus, Livy, Polybius, Sallust, Suetonius, Tacitus, Thucydides, and Sima Qian.

Primary sources are firsthand written evidence of history made at the time of the event by someone who was present. They have been described as those sources closest to the origin of the information or idea under study. [ [http://www.lib.umd.edu/guides/primary-sources.html "Primary, secondary and tertiary sources"] ] [ [http://www.library.jcu.edu.au/LibraryGuides/primsrcs.shtml "Library Guides: Primary, secondary and tertiary sources"] ] These types of sources have been said to provide researchers with "direct, unmediated information about the object of study." [Citation
last1=Dalton
first1=Margaret Steig
last2=Charnigo
first2=Laurie
title=Historians and Their Information Sources
url=http://www.ala.org/ala/acrl/acrlpubs/crljournal/crl2004/crlseptember/dalton.pdf
pages=400–25, at 416 n.3
journal=College & Research Libraries
volume=September
year=2004
, citing U.S. Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (2003), "Occupational Outlook Handbook"; Citation
last=Lorenz
first=C.
contribution=History: Theories and Methods
volume=10
page=6871
editor-last1=Smelser
editor-first1=Neil J.
editor-last2=Bates
editor-first2=Paul B.
title=International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavior Sciences
publisher=Elsevier
publication-place=Amsterdam
year=2001
.
] Secondary sources are written accounts of history based upon the evidence from primary sources. These are sources which, usually, are accounts, works, or research that analyze, assimilate, evaluate, interpret, and/or synthesize primary sources. Tertiary sources are compilations based upon primary and secondary sources. [See, e.g., University of Maryland Libraries (2001) [http://www.lib.umd.edu/guides/primary-sources.html#tertiary "Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Sources"] ] [See, e.g. [http://www.lib.odu.edu/libassist/tutorials/nursing/glossary.html Glossary, Using Information Resources] . ("Tertiary Source" is defined as "reference material that synthesizes work already reported in primary or secondary sources".) ] [ [http://www.library.jcu.edu.au/LibraryGuides/primsrcs.shtml "Library Guides: Primary, secondary and tertiary sources"] ] These are sources which, on average, do not fall into the above two levels.

References

External links

* [http://www.english.uga.edu/~hypertxt/040699sci-early-writing.html Theories concerning early writing]
* [http://www.ancientscripts.com/ More on ancient scripts]

ee also

* Source text
* Ancient history
* History of writing


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