- MGM-51 Shillelagh
The Ford MGM-51 "Shillelagh" was an
anti-tank guided missiledesigned to be launched from a conventional gun(cannon). It was originally intended to be the medium-range portion of a short, medium, long-range system for armored fighting vehicles in the 1960s and '70s, but proved the idea unworkable instead. The name comes from a type of wooden club often found in Irish folklore.
With the rapid increase in armor during
World War II, tanks were becoming increasingly able to survive rounds fired from even the largest of WWII-era anti-tank guns. A new generation of guns, notably the British 105 mm Royal Ordnance L7, were able to cope with newer tanks, but it appeared that in another generation the guns needed would be too large to be practical.
US Armystarted concentrating on HEATrounds in the 1950s. HEAT penetration is not dependent on the speed of the round, allowing it to be fired at much lower velocities, and thus from a much lighter gun. They also work better at larger diameters, and a large-diameter low-velocity gun makes for an excellent assault gunvehicle. On the downside, the slow speed also means that they become increasing hard to aim over longer distances. The Army looked to address this problem with the use of HEAT-equipped guided missiles for anything beyond a few hundred yards.
In 1958 they felt the state of the art had progressed enough to start work on such designs, and in June 1959
Sperryand Ford Aeronutronic were asked for designs to fill the shorter range role. Ford won the contract and started work on the XM13. The first test shots occurred in 1960, and limited production started in 1964, now known as the MGM-51A.
The basic system was quite advanced for its day. The missile body consisted of a long tube with fold-out fins at the extreme rear, which was propelled from the new M81 gun with a small charge strapped on the rear. Once clear of the gun the fins popped open and the engine ignited. In order to keep it from spinning while in the gun due to the rifling, a small "key" fit into a straight groove in the rifled gun. Aiming the missile was simple; the gunner simply kept his gunsight on the target, while electronics in the sighting system tracked the missile optically and sent corrections through an IR link (similar to a TV remote control). In general the gunners were able to achieve excellent hit ratios with the system.
The M81/MGM-51 was first deployed on the
M551 Sheridan, which appeared at first to prove the value of the system. The Sheridan was a light aluminum-armored AFV designed to be air transportable and provide fire support for airborne forces. The M81 armed with conventional warheads proved excellent in this role, but would normally be next to useless in the anti-tank role the airborne forces drastically needed. Here the Shillelagh took over, providing the small vehicle with the same hitting power as a main battle tank.
In the field the system proved to be less practical. The
caseless ammunitionlarge-caliber rounds were themselves troublesome because the casings did not burn completely, requiring a complicated and slow gas-driven scavenging system. They were also liable to cook off if the vehicle were hit. Firing the gun would cause such a large recoil as to cause failures in the delicate missile firing electronics on the tank. Such problems, and the lack of enemy tanks caused the Sheridan to be deployed to Vietnam without the complex missile system.
The Shillelagh was considerably larger than a conventional round, so only a small number could be carried. Typical loads consisted of only 8 missiles and twenty M409 HEAT rounds for short-range use. In addition the missile proved to have a very long "minimum" range due to the layout of the vehicle, the missile didn't come into the sight of the gun/tracker system until it was 800 yd (730 m) from the vehicle, at which point it could start to be guided. Because of its maximum range of about 2,200 yd (2,000 m), the system was left with a fairly large "dead zone".
While the maximum range, 2,200 yd (2,000 m), was usable, the Army felt it could use improvement. Ford received a contract to study a longer range version in 1963, and returned a slightly larger design the next year. Test shots of the new MGM-51B started the next May, and production in October 1966. Only one other change was made to the system. In testing it was found that the key slot in the gun led to cracking after firing only a few shells. After further study a version with a shallower slot and new barrell was selected, creating the M81E1/MGM-51C. The missile was about 45 inches (1.14 m) long, about six inches (150 mm) in diameter, weighed 60 pounds (27 kg). It remained in production until 1971, by which time 88,000 had been produced, probably in anticipation of use by main battle tanks (below). Two missiles fired at bunkers by Sheridans in the Gulf War are among the few times the missile has ever been fired in combat.
Even with these problems the system clearly proved it could be used by an airborne tank to destroy a main battle tank. The question of whether or not it could fill its original role as the main armament of all tanks was still open. The Army had originally started development of a low-profile turret with a short barrel for their existing M60 tanks in the 1960s, but didn't contract for actual delivery until 1971 once the bugs had been worked out. They entered service in 1974, but were hampered by reliability problems, and soon phased out in 1980. The final revision of the M60A3 would use the same gun and turret as the M60A1.
The most ambitious project based on the system was the
MBT-70, an advanced US-German tank design that started in 1963. It mounted a huge auto-loaderturret on top of a very short chassis, so short that there was no room for a driver. Instead he was relocated into the turret with everyone else, in a rotating cupola that kept him facing forward. The gun was a new longer-barreled design, the XM-150, which extended range and performance to the point where it was useful for sabottype rounds as well. However the project dragged on, and in 1969 the estimated unit cost had risen 5 times, and Germany pulled out of the effort. The Army proposed a "cut-down" version of the system, but Congress cancelled it in November 1971. It started the M1 Abramsproject with its funds the next month, which would use a conventional gun.
The Soviet KBP Instrument Design Bureau developed the somewhat similar
AT-11 Sniper, launched by a 125 mm gun system. It had a Laser Beam Rider guidance system, tandem warhead to defeat vehicles fitted with Explosive Reactive Armour, and used on the T80/72M Tank.
* AT-8 Songster
List of missiles
* [http://www.designation-systems.net/dusrm/m-51.html Ford M13/MGM-51 Shillelagh - Designation Systems]
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