- James Chichester-Clark, Baron Moyola
Infobox Prime Minister
The Right Honourable
The Lord Moyola, PC
imagesize = 150px
office =Prime Minister of Northern Ireland
May 1 1969
March 23 1971
constituency_MP2 = South Londonderry
parliament2 =Northern Ireland
9 July 1960
30 March 1972
successor2 = "Parliament Prorogued"
birth_date = Birth date|1923|02|12
County Londonderry, Northern Ireland
death_date =death date and age|2002|02|12|1923|02|12
Ulster Unionist Party
James Dawson Chichester-Clark, Baron Moyola, PC, DL (
February 12, 1923– May 17, 2002) was the penultimate Prime Minister of Northern Irelandand eighth leader of the Ulster Unionist Partybetween 1969 and March 1971. He was Member of the Northern Ireland Parliament for South Londonderry for 12 years beginning at the by-election to replace his grand mother in 1960. He stopped being a MP when the StormontParliament was prorogued by the UK Government due to the start of the Northern Ireland troubles in 1972.
Chichester-Clark's election as UUP Leader resulted from the sudden resignation of
Terence O'Neillafter the ambiguous result of the preceding general election. His term in office was dominated by both internal Unionist struggles, seeing the political emergence of Ian Paisleyfrom the right and Alliance Party of Northern Irelandfrom the left, and an emergent Nationalist resurgence. In March 1971, with his health suffering under the strain of the growing political strife, he resigned - having failed to secure extra military resources from the British Government.
Family background and early life
Lord Moyola was born as James Dawson Clark at
Moyola Park, Castledawson, County Londonderry, his family's ancestral home. He was the eldest of three children of James J. Lenox-Conyngham Clark and Marion Caroline Dehra, née Chichester. His brother was Robin Chichester-Clarkand his sister, Penelope Hobhouse, the garden writer and historian.
In 1924 James Clark, Snr. changed the family name to "Chichester-Clark" by deed poll, thus preventing the old ascendancy name Chichester (his wife's maiden name) from dying out. On his mother's side the family are descended from the Donegall Chichesters and were the heirs of the Dawsons of
Castledawson, who had originally held Moyola Park.
Educated, against his own wishes, at Selwyn House,
Broadstairs, and then Eton, Chichester-Clark left school and entered adulthood in the midst of the Second World War. On joining the Irish Guards, the regiment of his grandfather, in Omaghhe began his year-long training before receiving his commission. [ [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/05/20/db2001.xml Lord Moyola - Telegraph ] ]
He married widow Moyra Haughton (née Morris) in 1959. Lady Moyola's first husband, Capt. Thomas Haughton from
Cullybackey(he was part of the line firm of Frazer & Haughton), had been killed in the Nutts Cornerair crash - in which she, whilst pregnant, was seriously injured and suffered a broken neck. Lord and Lady Moyola had two daughters (Tara and Fiona), in addition to Lady Moyola's son, Michael, from her previous marriage.
Chichester-Clark’s time as a soldier was, by comparison with some of his contemporaries, unremarkable. An Officer in the Irish Guards, he did participate in the
Anzio landings; however, only briefly. He was injured early in a campaign that all but wiped out his Company, and spent most of his war in hospital recovering from injuries, the effects of which stayed with him throughout his later life. Following the war his military career took him from the dull duties of the post war occupation of Germany, to Canadaas Aide-de-campto Earl Alexander of Tunis while Governor General of Canada. The popularity and supreme competence of his senior officer have made this uneventful two-year period of Chichester-Clark’s life the most remarkable element of his pre-parliamentary career. On returning from Canada, Chichester-Clark continued in the Army for several years, refusing promotion to seniority before retiring a Major in 1960. [Scoular, C, James Chichester-Clark (Killyleagh, 2000) p 69]
In an uncontested by-election in 1960, he took over the South Londonderry seat in the
Northern Ireland Parliamentheld by his grandmother, Dame Dehra Parker, since 1933. She had been MP until 1929 when she stood down for a first time. Chichester-Clark's father, replaced her in 1929, however he suddenly died in 1933. Dame Dehra willingly returned to Northern Ireland from England, and won the ensuing by-election. He retained the seat for the remainder of the Parliaments existence, and so the South Londonderry area was represented by three generations of the same family for the entire period of the Northern Ireland House of Commons. Between 1929 and the last election in 1969, the family was challenged for the seat on only two occasions, the second being in 1969, when future Westminster MP Bernadette Devlinstood, attracting 39% of the vote [ [http://www.election.demon.co.uk/stormont/ldrcounty.html Northern Ireland Parliamentary Election Results: Counties: Londonderry ] ]
Chichester-Clark made his maiden speech on February 8th 1961 during the Queen’s speech debate.
For the remainder of Lord Brookeborough's Premiership, Chichester-Clark remained on the back benches. It was not until 1963, when
Terence O'Neillbecame Prime Minister of Northern Ireland, that Chichester-Clark was appointed assistant whip, and a month later when Bill Craig was promoted to the Ministry of Home Affairs, Chichester-Clark took over as Government Chief Whip. Accounts of the period are that Chichester-Clark enjoyed the Whip’s office more than any other he was to subsequently hold in politics. This despite including references to anti O’Neill MP and future DUP Westminster MP, Johnny McQuade, and the occasional “good row”. [Scoular, C, James Chichester-Clark (Killyleagh, 2000) p 46] [J H Whyte in Intra Unionist disputes in the Northern Ireland House of Commons 1921-72 Economic and Social Review (1973) p 103] From the outset, O’Neill took the unusual decision to allow Chichester-Clark to attend and speak at all cabinet meetings while Chief Whip. [Bloomfield, K Stormont in Crisis (Belfast 1994) p 74] Proving a competent parliamentary party administrator, O’Neill added Leader of the House of Commons to Chichester-Clark’s duties in October 1966, a promotion that made him a full member of the Cabinet. He was also sworn into the Privy Council of Northern Irelandin 1966.
In 1967, O'Neill sacked his Minister of Agriculture,
Harry West, for ministerial impropriety, [Walker, G, A history of the Ulster Unionist Party (Manchester 2004) p 165] [Mullholland, M, Northern Ireland at the Crossroads (Basingstoke 2000) p 120] and Chichester-Clark was appointed in his place, a position he retained for two quiet years. On April 23rd 1969, he resigned from the Cabinet one day prior to a crucial Parliamentary Party meeting, claiming that he disagreed with the Prime Minister's decision to grant universal suffrage in local government elections at that time. He stated that he disagreed not with the principle of one man one vote but with the timing of the decision, having the previous day expressed doubts over the expediency of the measure in CabinetWalker, Graham, A history of the Ulster Unionist Party, Manchester University Press 2004. pg 173] . It has since been suggested that his resignation was in order to accelerate O'Neill's own resignation, and to improve his own position in the jostling to succeed him.
O'Neill "finally walked away" ["Ibid"] five days later on the
28 April 1969. In order to beat his only serious rival, Brian Faulkner, Chichester-Clark needed the backing of O'Neill-ite MPs elected at the Northern Ireland general election, 1969, to which end he attended a tea party in O'Neill's honour only days after he had caused his resignation. [Mulholland, M, Northern Ireland at the crossroads (Baskingstoke, 2000) p196]
He beat Faulkner in the
Ulster Unionist Party leadership election, 1969by one vote on 1 May 1969, with his predecessor using his casting vote in the tied election for his distant cousin because "Faulkner had been stabbing him in the back for a lot longer" [Walker (2004) pp 175] . Although Faulkner believed, until his death, that he had been the victim of an upper-class conspiracy to deny him the premiership, he became a high profile and loyal member of Chichester-Clark's cabinet.
His premiership was punctuated by the civil unrest that erupted after August 1969. He suffered from the effects of the
Hunt Committeereport, which recommended the disbandment of the Ulster Special Constabulary, which his Government accepted to the consternation of many Unionists.
In April 1970 his predecessor and another Unionist MP resigned their seats in the NI House of Commons. The by-election campaigns were punctuated by major liberal speeches by senior government figures like
Brian Faulkner, Jack Andrewsand the Prime Minister himself. Ian Paisley's Protestant Unionist Party, however, took both seats in the House of Commons. Later the same month the O'Neill-ite group, the New Ulster Movement, became the Alliance Party of Northern Ireland, and his party began passing votes of no confidence in him.
As the civil unrest grew, the British Government, particularly the
Home Secretary, James Callaghan, became increasingly involved in Northern Ireland's affairs, forcing Chichester-Clark's hand on many issues. These included the disbanding of the 'B' Specials and, importantly, the handing over of operational control of the security forces to the Army General Officer Commanding Northern Ireland.
Resignation and beyond
In March 1971 the IRA lured three off duty soldiers from a pub in Belfast to a lane way outside the city, where they killed them. Chichester-Clark flew to London on the 18 March 1971 to request a new security initiative from the new British Prime Minster
Edward Heath, who offered an extra 1,300 troops, and resisted what he saw was an attempt by Chichester-Clark to gain political control over themWalker (2004) pg 189] . Chichester-Clark resigned on 20 March.A History of Northern Ireland 1920-1996 by Thomas Hennessey ISBN 0-333-73162-X p.189] In his resignation statement he stated:::"I have decided to resign because I can see no other way of bringing home to all concerned the realities of the present constitutional, political and security situation... It is apparent that public and parliamentry opinion in Northern Ireland looks to the Northern Ireland government for measures which can bring the current IRA campaign swiftly to an end. I have expressed to British Ministers the full force of this opinion and have pressed upon them my view that some further initiative is required. While they have agreed to take any feasible steps open to them to intensify the effort against the IRA, it remains the professional military view - and one which I indeed have often expressed myself - that it would be misleading the Northern Ireland community to suggest that we are faced with anything but a long haul, and that such initiatives as can be taken are unlikely to effect a radical improvement in the short term...
He agreed to tone down his statement so as to smooth the way for his successor. The Unionist Party internal newspaper, the "Ulster Times" in April 1971 carried a "respectful political obituary", which "condemned those who attacked Catholics in their homes":
On the 23 March 1971,
Brian Faulknerwas elected UUP leader in a vote by Unionist MP's, defeating William Craig by twenty-six votes to four. He was appointed Prime Minister the same day. [cite book | last = Walker | first = Graham | title = A history of the Ulster Unionist Party| publisher = Manchester University Press | date = 2004 | pages = p. 190 | isbn = 0 7190 6108 3]
Peerage and later life
Chichester-Clark was created a
life peerlater that year as Baron Moyola, "of Castledawson in the County of Londonderry"; his title taken from the name of his family's estate. He endorsed the Belfast Agreementin the 1998 referendum. Lord Moyola died on May 17, 2002at the age of 79, he was the last surviving Prime Minister of Northern Ireland.
Lord Moyola remained quiet about his political career in his retirement. His wife (Lady Moyola QC), however, has said that he did enjoy the time - contrary to popular opinion - and that he thought of life as an MP as akin to that of an animal welfare officer. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/northern_ireland/1996783.stm BBC obituary] ]
style=font-size: 90%; line-height: 110%;
boxstyle=padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;
1= 1. Lord Moyola
2= 2. James Clark
Marion Caroline Dehra Chichester
4= 4. James Jackson Clark DL, JP of Largantogher, Co. Londonderry
5= 5. Elizabeth Mary Lenox-Conyngham MBE
6= 6. Robert Peel Dawson Spencer Chichester
7= 7. Dehra Kerr-Fisher
James Johnston Clark, DL, JP
10= 10. Sir William Fitzwilliam Lenox-Conyngham
11= 11. Laura Arbuthnott
12= 12. Lord Adolphus John Spencer Churchill Chichester
13= 13. Mary Dawson of
14= 14. James Ker Fisher
15= 15. Annie Kerr-Forsythe
20= 20. William Lenox- Conyngham
21= 21. Charlotte Melosina Staples of
23= 23. Elizabeth Fraser
Edward Chichester, 4th Marquess of Donegall
25= 25. Amelia Spread Deane Grady
26= 26. Col.
Robert Peel Dawson
List of Northern Ireland Members of the House of Lords
*Clive Scoular, 'James Chichester-Clark: Prime Minister of Northern Ireland', 2000
* [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2002/05/20/db2001.xml Telegraph obituary]
NAME = Chichester-Clark, James
ALTERNATIVE NAMES = Lord Moyola
SHORT DESCRIPTION = Prime Minister of Northern Ireland
DATE OF BIRTH =
February 12, 1923
PLACE OF BIRTH =
Moyola Park, County Londonderry
DATE OF DEATH =
May 17, 2002
PLACE OF DEATH =
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