- UH-1 Iroquois
:"For an overview of the whole Huey family of aircraft see
Bell Huey" Infobox Aircraft
caption=Bell UH-1D Huey of the United States Army
type=Multipurpose utility helicopter
22 October 1956(XH-40)
United States Army
Japan Ground Self-Defense Force Australian Army Armed Forces of the Philippines
variants with their own articles =
UH-1N Twin Huey AH-1 Cobra Bell 204/205 Bell 212 Bell 214
Bell HelicopterUH-1 Iroquois, commonly (or officially in the United States Marine Corps) known as the "Huey", is a multipurpose military helicopter, famous for its use in the Vietnam War.
The UH-1 was developed from 1955 US Army trials with the Bell Model 204. The initial designation of HU-1 (helicopter utility) led to its nickname, Huey. The nickname became so popular that Bell started putting the Huey name on the anti-torque pedals. [http://www.dvhaa.org/aircraft/uh-1v.html "Bell UH-1V "Huey"."] Delaware Valley Historical Aircraft Association, March 2008. Retrieved:
13 May 2008.]
The aircraft was first used by the military in 1959 and went into tri-service production in 1962 as the UH-1. The last were produced in 1976 with more than 16,000 made in total, [ [http://www.bellhelicopter.com/en/aircraft/military/bellUH-1Y.cfm Bell Helicopter UH-1 web site] ] of which about 7,000 saw use during the
In Vietnam, 2,202 Huey pilots were killed and approximately 2,500 aircraft were lost, roughly half to combat and the rest to operational accidents.
Earlier helicopters had been powered by piston engines. By the early 1950s, however, turbine engines were being used in many fixed-wing aircraft and aircraft designers began to consider using them for rotary-wing use. Turbines, though expensive to build, were long-lived, durable, and extremely light for their power output in comparison to piston-powered engines.
The first Bell helicopter to use a turbine engine was a modified Model 47 (designated the XH-13F), first flown in October 1954. In 1955, anxious to obtain a powerful medical evacuation helicopter, the U.S. Army awarded Bell a contract to develop the next generation turbine-powered helicopter, designated the XH-40 (Bell company designation was the Model 204). The first XH-40 flew on
22 October 1956. Two more prototypes were built in 1957, and six YH-40 prototypes were tested in 1958.
Bell believed the YH-40 was ideal for troop transport and cargo carrying as well as the medevac role, a view soon adopted by the Army, who found the pre-production aircraft so much better in service than previous piston-powered helicopters they soon ordered more of them.
The HU-1A (later redesignated the UH-1A) was the first turbine-equipped U.S. helicopter to go into production, and production models first entered service with the 101st Airborne Division at Fort Lewis, Washington, the 82nd Airborne Division and the 57th Medical Detachment. Although they were intended for evaluation only, the Army quickly pressed them into operational service and Hueys with the 57th Medical Detachment arrived in Vietnam in March 1962.Mutza 1986]
The helicopter was originally designated the HU-1A, which is where it received its nickname - "Huey." The official U.S. Army designation Iroquois (Army helicopters are traditionally given Native American names) was almost never used in practice.Drendel 1983, pp. 9–21.]
ervice in Vietnam
The UH-1 has long become a symbol of US involvement in
Southeast Asiain general and Vietnamin particular, and as a result of that conflict, has become one of the world's most recognized helicopters. In Vietnam primary missions included general support, air assault, cargo transport, aeromedical evacuation, search and rescue, electronic warfare, and later, ground attack. During the conflict, the craft was upgraded, notably to a larger version based on the Model 205. This version was initially designated the UH-1D and flew operationally from 1963.
During service in the
Vietnam War, the UH-1 was used for various purposes and various terms for each task abounded. UH-1s tasked with a ground attack or armed escort role were outfitted with rocket launchers, grenade launchers, and machine guns. These gunshipUH-1s were commonly referred to as "Hogs" if they carried rockets, and "Cobras" if they had guns. Bishop, Chris. "Huey Cobra Gunships". London: Osprey Publishing, 2006. ISBN 1-84176-984-3.] UH-1s tasked for troop transport were often called "Slicks" due to an absence of weapons pods. Slicks did have door gunners, but were generally employed in the troop transport and medevac roles. In the US Navy and USMC the gunships were referred to as "Sharks" and troop transport aircraft as "Dolphins".Fact|date=June 2008
Towards the end of the conflict, the UH-1 was tested with
TOW missiles, and two UH-1B helicopters equipped with the XM26 Armament Subsystem were deployed to help counter the 1972 Easter Invasion. [ [http://tri.army.mil/LC/CS/csa/xm26tow.htm U.S. Army Helicopter Weapon Systems: Operations with XM26 TOW missile system in Kontum (1972)] ] USAF LieutenantJames P. Fleming piloted a UH-1F on a 26 November 1968mission that earned him the Medal of Honor.
UH-1 troop transports were designated by "Blue" teams, hence the nickname for troops carried in by these Hueys as the "Blues". The
reconnaissanceor observation teams were "White" teams. The attack ships were called "Red" teams. Over the duration of the conflict the tactics used by the military evolved and teams were mixed for more effective results. "Purple" teams with one or two "Blue" slicks dropping off the troops, while a "Red" attack team provided protection until the troops could defend themselves. Another highly effective team was the "Pink" Recon/Attack team, which offered the capability of carrying out assaults upon areas where the enemy was known to be present but could not be pinpointed.
During the course of the war, the UH-1 went through several upgrades. The UH-1A, B, and C models (short fuselage, Bell 204) and the UH-1D and H models (stretched-fuselage, Bell 205) each had improved performance and load-carrying capabilities. The UH-1B and C performed the gunship and some of the transport duties until 1967, when the new
AH-1 Cobraarrived on the scene. The newer Cobra, a purpose-built attack helicopter based on the UH-1 was faster, sleeker, harder to hit, and could carry more ordinance. The increasing intensity and sophistication of NVA anti-aircraft defenses made continued use of gunships based on the UH-1 impractical, and after Vietnam the Cobra was adopted as the Army's main attack helicopter. Devotees of the UH-1 in the gunship role cite its ability to act as an impromptu dustoff if the need arose, as well as the superior observational capabilities of the larger Huey cockpit, which allowed return fire from door gunners to the rear and sides of the aircraft.
During the war 3,305 UH-1 were destroyed. In total, 5,086 helicopters were destroyed out of 11,827 documented in service. [http://www.vhpa.org/heliloss.pdf "Helicopter Losses During the Vietnam War."] Vietnam Helicopter Pilots Association. Retrieved:
5 September 2007.]
In October 1965, the USAF 20th Special Operations Squadron was formed at
Tan Son Nhut Air Basein South Vietnam, equipped initially with CH-3C helicopters. By June 1967 the UH-1F and UH-1P were also added to the unit's inventory, and by the end of the year the entire unit had shifted from Tan Son Nhut to Nakhon Phanom Royal Thai Air Force Base. On 1 August 1968, the unit was redesignated the 20th Special Operations Squadron. The 20th's UH-1s were known as the "Green Hornets", stemming from their color, a primarily green two-tone camouflage (green and tan) was carried, and radio call-sign "hornet". The main role of these helicopters were to insert and extract reconnaissance teams, provide cover for such operations, conduct psychological warfare, and other support roles for covert operations especially in Laos during the so-called Secret War.Fact|date=September 2008
During its civil war El Salvador received about 80 UH-1H and 24 UH-1M from the US, as part of the aid to fight the guerrillas between 1979 and 1992. These helicopters were heavily engaged in combat, supporting the army in fighting guerrillas all thorough the country. As a result many were shot down. After the war only 20 UH-1H and 14 UH-1M survived, most of them scrapped a few years later.Fact|date=September 2008
These helicopter were operated by El Salvador Air Force, being at its time the biggest and most experienced combat helicopter force in Central and Sout America, fighting during 10 years and being trained by US Army in tactics developed during the Vietnam war. Gunship UH-1M helicopters used by El Salvador were modified to carry bombs instead of rocket pods.Fact|date=September 2008
Conventional and Guerrilla wars
Many countries have used Huey helicopters as the workhorse in their guerrilla fighting. Countries like Colombia, Turkey, Morocco, Zimbabwe, Lebanon, Sri Lanka, Philippines and Peru used UH-1 helicopters against guerrilla fighters.Fact|date=September 2008
Other countries have used their Huey helicopters in conventional wars: Argentina, Israel, Iran.Fact|date=October 2008
Nahr el Bared battle in Lebanon
battle of Nahr el-Baredcamp in North Lebanon, the Lebanese army, lacking fixed-wing aircraft, modified the UH-1H allowing it to carry 400 lb (250 kg) Mk. 82 dumb bombs to strike militant positions. Each Huey was equipped on each side with special mounts engineered by the Lebanese army, to carry the high explosive bombs. (See Helicopter bombing.) [Kahwaji, Riad. [http://yalibnan.com/site/archives/2007/09/the_victory_leb_1.php The victory - Lebanon developed helicopter bombers] . "Ya Libnan". 3 September 2007 Access Date: 3 September 2007]
The US Army phased out the UH-1 Huey with the introduction of the
UH-60 Black Hawk, although the Army UH-1 Residual Fleet has around 700 UH-1s that were supposed to be retained until 2015. Army support for the craft was intended to end in 2004.Fact|date=November 2007
The US Marine Corps still relies on the UH-1N variant and is beginning to introduce the latest variant, the
The United States Air Force employs Hueys to fulfill its
ICBMmission, providing a utility helicopter for transport between bases such as Francis E. Warren AFB and Malmstrom AFB to missile launch sites in Montana, Wyoming, Nebraska, and Colorado. Additionally, the UH-1N is used by the 36th Rescue Flight (36 RQF) at Fairchild AFB, near Spokane, WA for conducting Search-and-Rescue (SAR) and medical evacuation missions.
The UH-1 has been widely exported and remains in front-line service in a number of countries.
UH-1Hs used for ferrying VIPs into Panmunjom in the DMZ area between North and South Korea used three 12" wide Yellow stripes vertically over the fuselage. It signified unarmed aircraft carrying UNCMAC members. [ [http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:7f7dlKRnIJMJ:www-hr.korea.army.mil/Programs_Policy/PublicationsRecords/Regulations/Unc_Cfc_Usfk/UNC%2520Reg%2520551-4%2520Compliance%2520with%2520the%2520Korean%2520Armistice%2520Agreeme(1).pdf+yellow+markings+dmz&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=3&gl=us,|UNC Reg 551-4] ]
U.S. Navy UH-1Ns serving as "organic to the ship" helicopters on LPH and LHA amphibious war vessels were painted dark grey with national insignia, much like the paint scheme carried on the
Kaman SH-2 Seaspritethroughout the 1980s. Each ship had one helicopter, and the ship's name was often carried on the cabin doors.Fact|date=January 2008
U.S. Military variants
*XH-40: The initial Bell 204 prototype. Three prototypes were built, equipped with the Lycoming XT-53-L-1 engine of 700 shp.
*YH-40: Six aircraft for evaluation, as XH-40 with 12-inch cabin stretch and other modifications.
**Bell Model 533: One YH-40BF rebuilt as a flight test bed with turbofan engines and wings.
*HU-1A: Initial Bell 204 production model, redesignated as the UH-1A in 1962. 182 built. Andrade 1987, p. 125.]
**TH-1A: UH-1A with dual controls and blind-flying instruments, 14 conversions.
**XH-1A: A single UH-1A was redesignated for grenade launcher testing in 1960.
*HU-1B: Upgraded HU-1A, various external and rotor improvements. Redesignated UH-1B in 1962. 1014 built plus four prototypes designated YUH-1B.
**NUH-1B: a single test aircraft, serial number 64-18261.
*UH-1C: UH-1B with improved engine, modified blades and rotor-head for better performance in the gunship role. 767 built.
*YUH-1D: Seven pre-production prototypes of the UH-1D.
*UH-1D: Initial Bell 205 production model (long fuselage version of the 204). Designed as a troop carrier to replace the CH-34 then in US Army service. 2008 built many later converted to UH-1H standard.
**HH-1D: Army crash rescue variant of UH-1D.
*UH-1E: UH-1B/C for USMC with different avionics and equipment. 192 built.
**NUH-1E: UH-1E configured for testing.
**TH-1E: UH-1C configured for Marine Corps training. Twenty were built in 1965.
*UH-1F: UH-1B/C for USAF with General Electric T-58-GE-3 engine of 1,325 shp. 120 built.
**TH-1F: Instrument and Rescue Trainer based on the UH-1F for the USAF. 26 built.
*UH-1G: UH-1D/H gunships operating with the Cambodia armed forces were locally given the designation UH-1G.Fact|date=October 2007
*UH-1H: Improved UH-1D with a Lycoming T-53-L-13 engine of 1,400 shp. 5435 built.
Canadian Forcesdesignation for the UH-1H utility transport helicopter. Redesignated CH-118. [ [http://www.airforce.forces.gc.ca/equip/historical/iroquoislst_e.asp "Bell CH-118 Iroquois."] Canadian DND webpage. Retrieved: 30 August 2007.] 10 built.
**EH-1H: Twenty-two aircraft converted by installation of AN/ARQ-33 radio intercept and jamming equipment for Project Quick Fix.
**HH-1H: SAR variant for the USAF with rescue hoist.30 built.
**JUH-1: Five UH-1Hs converted to SOTAS battlefield surveillance configuration with belly-mounted airborne radar.
**TH-1H: Recently modified UH-1Hs for use as basic helicopter flight trainers by the USAF.
*UH-1J: An improved Japanese version of the UH-1H built under license in Japan by Fuji was locally given the designation UH-1J. [ [http://rightwing.sakura.ne.jp/equipment/jgsdf/aviation/uh-1j/uh1j.html UH-1J 多用途ヘリコプター.] Retrieved:
11 December 2007.] Among improvements were an Allison T53-L-703 turboshaft engine providing 1,343 kW (1,800 shp), a vibration-reduction system, infrared countermeasures, and a night-vision-goggle (NVG) compatible cockpit. [ [http://www.vectorsite.net/avhuey.html The Bell UH-1 Huey.] Retrieved: 12 December 2007.]
*HH-1K: Purpose built SAR variant of the Model 204 for the US Navy with USN avionics and equipment. 27 built.Andrade 1987, p. 125]
*TH-1L: Helicopter flight trainer based on the HH-1K for the USN. Forty-five were built.
**UH-1L: Utility variant of the TH-1L. Eight were built.
*UH-1M: Gunship specific UH-1C upgrade with Lycoming T-53-L-13 engine of 1,400 shp.
Bell 212production model, the Bell "Twin Pac" twin-engined Huey.
*UH-1P: UH-1F variant for USAF for special operations use and attack operations used solely by the USAF 20th Special Operations Squadron, "the Green Hornets".
*UH-1U: Single prototype for Counter Mortar/Counter Battery Radar Jamming aircraft. Crashed at Edwards AFB during testing.Fact|date=October 2007
*UH-1V: Aeromedical evacuation, rescue version for the US Army.
Electronic warfareUH-1Hs converted by under "Quick Fix IIA".
*UH-1Y: Upgraded variant developed from existing upgraded late model UH-1Ns, with additional emphasis on commonality with the AH-1Z.
*UH-1/T700 Ultra Huey: Upgraded commercial version, fitted with a 1,400-kW (1900-shp) General Electric T700-GE-701C turboshaft engine.
Note: In U.S. service the G, J, Q, R, S, T, W and Z model designations are used by the AH-1. The UH-1 and AH-1 are considered members of the same H-1 series. The military does not use I (India) or O (Oscar) for aircraft designations to avoid confusion with "one" and "zero" respectively.
Other military variants
* Bell 204: Bell Helicopters company designation, covering aircraft from the XH-40, YH-40 prototypes to the UH-1A, UH-1B, UH-1C, UH-1E, UH-1F, HH-1K, UH-1L, UH-1P and UH-1M production aircraft.
** Agusta-Bell AB 204: Military utility transport helicopter. Built under license in Italy by
** Agusta-Bell AB 204AS: Anti-submarine warfare, anti-shipping version of the AB 204 helicopter.
** Fuji-Bell 204B-2: Military utility transport helicopter. Built under license in Japan by
Fuji Heavy Industries. Used by the Japan Ground Self-Defense Forceunder the name Hiyodori.
* Bell 205: Bell Helicopters company designation of the UH-1D and UH-1H helicopters.
** Bell 205A-1: Military utility transport helicopter version, initial version based on the UH-1H.
** Bell 205A-1A: As 205A-1, but with armament hardpoints and military avionics. Produced specifically for Israeli contract.
** Agusta-Bell 205: Military utility transport helicopter. Built under license in Italy by Agusta.
* AIDC UH-1H: Military utility transport helicopter. Built under license in Taiwan by
Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation.
* Dornier UH-1D: Military utility transport helicopter. Built under license in Germany by
Dornier Flugzeugwerke. [http://www.vectorsite.net/avhuey.html The Bell UH-1 Huey.] ]
** Fuji-Bell 205A-1: Military utility transport helicopter. Built under licence in Japan by Fuji. Used by the Japanese Ground Self Defence Force under the designation HU-1H. [ [http://homepage1.nifty.com/KWAT/list/jgsdf/uh-1.htm ベルUH-1B/Hイロコイ,富士UH-1J『ひよどり』.] Retrieved:
11 December 2007.]
*Bell Huey II: A modified and re-engined UH-1H, significantly upgrading its performance, and its cost-effectiveness. Currently offered by Bell to all current military users of the type.
The UH-1 experienced a production number in the thousands (both short and long-frame types), and invariably a large number exist in flyable condition in nations around the world. A large number of decommissioned and retired aircraft exist as "gate guards" to various military bases, in aviation museums, and other static-display sites. Examples include:
*The Bell UH-1H "Smokey III" that resides in the
Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Centerserved four tours and over 2,500 hours in Vietnam.
*UH-1A located at the
Intrepid Sea-Air-Space Museumin New York City, currently under refurbishment.
*A Huey forms part of the collection in the American Air Force Hangar of the Imperial War Museum at Duxford near Cambridge, England.
*A fully refurbished UH-1 "Huey" is located in the
Frontiers of Flight Museumin Dallas, Texas.
*The UH-1A formerly used as
Command and Controlaircraft for Gen William C. Westmorelandwhile he was commander of the 101st Airborne Divisionand Ft. Campbell, Ky is located in front of 101st Airborne DivisionHeadquarters.
*UH-1B on static display at the
Ft. Campbell, Ky museum.
*UH-1H formerly assigned to the
Illinois Army National Guardon static display at the Prairie Aviation Museum located at the Central Illinois Regional Airportin Bloomington, Illinois.
*UH-1C/M on display on a stand at the entrance of the
Tennessee National GuardTraining Center at the Smyrna Airport (Tennessee)in Smyrna, Tennessee.
*UH-1's of various models on stands at the entrances of
Fort Rucker, Alabamaas well as at the Ft Rucker museum.
*Canadian CH-118 (UH-1H) 118101 at the
National Air Force Museum of Canada, CFB Trenton, Ontariocite web|url = http://www.airforcemuseum.ca/ac_iroquois.htm|title = BELL CH 118 Iroquois Helicopter |accessdate = 2008-10-05|last = The National Air Force Museum of Canada|authorlink = |year = undated]
plane or copter?=copter
jet or prop?=prop
capacity=3,880 lb including 14 troops, or 6 stretchers, or equivalent cargo
length main=57 ft 1 in with rotors
length alt=17.4 m)
- Fuselage width: 8 ft 7 in (2.6 m
span main=48 ft 0 in
span alt=14.6 m
height main=14 ft 5 in
height alt=4.4 m
empty weight main=5,215 lb
empty weight alt=2,365 kg
loaded weight main=9,040 lb
loaded weight alt=4,100 kg
max takeoff weight main=9,500 lb
max takeoff weight alt=4,310 kg
type of prop=
number of props=1
power main=1,100 shp
power alt=820 kW
max speed main=135 mph
max speed alt=220 km/h
cruise speed main=125 mph
cruise speed alt=205 km/h
range main=315 mi
range alt=510 km
ceiling main=19,390 ft (Dependent on environmental factors such as weight, outside temp., etc)
ceiling alt=5,910 m
climb rate main=1,755 ft/min
climb rate alt=8.9 m/s
power/mass main=0.15 hp/lb
power/mass alt=0.25 kW/kg
Variable, but may include a combination of:
*2x 7.62 mm
M60 machine gun, or 2x 7.62 mm GAU-17/A machine gun
*2x 7-round or 19-round 2.75 in (70 mm) rocket pods
*2x 7.62 mm
Rheinmetall MG3( German Armyand German Luftwaffe)
For information on US armament systems see: main|U.S. Helicopter Armament Subsystems
The image of American troops disembarking from a Huey has become iconic of the
Vietnam War, and can be seen in many films, video games and television shows on the subject, as well as more modern settings. The UH-1 is seen in many films about the Vietnam war, including "The Green Berets", " Platoon", " Hamburger Hill", " Apocalypse Now," " Casualties of War", and " Born on the Fourth of July". It is most prominently featured in " We Were Soldiers" as the main helicopter used by the U.S. Cavalry in the Battle of Ia Drang. Author Robert Mason recounts his career as a UH-1 "Slick" pilot in his memoir, "Chickenhawk".
UH-1N Twin Huey
Panha Shabaviz 2-75
*** HC-1A, HC-1B -
HO-1, HO-2, HO-3, HO-4, HO-5, HO-6 - HU-1 - HZ-1
UH-1 Iroquois variants
Bell Huey- overview of all models
US Helicopter Armament Subsystems
List of active United States military aircraft
* Andrade, John M. "U.S. Military Aircraft Designations and Serials since 1909". Hersham, Surrey, UK: Midland Counties Publications, 1979. ISBN 0-904597-22-9.
* Chant, Christopher. "Fighting Helicopters of the 20th Century" (20th Century Military Series). Christchurch, Dorset, UK: Graham Beehag Books, 1996. ISBN 1-85501-808-X.
* Debay, Yves. "Combat Helicopters". Paris: Histoire & Collections, 1996. ISBN 2-90818-252-1.
* Drendel, Lou. "Huey". Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1983. ISBN 0-89747-145-8.
* Francillon, René, J. "Vietnam: The War in the Air". New York: Arch Cape Press, 1987. ISBN 0-51762-976-3.
* Guilmartin, John Francis and Michael O'Leary. "The Illustrated History of the Vietnam War, Volume 11: Helicopters". New York: Bantam Books, 1988. ISBN 0-553-34506-0.
* Mesko, Jim. "Airmobile: The Helicopter War in Vietnam". Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1984. ISBN 0-89747-159-8.
* Mikesh, Robert C. "Flying Dragons: The South Vietnamese Air Force". London: Osprey Publishing, 1988. ISBN 0-85045-819-6.
* Mutza, Wayne. "UH-1 Huey In Action". Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1986. ISBN 0-89747-179-2.
* Mutza, Wayne. "UH-1 Huey in Color". Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1992. ISBN 0-89747-279-9.
* [http://www.airliners.net/info/stats.main?id=73 Specifications for 204, 205 and 214 Huey Plus]
* [http://www.bellhelicopter.com/en/aircraft/military/bellHueyII.cfm Official Huey II page on BellHelicopter.com]
* [http://www.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=130 UH-1N USAF fact sheet]
* [http://tri.army.mil/LC/CS/csa/aadesc.htm#UH1 UH-1D/UH-1H Iroquois utility helicopter] and [http://www.aviation.army.mil/factsheets/uh1.html UH-1 Factsheet on Army.mil]
* [http://pma276public.navair.navy.mil/pma276public/history.asp UH-1 history on Navy Air web site]
* [http://www.vectorsite.net/avhuey.html The Bell UH-1 Huey at Greg Goebel's AIR VECTORS]
* [http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ac/uh-1.htm FAS.org Huey profile]
* [http://www.mojojets.com/helo-UH1B.htm UH-1B history] and [http://www.mojojets.com/helo-UH1H.htm UH-1H history on Mojojets.com]
* [http://www.hueybravo.net/Airforcepage/Huey.htm Philippine Air Force Huey II Project]
* [http://www.afa.org/magazine/valor/0884valor.asp An account of a Medal of Honor rescue flying a Green Hornet]
* [http://www.dvhaa.org/aircraft/uh-1v.html UH-1 page on Delaware Valley Historical Aircraft Association]
- Fuselage width: 8 ft 7 in (2.6 m
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