- CH-47 Chinook
name= CH-47 Chinook
caption= Field artillery section sling loading an
M198 howitzerfor airlift by a CH-47 Chinook
type= Cargo helicopter
21 September 1961
status= Active service
United States Army
Australian Army Japan Ground Self Defence Force Royal Netherlands Air Force
number built= more than 1,179 [ [http://www.boeing.com/rotorcraft/military/ch47d/index.htm CH-47D/F Chinook page] , Boeing]
unit cost= $10.3 million (1999) [ [http://usmilitary.about.com/od/rotary/a/ch47chinook.htm CH-47/MH-47 Chinook Helicopter] , About.com - CH-47/MH-47 Chinook Helicopter]
CH-46 Sea Knight
variants with their own articles=
Boeing Chinook (UK variants)
The Boeing CH-47 Chinook is a versatile, twin-engine,
tandem rotorheavy-lift helicopter. Its top speed of 170 knots (196 mph, 315 km/h) was faster than utility and attack helicopters of the 1960s and even many of today. Its primary roles include troop movement, artillery emplacement and battlefield resupply. There is a wide loading ramp at the rear of the fuselage and three external-cargo hooks.
Chinooks have been sold to 16 nations; the largest users are the U.S. Army and the
Royal Air Force(see Boeing Chinook (UK variants)). The H-47 is now produced by Boeing Integrated Defense Systems.
Design and development
The Army then ordered the larger Model 114/HC-1B. The pre-production
Boeing VertolYCH-1B made its initial hovering flight on September 21, 1961. In 1962 the HC-1B was redesignated the CH-47A under the 1962 United States Tri-Service aircraft designation system. The name "Chinook" alludes to the Chinook people of the Pacific Northwest.
The Chinook is powered by two
turboshaftengines, mounted on either side of the helicopter's rear end and connected to the rotors by driveshafts. The counter-rotating rotors eliminate the need for an anti-torque vertical rotor, allowing all power to be used for lift and thrust. If one engine fails, the remaining engine can drive both rotors. [ [http://www.chinook-helicopter.com/standards/areas/drive_train.html Chinook Information and diagrams about the transmission system] ]
A commercial model of the Chinook, the Boeing-Vertol Model 234, is used worldwide for logging, construction, fighting forest fires and supporting petroleum exploration operations. As of
December 15, 2006Columbia Helicopters, Inc. of Aurora, Oregonhas purchased the Type Certificate of the Model 234 from Boeing. [cite web | title = Type Certificate Data Sheet No. H9EA | publisher = Federal Aviation Administration | date = January 17, 2007| url = http://www.airweb.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library%5CrgMakeModel.nsf/0/84EBE8780BF584058625726B00657D0E/$FILE/H9EA.pdf
format = .pdf | accessdate = 2007-02-08] Currently the company is seeking FAA issuance of a Production Certificate to produce parts with eventual issuance of a Production Certificate to produce aircraft.
The CH-47A Chinook entered service in
Vietnamwith the U.S. Army 1st Cavalry Divisionin late 1965. The CH-47B was the standard troop transport used by the U.S. Army 1st Cavalry Division in Vietnam.
Gulf Warof 1991, 163 CH-47Ds served in Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm.cite web|url=http://www.army-technology.com/projects/chinook/|title=CH-47D/MH-47E Chinook|work=Army Technology|accessdate=2006-08-27|date=©2006|publisher=SPG Media Limited]
The CH-47D saw wide use in
Operation Enduring Freedomin Afghanistanand Operation Iraqi Freedom in Iraq. The Chinook was used in air assaultmissions, inserting troops into fire bases and later bringing food, water, and ammunition. It is typically escorted by attack helicopters such as the Apache for protection. The CH-47D was particularly useful in the mountainous terrain of Afghanistan where high altitudes and temperatures limited the use of the Black Hawk.
The all-weather, medium-lift CH-47A Chinook was powered initially by Lycoming T55-L-5 engines rated at convert|2200|hp|kW|sigfig=3|lk=on but then replaced by the T55-L-7 rated at convert|2650|hp|kW|sigfig=3|abbr=on engines or T55-L-7C engines rated at convert|2850|hp|kW|sigfig=3|abbr=on. The CH-47A had a maximum gross weight of convert|33000|lb|kg|lk=on. A total of 349 were built.
The ACH-47A was originally known as the Armed/Armored CH-47A (or A/ACH-47A). It was officially designated ACH-47A by US Army—Attack Cargo Helicopter—and unofficially "Guns A Go-Go"). Four CH-47A helicopters were converted to gunships by Boeing Vertol in late 1965. Three were assigned to the 53rd Aviation Detachment in South
Vietnamfor testing, with the remaining one retained in the U.S. for weapons testing. By 1966, the 53rd was redesignated the 1st Aviation Detachment (Provisional) and attached to the 228th Assault Support Helicopter Battalion of the 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile). By 1968, only one gunship remained, and logistical concerns prevented more conversions. It was returned to the United States, and the program stopped. The ACH-47A carried five M60D 7.62x51 mm machine guns or M2HB .50 caliber machine guns, provided by the XM32 and XM33 armament subsystems, two M24A1 20 mm cannons, two XM159B/XM159C 19-Tube 2.75" rocket launchers or sometimes two M18/M18A1 7.62x51 mm gun pods, and a single M75 40 mm grenade launcher in the XM5/M5 armament subsystem (more commonly seen on the UH-1 series of helicopters). The surviving aircraft, Easy Money, has been restored and is on display at Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama. [http://www.vectorsite.net/avch47.html#m7] [http://gunsagogo.org/] [http://www.chinook-helicopter.com/chinook/gunsagogo.html]
CH-47B was powered by two Lycoming T55-L-7C 2,850 shp (2,130 kW) engines. The CH-47B featured a blunted rear rotor pylon, redesigned asymmetrical rotor blades, and strakes along the rear ramp and fuselage to improve flying characteristics. The Chinook could be equipped with two door-mounted M60D
7.62 mm NATO machine guns on the M24 armament subsystem and a ramp-mounted M60D using the M41 armament subsystem. Some CH-47 "bombers" were equipped to drop tear gasor napalmfrom the rear cargo ramp onto NLF (aka Việt Cộng) bunkers. The CH-47 could be equipped with a hoist and cargo hook. The Chinook proved especially valuable in "Pipe Smoke" aircraft recovery missions. The "Hook" recovered about 12,000 aircraft valued at over $3.6 billion during the war. 108 built.
The CH-47C featured more powerful engines and transmissions. [http://www.vectorsite.net/avch47.html#m4 US Army CH-47A / CH-47B / CH-47C / CH-47D / SOA Chinooks] , vectorsite.net, 1 July 2004.] Three versions of the "C model" were built. The original "C" had Lycoming T55-L-7C engines delivering 2,850 shp. The "Super C" included Lycoming T55-L-11 engines delivering 3,750 shp, an upgraded maximum gross weight of 46,000 lb and a pitch stability augmentation system (PSAS). Due to difficulties with the T55-L-11 engines, which were hurriedly brought to war to increase payload, they were temporarily removed from the "Super C" prior to 1970 and the very reliable Lycoming T55-L-7C's were installed until the L-11 engine difficulties could be quantified and corrected. This L-7C engine configuration was affectionately referred to as the "baby C" although it was still a Super C. It still distinguished itself from the "C" in that it had PSAS, and an uprated maximum gross weight. The CH-47 A, B, and all variants of the C were not able to receive certification from the FAA for civil use due to the non-redundant hydraulic flight boost system drive. A redesign of the hydraulic boost system drive was incorporated in the CH-47D which allowed that model to achieve FAA certification as the Boeing Model 234. 233 CH-47Cs were built.
The CH-47 A, B, and all versions of the C saw wide use during the Vietnam war. They replaced the H-21 Shawnee in the combat assault support role.
The export version of the CH-47C Chinook for the Italian Army was designated "CH-47C Plus".
The CH-47D was originally powered by two T55-L-712 engines, but most are now fitted with the T55-GA-714A. Models CH-47A, CH-47B, and CH-47C, all used the same airframe, but later models featured upgraded engines. With its triple-hook cargo system, the CH-47D can carry heavy payloads internally and up to 26,000 pounds externally, for example, bulldozers and 40-foot containers, at speeds over 155 mph (250 km/h). In air assault operations, it often serves as the principal mover of the 155 mm
M198 howitzer, 30 rounds of ammunition, and an 11-man crew. Like most US Army helicopters, the Chinook has advanced avionics and electronics, including the Global Positioning System.
Nearly all of the Army production CH-47D models were conversions from previous U.S. Army A, B, and C models. The last US Army D model built was delivered to the United States Army Reserve (USAR), located at Fort Hood, Texas, in early 2002. [ [http://www.chinook-helicopter.com/history/CH-47D_Model_History.html Boeing CH-47D model Chinook helicopters ] ]
The RAF versions of the CH-47D are the Chinook HC2 and HC2A. The RAF later ordered eight Chinook HC3s, which is a low cost version of the MH-47E for the special forces operations role. They were delivered in 2001 but have not yet entered operational service.
The CH-47SD is a modified variant of the CH-47D, with extended range fuel tanks and higher payload capacities. It is in use by the
Republic of Singapore Air Force, and the Republic of China. The CH-47DG is an upgraded version of the CH-47C for the Greek Army. The HH-47D is a search and rescue version for the Republic of Korea Air Force.
The MH-47D variant was developed for
special forcesoperations and has in-flight refueling capability, a fast-rope rappelling system and other upgrades. The MH-47D was used by US Army 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment. 12 MH-47D helicopters were produced. 6 were conversions from CH-47A models and 6 were conversions from CH-47C models. [ [http://www.chinook-helicopter.com/history/MH-47D_Model_History.html Boeing MH-47D model Chinook helicopters ] ]
The current model used by US Army Special Operations is the MH-47E. Beginning with the E model prototype manufactured in 1991, there were a total of 26 Special Operations Aircraft produced. All aircraft were assigned to the "Nightstalkers", home based at Fort Campbell Kentucky. E models were conversions from existing CH-47C model airframes. The MH-47E has similar capabilities as the MH-47D, but includes an increased fuel capacity similar to the CH-47SD and terrain following/terrain avoidance radar. [ [http://www.chinook-helicopter.com/history/MH-47E_Model_History.html Boeing MH-47E model Chinook helicopters ] ]
The CH-47F, an upgraded D model, first flew in 2001. The first production model was rolled out on
June 15, 2006at the Boeing facility in Ridley Park, Pennsylvania, and had its maiden flight on October 23, 2006. ["New Boeing CH-47F takes flight", "Aerotech News and Review", November 3, 2006, p. 3.] The CH-47F was designed to extend the service life of the Chinook class beyond 2030. Among its upgrades are new 4,868 shaft horsepower Honeywell engines, improved avionics, and an upgraded airframe with larger single-piece sections to reduce part count and need for fasteners. [http://www.boeing.com/ids/news/2007/q1/070219b_nr.html "Boeing's New CH-47F Chinook Helicopter Begins Operational Test Flights with U.S. Army"] , Boeing, February 19, 2007.] The new milled construction will reduce vibrations, eliminate points of joint flexing, and reduce the need for inspections and repairs, and reduce maintenance costs. It is also expected to increase service life. [Holcomb, Henry, [http://www.philly.com/inquirer/breaking/business_breaking/20070817_FORT_CAMPBELL__Ky__-_It_was_104_degrees_on_the_Tarmac_alongside_the_big_helicopter_.html "New Look Chinook"] , "Philadelphia Inquirer", August 17, 2007. [http://web.archive.org/web/20071228212017/http://www.philly.com/inquirer/breaking/business_breaking/20070817_FORT_CAMPBELL__Ky__-_It_was_104_degrees_on_the_Tarmac_alongside_the_big_helicopter_.html archive link] ] The CH-47F can fly at speeds of over 175 mph with a payload of convert|21000|lb|kg|abbr=on|sigfig=3. [http://www.boeing.com/news/releases/2008/q3/080826a_nr.html "Boeing Awarded US Army Contract for 191 CH-47F Chinook Helicopters"] , Boeing, August 26, 2008.] The improved avionics include a Rockwell CollinsCommon Avionics Architecture System (CAAS) cockpit, and BAE's Digital Advanced Flight Control System (DAFCS).
Boeing has delivered 48 F model helicopters to the
United States Army; on August 26, 2008, Boeing announced that the Army has signed a five year contract, worth over $4.8 billion for 191 more, plus 24 options. In February 2007 the Netherlands was the first international customer to order the F model, six helicopters were ordered to expand their current fleet to 17. These six helicopters will be equipped with an upgraded version of the Honeywell Avionics Control Management System (ACMS) cockpit. [ [http://www.boeing.com/news/releases/2007/q1/070215b_nr.html "Boeing Signs Contract for Dutch Chinooks"] , Boeing, February 15, 2007.] Additional orders are expected from Canada and the United Kingdom.
The MH-47G Special Operations Aviation (SOA) version is currently being delivered to the U.S. Army. It is similar to the MH-47E, but features a more sophisticated avionics including a digital Common Avionics Architecture System (CAAS). The CAAS is common glass cockpit used by different helicopters such as MH-60K/Ls, CH-53E/Ks, and ARH-70As. [Warwick, Graham. [http://www.flightglobal.com/articles/2008/04/01/222554/chinook-caas-unites-rotorcraft-cockpits.html "Chinook: CAAS unites rotorcraft cockpits"] , "Flight International",
1 April, 2008.] The MH-47G will also incorporate all of the new sections of the CH-47F. [ [http://www.boeing.com/rotorcraft/military/mh47e/index.htm MH-47E/G Special Operations Chinook product page] , Boeing.]
Based on operational experience in
Afghanistan, the CH-47 was found to be an effective substitute for the UH-60 Black Hawkas an assault helicopter. With its larger payload, range, and higher operating speed, one Chinook can replace up to five UH-60s in this role as an air assault transport. [ [http://www.strategypage.com/htmw/htairmo/articles/20080305.aspx Air Transportation: Chinook Replaces Blackhawk in Combat ] ]
November 9, 2006, the HH-47, a new variant of the Chinook based on the MH-47G, was selected by the United States Air Forceas the winner of the Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR-X) competition. Four development HH-47s will be built, with the first of 141 production aircraft to enter service in 2012. [ [http://www.boeing.com/news/releases/2006/q4/061109f_nr.html] Boeing News Release] [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/hh-47.htm] Global Security.org ] However, as of February 2007 this contract award has come under scrutiny by the GAOand the USAF may recompete the CSAR-X project. [ [http://www.aviationweek.com/aw/generic/story.jsp?id=news/GAO02287.xml&headline=Bowing%20To%20GAO,%20USAF%20Likely%20To%20Recompete%20CSAR-X&channel=defense] Bowing To GAO, USAF Likely To Recompete CSAR-X 28 February 2007]
Other export models
The CH-47J is a medium-transport helicopter for the
Japan Ground Self Defence Force, and the Japan Air Self Defence Force. The CH-47JA is a long range version of the CH-47J, fitted with enlarged fuel tanks. Both versions are built under licence in Japan by Kawasaki.
Eight CH-47C Chinooks were delivered to the
Canadian Forcesin 1974. The Chinooks were in Canadian service from 1974 to 1991; they were designated CH-147. These aircraft were subsequently sold to the Netherlands and are now operated by the Royal Netherlands Air Forceas CH-47Ds. On July 5, 2006, the Canadian government issued a notice that it intends to purchase 16 CH-47F Chinooks. [ [http://www.merx.com/English/SUPPLIER_Menu.Asp?WCE=Show&TAB=1&State=7&id=PW-TALC-002-13708&hcode=ZWzGe9lyvc4xw%2beDiyvNYw%3d%3d Medium to Heavy Lift Helicopter (MHLH) - ACAN] MERX Website - Government of Canada]
* Model 234LR (Long Range) - Commercial transport helicopter. The Model 234LR can be fitted out as an all-passenger, all-cargo, or cargo/passenger transport helicopter.
* Model 234ER (Extended Range) - Commercial transport version.
* Model MLR (Multi Purpose Long Range) - Commercial transport version.
* Model 234UT (Utility Transport) - Utility transport helicopter.
* Model 414 - The Model 414 is the international export version of the CH-47D. It is also known as the CH-47D International Chinook.
In the 1970s, the Army contracted Boeing to design a "Heavy Lift Helicopter (HLH)", designated XCH-62A. It appeared to be a scaled-up CH-47 without a conventional body, in a configuration similar to the
S-64 Skycrane( CH-54 Tarhe), but the project was soon canceled. It was given a second examination in the 1980s and was again rejected. The scaled up model of the HLH was scrapped at the end of 2005 at Fort Rucker, Alabama. [ [http://www.helis.com/70s/h_h62.php XCH-62 with photo] ]
;ARG;AUS;CAN [ [http://www.cbc.ca/canada/story/2008/08/07/helicopters-military.html Canadian military acquiring new helicopters, drones ] ] ;EGY;GRE;IRN;ITA;JPN;LBY;MAR;NLD;ROC-TW;SIN;KOR;ESP;THA;UK :see
Boeing Chinook (UK variants);UAE;USA;VNM: captured ex- VNAFChinooks
Civil Aviation Administration of China. Demonstration aircraft.]
* Helifor Canada Corp (under lease from
* Taiwan National Fire Administration (currently operates three 234s and nine CH-47SD);PRC
Civil Aviation Administration of China" (one month demonstration period) [ [http://www.boeing.com/history/boeing/m234.html Boeing: History - Products - Boeing Model 234 Chinook ] ] ;ECU
Icaro Air(under lease from Columbia Helicopters);NOR
CHC Helikopter Service(formerly Helikopter Services)";UK
British Airways Helicopters"
British International Helicopters";USA
Columbia Helicopters(currently operates seven 234s)
NASA" ( August 14, 1979- September 20, 1989) [ [http://history.nasa.gov/SP-3300/ch9.htm SP-3300 Flight Research at Ames, 1940-1997] ]
"Former civil operators are marked by italics"
Notable accidents and incidents
September 11 1982, at an airshowin Mannheim, Germanya United States Army Chinook (serial number 74-22292) carrying parachutists crashed, killing 46 people. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/world/europe/2156004.stm Air show safety in the spotlight] , BBC, 27 July, 2002.] The crash was later found to be caused by an accumulation of ground walnutshells that had been used to clean the machinery. [ [http://bulk.resource.org/courts.gov/c/F2/769/769.F2d.115.84-1446.html "Ursula J. Schoenborn v. The Boeing Company", 769 F.2d 115 (3d Cir. 1985) - a case in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit] ]
November 6 1986, a British International HelicoptersChinook crashed on approach to Sumburgh Airport, Shetland Islands resulting in the loss of 45 lives and the withdrawal of the Chinook from crew servicing flights in the North Sea. [ [http://www.aaib.gov.uk/cms_resources/2-1988%20G-BWFC.pdf Accident Report 2/88 Report on the accident to Boeing Vertol 234 LR, G-BWFC 2.5 Miles east of Sumbrugh, Shetland Isles on 6 November 1986] ]
2 June 1994a Royal Air Force Chinook (registration ZD576, callsign F4J40) crashed on the Mull of Kintyre, Scotland, killing all twenty five passengers and all four crew). Among the passengers were almost all the United Kingdom (UK)'s senior Northern Ireland intelligence experts. [ [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1994_Scotland_RAF_Chinook_crash] , 1994 crash]
plane or copter?=copter
jet or prop?=prop
ref=Boeing CH-47D/F, [ [http://www.boeing.com/rotorcraft/military/ch47d/ch47dspec.htm Boeing CH-47D/F Specifications] ] Army Chinook file, [ [http://www.army.mil/factfiles/equipment/aircraft/chinook.html US Army Chinook Fact File] ] International DirectoryFrawley, Gerard: "The International Directory of Military Aircraft", p. 49. Aerospace Publications Pty Ltd, 2002. ISBN 1-875671-55-2]
crew=3 (pilot, copilot, flight engineer)
length main=98 ft 10 in
length alt=30.1 m
span main=60 ft 0 in
span alt=18.3 m
height main=18 ft 11 in
height alt=5.7 m
area main=2,800 ft²
area alt=260 m²
empty weight main=23,400 lb
empty weight alt=10,185 kg
loaded weight main=26,680 lb
loaded weight alt=12,100 kg
max takeoff weight main=50,000 lb
max takeoff weight alt=22,680 kg
** 33-55 troops "or"
** 24 litters and 3 attendants
** 28,000 lb (12,700 kg) cargo
engine (prop) =Lycoming T55-GA-712
type of prop=
number of props=2
power main=3,750 hp
power alt=2,796 kW
max speed main=170 knots
max speed alt=196
mph, 315 km/h
cruise speed main= 130 kt
cruise speed alt= 137 mph, 220 km/h
stall speed main=
stall speed alt=
never exceed speed main=
never exceed speed alt=
range main= 400 nmi
range alt= 450 mi, 741 km
combat radius main=
combat radius alt=
combat radius more=
ferry range main=
ferry range alt=
ferry range more=
ceiling main= 18,500 ft
ceiling alt= 5,640 m
climb rate main= 1,522 ft/min
climb rate alt= 10.1 m/s
loading main=9.5 lb/ft²
loading alt=47 kg/m²
power/mass main=0.28 hp/lb
power/mass alt=460 W/kg
armament= M134 7.62 mm (0.308 in) minigun,
M2407.62 mm (0.308 in) machine gun
avionics= Rockwell CAAS (MH-47G/CH-47F)
CH-46 Sea Knight
Boeing Chinook (UK variants)
CH-53 Sea Stallion
List of active United States military aircraft
U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command
* [http://www.boeing.com/rotorcraft/military/ch47d/index.htm CH-47D/F] , [http://www.boeing.com/rotorcraft/military/mh47e/index.htm MH-47E/G] , [http://www.boeing.com/history/boeing/chinook.html CH-47 history] , and [http://www.boeing.com/history/boeing/m234.html Model 234 Chinook history pages on Boeing.com]
* [http://tri.army.mil/LC/CS/csa/aahist.htm#CH47 CH-47A/B/C] , [http://tri.army.mil/LC/CS/csa/aahist2.htm#GOGO ACH-47A] , [http://tri.army.mil/LC/CS/csa/aadesc.htm#CH47 CH-47D/F] and [http://www-rucker.army.mil/helicopters/chinook.html CH-47 Chinook pages on Army.mil]
* [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/h-47.htm CH-47 page on GlobalSecurity.org]
* [http://www.vectorsite.net/avch47.html Sea Knight & Chinook on Vectorsite.net]
* [http://www.boeing.com/news/releases/2007/q3/070814b_nr.html "Boeing's New Combat-Ready CH-47F Chinook Helicopter Fielded to First U.S. Army Unit"]
* [http://www.casr.ca/id-italy-chinooks.htm Current Inventory - Italian Fleet - CASR Article]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Chinook Jargon — chinuk wawa, wawa, chinook lelang, lelang Spoken in Canada, United States Region Pacific Northwest (Interior and Coast) Native speakers – Language fami … Wikipedia
Chinook (Vent) — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Chinook. En brun la position des montagnes Rocheuses Le Chinook est un … Wikipédia en Français
Chinook Centre — s logo Location Calgary … Wikipedia
Chinook — ( /ʃɪˈn … Wikipedia
Chinook (Langue) — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Chinook. De par l absence de standard, on admettra la transcription écrite des mots Chinook. Le jargon chinook ou Chinook Jargon est un pidgin parlé en Colombie Britannique, au Canada et dans les États américains … Wikipédia en Français
Chinook (langue pidgin) — Chinook (langue) Pour les articles homonymes, voir Chinook. De par l absence de standard, on admettra la transcription écrite des mots Chinook. Le jargon chinook ou Chinook Jargon est un pidgin parlé en Colombie Britannique, au Canada et dans les … Wikipédia en Français
Chinook (Programm) — Chinook ist ein Computer Programm, das die englische Dame Variante spielt. Es wurde um 1989 an der University of Alberta unter Leitung von Jonathan Schaeffer entwickelt. Mitarbeiter waren Rob Lake, Paul Lu, Martin Bryant und Norman Treloar. Im… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Chinook (dog) — Chinook A male Chinook Country of origin United States Traits Classification and st … Wikipedia
Chinook Pass (horse) — Chinook Pass Sire Native Born Grandsire Native Dancer Dam Yu Turn Damsire Turn To Sex Gelding … Wikipedia
CHINOOK — Indiens de la côte pacifique nord ouest de l’Amérique du Nord, les Chinook vivaient sur le cours inférieur de la rivière Columbia, depuis l’embouchure jusqu’à The Dalles, dans l’Oregon et autour de la baie de Willapa. Grâce à cette situation… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Chinook Pass — Location of Chinook Pass Elevation 5,430 ft (1,655 m) … Wikipedia