- Silex Process
SILEX is an
acronymfor Separation of Isotopes by Laser Excitation Cite web|url=http://www.silex.com.au/|accessdate=2006-04-21|title=Silex Systems, Ltd. homepage|publisher=Silex Systems Limited] , a technology developed in the 1990s for isotope separationto produce enriched uraniumusing lasers. Cite web|url=http://www.silex.com.au/s11_technical/content.html|accessdate=2006-04-21|title=Silex technical glossary|publisher=Silex Systems Limited]
The SILEX process was developed in
Australiaby Silex Systems Limited, a publicly listed high technology innovation company founded in 1988, and was invented by Dr Michael Goldsworthy and Dr Horst Struve.Cite web|url=http://www.silex.com.au/s02_company_history/content.html|accessdate=2006-04-21|title=Silex company history|publisher=Silex Systems Limited]
In November 1996 Silex Systems Limited signed an exclusive license and development agreement for the application of SILEX technology to uranium enrichment with the
United States Enrichment Corporation(USEC).Cite web|url=http://www.sea-us.org.au/corpfilez/no2lasers.html|title=Silex Systems Ltd|accessdate=2006-04-21|publisher=Sustainable Energy & Anti-Uranium Service Inc]
The company expected to conclude the second stage of testing in 2005 and begin building a
pilot plant. The pilot plant will probably be built in the USA, giving effect to the 1996 agreement with USEC and avoiding any problems for Australia under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
Greenpeaceproduced a report on the political implications of SILEX process titled [http://sites.greenpeace.org.au/frontpage/pdf/silex_report.pdf Secrets, Lies and Uranium Enrichment] . Cite web|url=http://sites.greenpeace.org.au/frontpage/pdf/silex_report.pdf|title=Secrets, Lies and Uranium Enrichment|accessdate=2006-10-15|publisher=Greenpeace Australia Pacific Ltd|year=2004]
In 2006, Silex Systems limited signed a development agreement with US company
General Electricas the sole developer of the technology.
Details of the SILEX process
According to "Laser Focus World," the SILEX process exposes a cold stream of a mixture of
uranium hexafluoride(UF6) molecules and a carrier gas to energy from a pulsed laser. The laser used is a CO2 laser operating at a wavelength of 10.8 μm ( micrometres) and optically amplified to 16 μm, which is in the infraredspectrum. The amplification is achieved in a Raman conversion cell, a large vessel filled with high-pressure para-hydrogen.
The 16 μm wavelength laser preferentially excites the 235UF6, creating a difference in the isotope ratios in a product stream, which is enriched in 235U, and a
tailingsstream, which has an increased fraction of the more common 238U. cite journal|url=http://www.laserfocusworld.com/display_article/266374/12/ARCHI/none/News/LASER-ISOTOPE-SEPARATION:-Fuel-enrichment-method-garners-GE-contrac | title=Laser Isotope Separation: fuel enrichment method garners GE contract| journal=Laser Focus World|author= Hassaun Jones-Bey|month=May | year=2007|accessdate=2007-06-04] The "Sydney Morning Herald" reports that "The lasers electrically charge the atoms, which become trapped in an electromagnetic field and drawn to a metal plate for collection." [cite journal |url=http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/laser-enrichment-could-cut-cost-of-nuclear-power/2006/05/26/1148524888448.html |title=Laser enrichment could cut cost of nuclear power|author=Richard Macey|date=2006-05-27|journal=Sydney Morning Herald|accessdate=2007-06-15]
According to John L. Lyman, the Silex Systems Ltd. (SSL) research facility in Australia uses a laser pulsed at a frequency of 50
Hz, a rate that results in great inefficiency. At 50 Hz, only 1% of the UF6 feedstock is processed. This results in a high fraction of feedstock entering the product stream and a low observed enrichment rates. Consequently, a working enrichment plant would have to substantially increase the laser duty cycle. In addition, the preparation time needed is prohibitively long for full-scale production. The SSL research facility requires ten hours of prep time for a one hour enrichment test run, significantly restricting output. [cite web | url= http://www.fas.org/sgp/othergov/doe/lanl/docs4/silex.pdf| title= Enrichment Separative Capacity for SILEX| publisher=Los Alamos National Laboratory | accessdate=2007-06-23 | author=John L. Lyman|format=PDF]
Further details of the technology, such as how it differs from the older
molecular laser isotope separation(MLIS) and atomic vapor laser isotope separation(AVLIS) processes are not known publicly. The technique can be used for the isotopic enrichment of chlorine, molybdenumand uranium, and similar technologies can be used with carbonand silicon. [cite web | url=http://www.pnl.gov/main/publications/external/technical_reports/PNNL-14480.pdf | title=Nuclear Proliferation Technology Trends Analysis | publisher=Pacific Northwest National Laboratory technical report | volume = PNNL-14480 | month = September | year = 2005 | accessdate=2007-06-17 | author=M.D. Zentner, G.L. Coles, and R. J. Talbert|format=PDF]
ecurity classification of SILEX information
SILEX is also distinctive in that it is currently the only privately-held information that is classified by the U.S. government. In June 2001, the U.S.
Department of Energyclassified "certain privately generated information concerning an innovative isotope separation process for enriching uranium." Under the Atomic Energy Act, all information not specifically declassified is classified as Restricted Data, whether it is privately or publicly held. This is in marked distinction to the national security classification executive order, which states that classification can only be assigned to information "owned by, produced by or for, or is under the control of the United States Government." This is the only known case of the Atomic Energy Act being used in such a manner. Cite web|url=http://www.fas.org/sgp/news/secrecy/2001/06/062601.html|title=DOE classifies privately held info|accessdate=2007-08-23|author=Steven Aftergood|publisher=Secrecy News, Federation of American Scientists|date=26 June 2001] Cite web|url=http://www.fas.org/sgp/news/secrecy/2007/08/082207.html|title=A glimpse of the SILEX uranium enrichment process|accessdate=2007-08-23|author=Steven Aftergood|publisher=Secrecy News, Federation of American Scientists|date=23 August 2007]
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