- Education in Greece
country name = Hellenic republic
agency = Ministry for National Education
and Religious Affairs
leader titles = Minister for National Education
and Religious Affairs
leader names =
budget = 4,7 billion € (public)
2.7% of GDP1
budget year = 2001
primary languages = Greek
system type =
established events =
established dates =
literacy year = 2003
literacy total = 97.5
literacy men = 98.6
literacy women = 96.5
enroll total = 1,426,175
enroll primary = 786,025 2
enroll secondary = 360,248 3
enroll post-secondary = 276,902 4
attain secondary =
attain post-secondary =
footnotes =1"Gianouridis & Bagley, p. 62 2000-2001 schoolyear ("Επαιδευτικό Ελληνικό" πίνακας 6.2, σ. 24) 32000-2001; loc. cit. 41999-200; ibid., 53The Greek
educational system has undergone significant changes and modernisations during the 1990s.
* Year 1 ("Pro'ti Dimotikou' "): age 6 to 7
* Year 2 ("Defte'ra Dimotikou' "): age 7 to 8
* Year 3 ("Tri'ti Dimotikou' "): age 8 to 9
* Year 4 ("Teta'rti Dimotikou' "): age 9 to 10
* Year 5 ("Pe'mpti Dimotikou' "): age 10 to 11
* Year 6 ("E'kti Dimotikou' "): age 11 to 12
* Γυμνάσιο ("Gymnasium" - Middle / Secondary School)
** Year 1, age 12 to 13
** Year 2, age 13 to 14
** Year 3, age 14 to 15
* Λύκειο (
Lyceum- High School)
** Year 1, age 15 to 16(end of compulsory education)
** Year 2, age 16 to 17
** Year 3, age 17 to 18
*ΙΕΚ - Ινστιτούτα Επαγγελματικής Κατάρτισης (IEK - Vocational Constitution Institutes)
* Τεχνολογικά Εκπαιδευτικά Ιδρύματα - TEI (Technological Educational Foundations - TEI)OR
* Ανώτατα Εκπαιδευτικά Ιδρύματα - ΑΕΙ (Higher Educational Foundations - AEI)
* There are public and private "dimotika" (primary education), "gymnasia" (middle school; secondary education), "lykeia" (high school; secondary education). Some of them are for foreigners, usually children of British or American families. For example see
American Community Schools.
* Public and private
* According to the article 16 of the greek constitution, private tertiary education isn't allowed in Greece. However there are some Laboratories of Free Studies (Ergastiria Eleutheron Spoudon), often franchises of foreign universities, sometimes non-profit organizations, which advertise themselves as private universities. For example see the
ALBA Graduate Business School, University of Wales, Bangor, Mediterranean College, Deree College, etc.
* Επαγγελματικό Λύκειο, ΕΠΑ.Λ. ("Epagelmatiko Lykio" - Educational Lyceum, EPA.L.)
* Ινστιτούτο Επαγγελματικής Κατάρτισης ("Institouto Epagelmatikis Katartisis" - Vocational Constitution Institute,
IEK). [http://www.oeek.gr OEEK] is the government organisation which oversees these institutes.
EESschools often offer seminars and 1-year vocational programmes, usually for Computing or Business studies. Young Greeks can seek private vocational education using the computer softwareproducts "Eurofasma" and "Kefaleo" (Capital).
* Τεχνικό Επαγγελματικό Εκπαιδευτήριο, ΤΕΕ ("Techniko Epagelmatiko Ekpedeftirio" - Technical Vocational School, TEE)
* Τεχνικό Επαγγελματικό Λύκειο, ΤΕΛ ("Techniko Epagelmatiko Lykeio" - Technical Vocational Lyceum, TEL)
* Τεχνική Επαγγελματική Σχολή, ΤΕΣ ("Techniki Epagelmatiki Scholi" - Technical Vocational School, TES)
* Ενιαίο Πολυκλαδικό Λύκειο, ΕΠΛ ("Eniaio Polykladiko Lykeio" - Unified Multidisciplinary Lyceum, EPL)
The foremost topic of debate in recent years has been "anagnorisi" ("αναγνώριση" "recognition"): Private universities are forbidden by the 1975 constitution. Numerous private institutions, often franchises of European and American universities such as the
University of Indianapolisand the State University of New York, but also non-profit accredited institutions, are operating legally as EESschools (translatable as "Laboratories of Free Study"). Nea Dimokratia(New Democracy), the Greek conservative right political party, claimed in the 2004 elections that it will change the law so that private universities will be recognized, a move opposed by the then-ruling PASOK. Without official recognition, students who have an EES degree are unable to work in the public sector. PASOK did take some action after EU intervention, such as the creation of a special government agency which certifies the "vocational" status of certain EES degree holders, but not the "academic" status. The issue of full "recognition" is still a debate among Greek politicians. A new constitutional amendment proposed in December 2005 is expected to end this debate by allowing the function of non-profit private universities.
Greek Universities have yet to meet the ever-growing demands of enrolling the most willing and able students to their rosters. As a result, a shortage in University-level education that is recognized in Greece, leads families and students to often look outside of Greece for a higher education. Countries such as France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, and the United States are priority choices for students who failed to be accepted to faculties, such as medicine, engineering or computer science, in Greece. In recent years, due to an increase and shift in the economy of Greece, students are less willing to study for an overinflated medical or legal occupation. Instead, popular choices are now Business, Information Technology, Computer Science, and Electrical Engineering have attracted Greek Students to universities in India, primarily (
ISB), ( IITs), ( IISc), and the National Law School of India Universityto which in recent years, students from Greece have been blamed for unfairly receiving the Rhodes Scholarshipdue to being a racial minority.
Greece does not recognize three-year university degrees. Students who completed a Bachelor's degree in a foreign country find it difficult to find employment in the public sector, unless they next obtain a Master's degree. Doctors and lawyers that come to Greece with degrees from abroad, must also go through an additional 6-9 months of testing and qualification before they are allowed to practice in Greece.
* Anastasios Giamouridis and Carl Bagley, "
Journal of Modern Greek Studies", vol. 24, No. 1, "Policy, Politics and Social Inequality in the Educational System", May 2006, pp. 1-21.
* Education Research Centre - Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs, "The Greek Education System. Facts and Figures" (Supervision: Prof. V. Koulaidis. Compiled by C. Papakyriakopoulos, A. Patouna, A. Katsis & S. Georgiadou), Athens, 2003. (ISBN 960-541-106-7)
** el icon Κέντρο Εκπαιδευτικής Έρευνας, "Το Ελληνικό Εκπαιδευτικό Σύστημαˑ Συνοπτική εικόνα σε αριθμούς", Αθήνα, 2003. (ISBN 960-541-108-3) [http://www.ypepth.gr/docs/to_elliniko_ekpaideutiko.zip] (accessed
June 1 2006)
* "Greek Educational System: The Implementation of the ICT in the Greek Curriculum in Compulsory Education", IACM/FORTH, November 2003 [http://promitheas.iacm.forth.gr/i-curriculum/Assets/Docs/NatReports/Greek%20Report.pdf]
List of universities in Greece
Education by country
* [http://ypepth.gr/en_ec_home.htm Greek Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs]
** [http://ypepth.gr/en_ec_page1531.htm The Greek Education System]
* [http://kee.gr/html/english_main.php The Education Research Centre of Greece]
* [http://www.thought.de Private Universities in Greece] , comprehensive list with further information on the situation.
* [http://promitheas.iacm.forth.gr/i-curriculum/ i-Curriculum Project]
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