- Treaty of Rapallo, 1920
Treaty of Rapallo, 1922"
The Treaty of Rapallo was a treaty between the Kingdom of Italy and the
Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes(renamed "Yugoslavia" in 1929), signed to solve the dispute over some territories in the upper Adriatic, known as the Julian March.
The treaty was signed on
12 November 1920[ [http://books.google.com/books?id=nOALhEZkYDkC&pg=PA45&dq=%22signed+a+treaty+on+November+12,+1920,+at+Rapallo&lr=&sig=ACfU3U1d_etPPJL-3k8nsYws4mfuun44sQ A Low Dishonest Decade by Paul N. Hehn; Chapter 2, Italy the Powers and Eastern Europe, 1918-1939. Mussolini, Prisoner of the Mediterranean] ] in Rapallonear Genoain Italy. Tension between Italy and Yugoslavia arose at the end of World War I, when the Austro-Hungarian Empiredissolved and Italy occupied the territories assigned to it by the London Pactof 1915. These territories had however an ethnically mixed population, with Slovenesand Croatscomposing over the half of the population of the region.
According to the treaty, the following territories were annexed to Italy:
* the whole territory of former
Austrian Littoral, except for the municipality of Kastavand the island of Krk;
* the western part of the former
Duchy of Carniola, including the towns of Idrija, Vipava, Ajdovščina, Postojna, Pivkaand Ilirska Bistrica;
* the former
Dalmatian capital city of Zadar(known as "Zara" in Italian) and the small Dalmatian islands of Lastovoand Palagruža;
According to the treaty, the city of
Rijeka(known as "Fiume" in Italian) would become the independent Free State of Fiume[ [http://books.google.com/books?id=5Cfuax6XHF0C&pg=PA177&dq=%22the+consequence+of+the+elections&sig=ACfU3U0WUaRxCzXxkCBtY6KE2EkqPudtPQ Foreign Policies of the Great Powers by Cedric James Lowe, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, F. Marzari, p.177-78] ] , thus ending the military occupation of Gabriele d'Annunzio's troops, known as the Italian Regency of Carnaro. This part of the treaty was revoked in 1924, when Italy and Yugoslavia signed the Treaty of Rome, which gave Fiume to Italy and the adjacent port of Sušakto Yugoslavia.
The treaty left a large number of
Slovenesand Croatsin Italy. According to author Paul N. Hehn, "the treaty left half a million Slavs inside Italy while only a few hundred Italians in the fledgling Yugoslav state" [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=nOALhEZkYDkC&pg=PA45&dq=%22the+treaty+left+half+a+million+Slavs+inside+Italy+while+only+a+few+hundred+Italians&lr=&sig=ACfU3U1d_etPPJL-3k8nsYws4mfuun44sQ A Low Dishonest Decade by Paul N. Hehn; Chapter 2, Italy the Powers and Eastern Europe, 1918-1939. Mussolini, Prisoner of the Mediterranean] ] . According to the Austrian census, around 25,000 ethnic Germansand 3,000 Hungariansalso lived in the regions annexed to Italy with the Treaty.
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=nOALhEZkYDkC&pg=PA42&dq=%22Italy+the+Powers+and+Eastern+Europe&lr=&sig=ACfU3U3l7FYsMjliPyvbV_vcYEGBCFcljA A Low Dishonest Decade by Paul N. Hehn; Chapter 2, Italy the Powers and Eastern Europe, 1918-1939. Mussolini, Prisoner of the Mediterranean]
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