- Timeline of Indian history
This is a timeline of
Indian history. It includes the history of South Asia( Indian subcontinent), especially the history of the regions now known India, Pakistanand Bangladesh.
Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka (9000-7000 BC)
The Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka are in the foothills of the Vindhyan Mountains on the southern edge of the central Indian plateau. Within massive sandstone outcrops, above comparatively dense forest, are five clusters of natural rock shelters, displaying paintings that appear to date from the Mesolithic Period right through to the historical period. The site is a U.N world heritage site. [ [http://whc.unesco.org/pg.cfm?cid=31&id_site=925 Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka] ]
Mehrgarh Culture (7000-3300 BC)
*7000 BC: Mehrgarh Culture (Period I) begins, which was one of the world's earliest
*5500 BC: Period II of Mehrgarh begins
*4800 BC: Period III of Mehrgarh begins
*3500 BC: Period IV of Mehrgarh begins
*3300 BC: Period IV of Mehrgarh ends
Indus Valley Civilization (3300-1900 BC)
Indus Valley Civilization(also known as Harappan civilizationor sometimes as "Sindu-Sarasvati Civilization") began in Harappa(starting with the Ravi phase), and was one of the world's three earliest urban civilizations, contemporary to Sumer(in Mesopotamia/ Iraq) and ancient Egypt.
*2800 BC: Kot Diji phase of the Indus Valley Civilization begins.The civilization at this time used an early form of the
Indus script("Harappan script").
*2600 BC: Mature
Harappanphase of the Indus Valley Civilization begins. The cities of Harappaand Mohenjo-darobecome large metropolises and the civilization expands to over 2,500 cities and settlements across the whole of what is now Pakistan, much of northwestern and western India, and parts of Afghanistanand Iran; It covered a region of around one million square miles, which was larger than the land area of its contemporaries Egypt and Mesopotamia combined; it also had superior urban planningand sewage systems. The civilization began using the mature Indus script.
*1900 BC: Late Harappan Phase of the Indus Valley Civilization begins.
*1700 BC: Indus Valley Civilization comes to an end but is continued by the
Cemetery H cultureand other cultures.
Vedic Era (1500-500 BC)
*1500-1000 BC: early
Vedic period*Rigveda, in the northwestern subcontinent and Afghanistan.
Cemetery H culturecomes to an end
Iron Age India
*600 BC: Sixteen Maha Janapadas ("Great Realms" or "Great Kingdoms") emerge. A number of these Maha Janapadas are semi-
democratic" republics", rather oligarchies.
Mahavira, 24th Tirthankarof Jainismis born
Siddhartha Gautama(Buddha), founder of Buddhismis born as a prince of the Shakya tribe, which ruled parts of what is now N. Bihar and S. Nepal.
Cyrus the Great, founder of the Persian Achaemenid Empireconquers parts of the northwestern subcontinent.
*c. 350 BC: Panini describes the
grammarand morphology of Sanskritin the text Ashtadhyayi. Panini's standardized Sanskrit is known as Classical Sanskrit
*Vedic Civilization comes to an end after the
Historical Vedic religionevolves into early classical Hinduism
Ancient India (500 BC - 550 AD)
*333 BC: Persian rule in the northwest ends after
Darius IIIis defeated by Alexander the Great, who establishes the Macedonian Empire after inheriting the Persian Achaemenid Empire
Ambhi(" Omphis"/" Taxiles" in Greek), king of Taxila(" Takshashila" in Sanskrit) surrenders to Alexander ("Sikander" in Hindustani)
** Paurava "
Porus" (in Greek) who ruled parts of the Punjab, fought Alexander at the Battle of the Hydaspes River
Mauryan Empireis founded by Chandragupta Maurya(" Sandrokottos" in Greek) after he defeats the Magadhan Empireand Macedonian Seleucid Empire
Chandragupta Mauryadefeats Seleucus Nicatorof the Seleucid Empire
*304 BC: Seleucus gives up his territories in the subcontinent and in Afghanistan/Baluchistan to Chandragupta in exchange for 500 elephants. Seleucus offers his daughter in marriage to Chandragupta to seal their friendship.
Ashoka the Great(regarded as the greatest ancient Indian emperor), grandson of Chandragupta Maurya, ascends as emperor of the Mauryan Empire.
Ashokaconquers and unifies most of South Asia, along with parts of Afghanistan and eastern Iran.
Kalinga Wartakes place between Ashoka and the kingdom of Kalinga.
**After conquering Kalinga, Ashoka reportedly regrets what he had done, leading him to adopt
Buddhism, which then became the quasi-official state religion of the Mauryan Empire
*260s: Ashoka begins displaying religious tolerance, grants animal rights, builds hospitals for people and animals, treats his subjects as equals regardless of caste or creed, and promotes
**Ashoka inscribes the
Edicts of Ashoka, written down using Brahmi script.
*232 BC: Ashoka dies and is succeeded by
Simukadeclares independence from Mauryan rule and establishes the Satavahana Empire.
Tholkappiyamdescribes the grammarand morphology of Tamil; it is the oldest existing Tamil grammar (dates vary between 200 BCE and 100 CE)
*184 BC: The Mauryan Empire, which shrunk considerably, collapsed after its emperor
Brihadratawas assassinated by his Brahmingeneral Pusyamitra Sungawho then established the Sunga dynasty.
*180 BC: Establishment of the
*80 BC: Establishment of the
*65 BC: The Pandyan king sends ambassadors to Greek and Roman lands.
*10: Establishment of the
*68: Establishment of the
Kushan empireby Kujula Kadphises.
Gautamiputra Satkarnibecomes Satavahana emperorand starts Shalivahana eracalendar after defeating Scythianking Vikramaditya.
*240: Sri-Gupta starts the
Chandragupta Iascends to the Gupta throne.
Samudraguptaascends the Gupta throne and expands the empire.
Chandragupta II, Samudragupta's son becomes the Gupta Emperor.
*450; Begin of invasions of the Hephtalite Huns (Huna).
Medieval India (550-1526 AD)
Harshavardhana crowned king.
Badami Chalukyapower at its peak. Pulakesi IIpushes north up to the Narmada and defeats the invading Harshavardhanaof Kanauj.
*761: First Muslim, Md. Bin Qasim defeats King Dahir
Amoghavarsha Ibecomes Rashtrakutaking. Kannada literatureflourishes.
*1000: Invasion of
Mahmud of Ghazni
Alberuniarrivies in India; blah of Ghazni
Chalukyapower at its peak. Vikramaditya VIushers in "Vikrama Chalukya era".
*1134-1196: Life of
Basaveshwara, Philosopher and social reformer
*1191: First battle of Tarain between
Mohammed Ghoriand Prithviraj IIIand Ghauri is defeated by Prithivi Raj Chauhan III.
*1192: Second battle of Tarain fought between Ghauri and Prithivi Raj Chauhan III but Prithivi Raj Chauhan III defeated and captured near swarswati river and his son became king of Ranthambhore.
*1194: Battle of Chandawar fought between Ghauri and Jayachandra and Ghauri defeated Jayachandra and killed him.
Post-Medieval Era (1526-1818)
Ibrahim Lodi, of the Delhi Sultanate, angers local nobles, who respond by inviting Babur, the Mughal ruler of Kabul, to invade Delhi and Agra. The local population, plus the possession of artillery, assists Babur in killing the Sultan (whose soldiers desert him) at the Battle of Panipat.
*1527 Babur makes secret pact with
Mewargeneral Silhadithat he will give Silhadi a kingdom, if Silhadi betrays Mewar King Rana Sangain Battle of Khanwa, thus leading to the annexation of Mewar.
*1530 Babur completes his
Baburnama, reflecting on society, politics, economics, history, geography, nature, flora and fauna, which to this day is a standard textbook in 25 countries. Babur dies, and is succeeded by his son Humayun.
*1556 Humayun converts from
Sunni Islamto ShiaIslam, to gain the alliance of the Shah of Persia. Humayun dies, and is succeeded by his son Akbar.
*1572 Akbar annexes
*1574 Akbar annexes
*1586 Akbar annexes
*1600 East India company is formed in England. Gets exclusive trading rights with India.
*1605 Akbar dies, and is succeeded by his son
*1628 Jehangir announces "Chain of Justice" outside his palace that anyone can ring the bell and get a personal hearing with the emperor. Jehangir dies, and is succeeded by his son
*1630 Birth of
*1644 Shivaji takes oath of Independence at
*1658 Shah Jahan completes
Taj Mahal, Jama Masjid, and Red Fort. Imperial treasuries drained by architectural and military overexpenditures. Shah Jahan dies, and is succeeded by his son Aurangzeb.
Shivaji's ill-equipped and small Marathaarmy defeat mighty Adilshahi troops at the Battle of Pratapgarhin a major upset in Indian history. Shivaji personally kills Adilshahi commander Afzal Khan in a thrilling fashion.
*1674 Forces led by
Shivajidefeat Aurangzeb's troops, and establishes Maratha Empire.
Shivajidies of fever at Raigad.
*1681 Aurangzeb invades the
*1707 Aurangzeb dies, and is succeeded by son
Bahadur Shah I.
*1707 Civil war breaks in
Maharashtrabetween Maharani Tarabaiand Shahu, Maratha Empire breaks into two divisions.
Pamheibadecrees Vaishnavismas the state religion of Manipur
*1719 Bajirao I is appointed the
Peshwaby Maratha Emperor Shahu.
*1735 Annexation of
Rajputanaby Peshwa Bajirao
*1737 Bajirao I conquers
Delhi, Mughal Emperor is spared and kept as titular head.
*1740 Bajirao I annexes
*1740 Bajirao I dies, with the distinction of winning every battle he fought. He is succeeded by
British East India Company's private army under Robert Cliveannexes Bengal for the company in the Battle of Plassey. Edmund Burkehas Robert Clive arrested for the act.
Marathas comprehensively defeat the Nizam, Maratha Empirereaches its zenith.
Marathas are defeated in the Third battle of Panipatbringing an end to their expansion.
First Anglo-Mysore Warbegins.
Ching-Thang Khombaand Suramphaainvade Manipur.
First Anglo-Mysore Warends.
Madhavrao Peshwadies of tuberculosis.
NarayanraoPeshwa is murdered by his uncle Raghunathrao's wife in front of Raghunathrao.
Chief Justiceof the Maratha Empire, Ram Shastripasses death sentence against the ruling Peshwa Raghunathraofor murdering his nephew.
First Anglo-Maratha Warbegins.
Maratha" sardar" Mahadji Shinderouts the British armyat the Battle of Wadgaon.
First Anglo-Maratha Warends with the restoration of status quo as per Treaty of Salbai.
Second Anglo-Mysore Warbegins.
Second Anglo-Mysore Warends with the Treaty of Mangalore.
Third Anglo-Mysore Warbegins.
Marathasunder Holkarand General de Boigne comprehensively defeat the Rajputsof Jaipurand their Mughal allies at the Battle of Patan, where 3000+ Rajput cavalry is killed and the entire Mughal unit vanquished. The defeat crushes Rajput hope of independence from external influence
Third Anglo-Mysore Warends.
Ching-Thang Khombamoves Manipur's capital to Kangla
Fourth Anglo-Mysore Warbegins.
Fourth Anglo-Mysore Warends with the death of Tipu Sultanand the restoration of the Wodeyardynasty.
Second Anglo-Maratha Warbegins
Second Anglo-Maratha Warends
Third Anglo-Maratha Warbegins
Third Anglo-Maratha Warends with the defeat of Bajirao IIand the end of the Maratha Empireleaving the British with control of almost the whole of India
Colonial Era (1818-1947)
*1818 - 1822
*1857 First Indian Rebellion, also known as the
Indian Mutinyto the British, and the First War of Indian Independence to Indians.
*1861 - 1869 - 1870 - 1874 - 1875 - 1877 - 1885 - 1887 - 1889 - 1905 - 1906 - 1907 - 1911 - 1919
Rajajiappointed Congress Partypresident
*1922 - 1923 - 1924 - 1925 - 1925 - 1927 - 1928 - 1930 - 1931 - 1932 - 1934 - 1935 - 1936 - 1937 - 1938 - 1939 - 1940 - 1941 - 1942 - 1943 - 1944 - 1945 - 1946
Post-Partition (1947 - Present)
Republic of India
Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the first governor general of Pakistan, dies
* 1951: Prime minister Khan Liaqat Ali Khan assassinated
* 1956: The Constituent Assembly promulgates first indigenous constitution
* 1958: After a military coup
Ayub Khantakes over
* 1960: Ayub Khan becomes first elected president
* 1965: Second war between
Pakistanand Indiaover Kashmir
Ayub Khanresigns; Yahya Khandeclares martial law and assumes presidency
East Pakistanattempts to secede, leading to civil war; Indiaintervenes in support of East Pakistan; Pakistanfights another war with India; East Pakistanbreaks away to become Bangladesh; Yahya Khanresigns.
Zulfiqar Ali Bhuttobecomes prime minister
* 1977: General
Muhammad Zia ul-Haqoverthrows prime minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhuttoand declares martial law
* 1978: General
Muhammad Zia ul-Haqbecomes Pakistan's sixth president
Zulfiqar Ali Bhuttohanged
* 1979: The military ruler Zia Ul-Haq enacts the controversial
* 1985: General elections held;
Muhammad Khan Junejobecomes prime minister
* 1988: Zia dismisses Junejo's government; Zia dies in a plan crash; New elections held; Mohtarma
Benazir Bhuttobecomes prime minister
* 1988: Prominent
Pashtunleadar Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khandies in Peshawar
* 1990: President
Ghulam Ishaq Khandismisses Benazir Bhutto government; Mian Nawaz Sharifbecomes the next prime minister
* 1991: Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif begins economic liberalisation programme. Islamic Shariah law formally incorporated into legal code.
* 1993: President
Ghulam Ishaq Khanand Prime Minister Nawaz Sharifboth resign under pressure from military. Benazir Bhuttobecomes prime minister for the second time
* 1996: President
Farooq Legharidismisses Bhutto government
* 1997: General elections held;
Nawaz Sharifbecomes prime minister for the second time
Pakistanconducts nuclear tests
* 1999: Prime Minister
Nawaz Sharifoverthrown in military coup led by General Pervez Musharraf
* 2001: General
Pervez Musharrafdismissed the president and named himself to the post.
* 2002: General
Pervez Musharrafwins a referendum thus ensures 5 more years in office
* 2002: First general elections since the 1999 military coup held;
Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamalibecomes the next prime minister
Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamaliresigns from office
Shaukat Azizis sworn in as prime minister
* 2005: A 7.5 magnitude
earthquakekills an estimated 80,000 people in northern Pakistan. (see: 2005 Pakistan earthquake)
* 2006: Pakistan army kills the prominent
Balochleader Nawab Akbar khan Bugti
Chief Justice of Pakistanremoved from office and reinstated. 2007 Karachi Riots. Lal Masjid Operation
* 2007: President
Pervez Musharrafdeclares a 2007 Pakistani state of emergencyand later removes it after domestic and international pressure
* 2008: Pakistani former Prime Minister
*Sengupta, P.C. "Ancient Indian Chronology". Calcutta: University of Calcutta Press. 1947.
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/1155813.stm BBC India Timeline]
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