OH-58 Kiowa


OH-58 Kiowa

Infobox Aircraft
name= OH-58 Kiowa


caption= OH-58D Kiowa Warrior
type= Observation/scout helicopter
national origin = United States
manufacturer= Bell Helicopter
first flight= 10 January 1966 (206A)cite book|author=D.Donald|year=1997|title=The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft]
introduced= May 1969
retired=
status= Active service
primary user= United States Army
more users= Australian Army Republic of China Army Royal Saudi Land Forces
produced= 1966-1989 [The last new build aircraft were delivered to the U.S. Army in 1989. The subsequent arming of the AHIP and the System Safety Enhancement Program (SSEP) caused aircraft to be steadily refitted until 1999.]
number built= 2,200+
developed from= Bell 206

The OH-58 Kiowa is a family of single-engine, single-rotor, observation and light attack helicopters manufactured by Bell Helicopter and originally based on the company's Bell 206A JetRanger helicopter. The OH-58 Kiowa has been in continuous use by the United States Army since its introduction in 1968. The latest model, the OH-58D Kiowa Warrior, is primarily operated in an armed reconnaissance role in support of ground troops.

Development

In October 1960, the Army submitted a request for proposals (RFP) for the Light Observation Helicopter (LOH). Bell, along with 12 other manufacturers (including Fairchild-Hiller and Hughes Tool Co. Aircraft Division), entered the competition. [cite web|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5JRs1SFaO|title=The Cessna CH-1 Helicopter|author=Steve Remington|publisher=CollectAir (commercemarketplace.com)|work=|date=] In January 1961, Bell proposed their Model 206 design,cite web|url=http://www.vtol.org/History.htm#_Toc486998807|title=US and Russian Helicopter Development In the 20th Century|author=Michael J. Hirschberg and David K. Daley|date=7 July 2000|publisher= [http://www.vtol.org American Helicopter Society] |accessdate=2007-04-20] which was selected out of the design phase of the Navy-run competition by the Armycite paper|title=George A. Spangenberg Oral History|author=George A. Spangenberg, edited by Judith Spangenberg-Currier|url=http://www.georgespangenberg.com/gasoralhistory.pdf|format=pdf pp.187-190|publisher=www.spangenberg.org ] and designated as the YHO-4.cite web|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5J1lvgxQH|title=U.S Army Aircraft Acquisition Programs|work=Uncommon Aircraft 2006|author=Robert Beechy|date=18 November 2005] [cite web|url=http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/rotary-desig.htm|title=Rotary Aircraft Designation Crosswalk|publisher=GlobalSecurity.org]

Light Observation Helicopter (LOH)

Bell produced five prototype aircraft in 1962 for the Army's test and evaluation phase. The first prototype flew on 8 December 1962.Visschedijk, Johan. [http://www.webcitation.org/5J1mlLyeb "Bell 206 JetRanger".] 1000AircraftPhotos.com. 16 October 2003. Accessed on 19 September 2006.] That same year, all aircraft began to be designated according to the new Joint Services designation system, so the prototype aircraft were redesignated as "YOH-4A". The YOH-4A also became known as the "Ugly Duckling" in comparison to the other contending aircraft. During the testing phase, the test pilots complained about the power problems of the aircraftFact|date=April 2008 which eliminated it from consideration.

When the YOH-4A was rejected by the Army, Bell went about solving the problem of marketing the aircraft. In addition to the image problem, the helicopter lacked cargo space and only provided cramped quarters for the planned three passengers in the back. The solution was a fuselage redesigned to be more sleek and aesthetic, adding convert|16|cuft|m3 of cargo space in the process.Aastad, Andy. [http://rotormagazine.org/Portals/24/pdf/winter2006_7/32.pdf "The Introduction to the JetRanger".] "Rotor Magazine". Helicopter Association International. Winter 2006-2007. Accessed on 29 April 2008.] The redesigned aircraft was designated as the Model 206A, and Bell President Edwin J. Ducayet named it the "JetRanger" denoting an evolution from the popular Model 47J "Ranger".

In 1967, the Army reopened the LOH competition for bids because Hughes Tool Co. Aircraft Division couldn't meet the contractual production demands.Fact|date=February 2007 Bell resubmitted for the program using the Bell 206A.LOH Lot 2] Fairchild-Hiller failed to resubmit their bid with the YOH-5A, which they had successfully marketed as the FH-1100. In the end, Bell underbid Hughes to win the contract and the Bell 206A was designated as the OH-58A. Following the U.S.Army's naming convention for helicopters, the OH-58A was named Kiowa in honor of the Native American tribe.Fact|date=February 2007

Advanced Scout Helicopter

In the 1970s, the U.S. Army began evaluating the need to improve the capabilities of their scout aircraft. The OH-58A lacked the power for operations in areas that exposed the aircraft to high altitude and hot temperatures, areas where the ability to acquire targets was a critical deficiency in the tactical warfare capabilities of Army aviation.cite web|url=http://www.army.mil/CMH/books/DAHSUM/1972/ch05.htm|title=Department of the Army Historical Summary, 1972|accessdate=2007-04-14|publisher=U.S. Army Center of Military History] The power shortcoming caused other issues as the Army anticipated the AH-64A's replacement of the venerable AH-1 in the Attack battalions of the Army. The Army began shopping the idea of an Aerial Scout Program to industry as a prototype exercise to stimulate the development of advanced technological capabilities for night vision and precision navigation equipment. The stated goals of the program included prototypes that would:

...possess an extended target acquisition range capability by means of a long-range stabilized optical subsystem for the observer, improved position location through use of a computerized navigation system, improved survivability by reducing aural, visual, radar, and infrared signatures, and an improved flight performance capability derived from a larger engine to provide compatibility with attack helicopters.

In early March 1974, the Army created a special task force to develop the system requirements for the Aerial Scout Helicopter program,cite web|url=http://www.army.mil/CMH/books/DAHSUM/1974/ch11.htm|title=Department of the Army Historical Summary, 1974|accessdate=2007-04-14|publisher=U.S. Army Center of Military History] and in 1975 the task force had formulated the requirements for the Advanced Scout Helicopter (ASH) program. The requirements were formulated around an aircraft capable of performing in day, night, and adverse weather and compatible with all the advanced weapons systems planned for development and fielding into the 1980s. The program was approved by the System Acquisition Review Council and the Army prepared for competitive development to begin the next year.cite web|url=http://www.army.mil/CMH/books/DAHSUM/1975/ch10.htm|title=Department of the Army Historical Summary, 1975|accessdate=2007-04-14|publisher=U.S. Army Center of Military History] However, as the Army tried to get the program off the ground, Congress declined to provide funding for it in the fiscal year 1977 budget and the ASH Project Manager's Office (PM-ASH) was closed on 30 September 1976.cite web|url=http://www.army.mil/cmh/books/DAHSUM/1976/ch10.htm|title=Department of the Army Historical Summary, 1976|accessdate=2007-04-14|publisher=U.S. Army Center of Military History]

While no development occurred during the next few years, the program survived as a requirement without funding. On 30 November 1979, the decision was made to defer development of an advanced scout helicopter in favor of pursuing modification of existing airframes in the inventory as a near term scout helicopter (NTSH) option. The development of a mast-mounted sight would be the primary focus to improve the aircraft's ability to perform reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition missions while remaining hidden behind trees and terrain. Both the UH-1 and the OH-58 were evaluated as NTSH candidates, but the UH-1 was dropped from consideration due to its larger size and ease of detection. The OH-58, on the other hand demonstrated a dramatic reduction in detectability with an MMS.

On 10 July 1980, the Army decided that the NTSH would be a competitive modification program based on developments in the commercial helicopter industry, particularly Hughes Helicopters development of the Hughes 500D which provided significant improvements over the OH-6.cite web|url=http://www.army.mil/CMH/books/DAHSUM/1980/ch11.htm|title=Department of the Army Historical Summary, 1980|accessdate=2007-04-14|publisher=U.S. Army Center of Military History]

Army Helicopter Improvement Program (AHIP)

The Army's decision to acquire the NTSH resulted in the "Army Helicopter Improvement Program (AHIP)". Both Bell Helicopter and Hughes Helicopters redesigned their scout aircraft to compete for the contract. Bell offered a more robust version of the OH-58 in their model 406 aircraft,cite web|url=http://tri.army.mil/LC/CS/csa/aahist3.htm#AHIP|title=Historic U.S. Army Helicopters|accessdate=2007-04-14] and Hughes offered an upgraded version of the OH-6, and on 21 September 1981, Bell Helicopter Textron was awarded a development contract. [cite paper|author=COL Robert S. Fairweather Jr. and MAJ Grant Fossum|title=The AHIP: Field Artillery Aerial Observer Platform of the Future|publisher=Field Artillery Magazine|date=July/August 1982|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5JRlXvP0o|format=pdf] cite web|url=http://www.army.mil/cmh/books/DAHSUM/1981/ch11.htm|title=Department of the Army Historical Summary, 1981|publisher=U.S. Army Center of Military History|accessdate=2007-04-14] The prototype flew in 1983, and the aircraft entered service in 1985 as the OH-58D.cite web|url=http://www.army.mil/CMH/books/DAHSUM/1986/ch04.htm|title=Department of the Army Historical Summary, 1986|publisher=U.S. Army Center of Military History]

Initially intended to be used in attack, cavalry and artillery roles, the Army only approved a low initial production level and confined the role of the OH-58D to field artillery observation. The Army also directed that a follow-on test be conducted to further evaluate the aircraft due to perceived deficiencies. On 1 April 1986, the Army formed a task force at Fort Rucker, Alabama, to remedy deficiencies in the AHIP. As a result of those deliberations, the Army had planned to discontinue the OH-58D in 1988 and focus on the LHX, but Congress approved $138 million for expanding the program, calling for the AHIP to operate with the Apache as a hunter/killer team; the AHIP would locate the targets, and the Apache would destroy them in a throwback to the traditional OH-58/AH-1 relationship.cite web|url=http://www.army.mil/cmh/books/DAHSUM/1988/ch04.htm|title=Department of the Army Historical Summary, 1988|publisher=U.S. Army Center of Military History] However, based on experience with Task Force 118's performance operating armed OH-58D helicopters in the Persian Gulf in support of Operation Prime Chance, the Secretary of the Army directed that the aircraft's armament systems be upgraded and that the aircraft be used primarily for scouting and armed reconnaissance.cite web|url=http://www.army.mil/cmh/books/DAHSUM/1989/CH11.htm|title=Department of the Army Historical Summary, 1989|publisher=U.S. Army Center of Military History]

Operational history

Operation Prime Chance

In early 1988, it was decided that armed OH-58D (AHIP) helicopters from the 118th Aviation Task Force would be phased in to replace the SEABAT (AH-6/MH-6) teams of Task Force 160th to carry out Operation Prime Chance, the escort of oil tankers during the Iran–Iraq War. On 24 February 1988, two AHIP helicopters reported to the Wimbrown VII, and the SEABAT team stationed on the barge returned to the United States. For the next few months, the AHIP helicopters on the Wimbrown VII shared patrol duties with the SEABAT team on the Hercules. Coordination was difficult, but despite frequent requests from TF-160, the SEABAT team on the Hercules was not replaced by an AHIP detachment until June 1988.cite web|url=http://www.nightstalkers.com/history/4.html|title=Operations EARNEST WILL and PRIME CHANCE|accessdate=2007-03-25|work= [http://www.nightstalkers.com Night Stalker History] ] The OH-58D helicopter crews involved in the operation received deck landing and underwater survival training from the Navy.

In November 1988, the number of OH-58D helicopters that supported Task Force 118 was reduced. However, the aircraft continued to operate from the Navy's Mobile Sea Base Hercules, the frigate Underwood, and the destroyer Connolly. OH-58D operations primarily entailed reconnaissance flights at night, and depending on maintenance requirements and ship scheduling, Army helicopters usually rotated from the mobile sea base and other combatant ships to a land base every seven to fourteen days. On 18 September 1989, an OH-58D crashed during night gunnery practice and sank, but with no loss of personnel. When the Mobile Sea Base Hercules was inactivated in September 1989, all but five OH-58D helicopters redeployed to the continental United States.cite web|url=http://www.army.mil/CMH/books/DAHSUM/1989/CH6.htm|title=Department of the Army Historical Summary, 1989|publisher=U.S. Army Center of Military History|accessdate=2007-03-25]

RAID

In 1989, Congress mandated that the Army National Guard would be a player in the country's "War on Drugs", enabling them to aid federal, state and local law enforcement agencies with "special congressional entitlements". In response, the Army National Guard Bureau created the Reconnaissance and Aerial Interdiction Detachments (RAID) in 1992, consisting of aviation units in 31 states with 76 specially modified OH-58A helicopters to assume the reconnaissance/interdiction role in the fight against illegal drugs. During 1994 twenty-four states conducted more than 1,200 aerial counterdrug reconnaissance and interdiction missions, conducting many of these missions at night. [cite web|url=http://www.army.mil/CMH/books/DAHSUM/1994/ch05.htm|title=Department of the Army Historical Summary, 1994] Eventually, the program was expanded to cover 32 states and consisting of 116 aircraft, including dedicated training aircraft at the Western Army Aviation Training Site (WAATS) in Marana, Arizona.cite web|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5K0AkcD8T|title=Homeland Defense:Fighting Homeland Wars|author=Doug Nelms|date=1 November 2002|publisher=Rotor & Wing [http://www.aviationtoday.com (www.aviationtoday.com)] ]

The RAID program’s mission has now been expanded to include the war against terrorism and supporting U.S. Border Patrol activities in support of homeland defense. The National Guard RAID units' Area of Operation (AO) is the only one in the Department of Defense that is wholly contained within the borders of the United States.

Operation Just Cause

During Operation Just Cause, a Scout Weapons Team, consisting of an OH-58 and an AH-1, were part of the Aviation Task Force during the securing of Fort Amador in Panama when the OH-58 was fired upon by Panama Defense Force soldiers and crashed convert|100|yd away, in the Bay of Panama. The pilot was rescued but the co-pilot died. [ [http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/brochures/Just%20Cause/JustCause.htm "Operation Just Cause: The Incursion into Panama"] , U.S. Army, 1 September 2006.]

Korea

In December 17, 1994, in Korea a "Wha-Sung" shoulder-fired surface-to-air missile brought down a U.S. Army OH-58C that had strayed north of the De-Militarized Zone that acts as a sort of "No Man's Land", or a buffer, separating North and South Korea. [Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs). [http://www.defenselink.mil/releases/release.aspx?releaseid=317 "OH-58C Helicopter Down in North Korea"] . Press Release. United States Department of Defense. 19 December 1994. Accessed 30 December 2007.] One pilot was killed, the other survived and was taken prisoner by North Korea. He was released after several weeks in custody with minor injuries.

Post 9/11

The United States Army has employed Kiowa Warriors during Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom.cite web|url=http://www.army-technology.com/projects/kiowa/|title=OH-58D Kiowa Warrior Reconnaissance / Attack Helicopter, USA|date=2007-11-27|publisher=SPG Media Limited|accessdate=2008-08-04] [ [http://www.mytelus.com/ncp_news/article.en.do?pn=world&articleID=3002793 ] ] Through attrition to combat and accidents, over 30 airframes have been destroyed. The age of the helicopters and the loss of airframes have resulted in a program to procure a new aircraft, the Armed Reconnaissance Helicopter ARH-70.

Variants

;OH-58A:The OH-58A Kiowa is a 4-place observation helicopter. The Kiowa has two-place pilot seating, although the controls in the left seat are designed to be removed to carry a passenger up front. During its Vietnam development, it was fitted with the M134 Minigun, a 7.62 mm electrically operated machine gun. A total of 74 OH-58A helicopters were delivered to the Canadian Armed Forces as COH-58A and later redesignated as CH-136 Kiowa helicopters. [cite web|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5JSmiLPML|title=Bell CH-136 Kiowa|date=15 APR 2004|publisher=Air Force Public Affairs, Department of National Defence]

:In 1978, OH-58A aircraft began to be converted to the same engine and dynamic components as the OH-58C.cite web|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5K3mCqNyu|title=Department of the Army Historical Summary, 1978|publisher=U.S. Army Center of Military History] And, in 1992, 76 OH-58A were modified with another engine upgrade, a thermal imaging system, a communications package for law enforcement, enhanced navigational equipment and high skid gear as part of the Army National Guard's (ARNG) Counter-Drug RAID program. ;OH-58B:An export version for the Austrian Air Force. [cite web|url=http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/oh-58b.htm|title=OH-58B Kiowa|publisher=GlobalSecurity.org] ;CAC CA-32:The Australian Government also procured the OH-58A for the Australian Army and Royal Australian Navy. Produced under contract in Australia as the CA-32 by Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation, the aircraft was the equivalent of the 206B-1 (upgraded engine and longer rotor blades). The first twelve of 55 were built in the U.S. then partially disassembled and shipped to Australia where they were reassembled.cite web|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5JR03L9GJ|title=History of Bell OH58-A Kiowa Helicopter|work=161 Possums|publisher=161 Recce Association] Helicopters in the naval fleet were retired in 2000.;OH-58C:Equipped with a more robust engine, the OH-58C was supposed to solve many issues and concerns regarding the Kiowa's power. In addition to the upgraded engine, the OH-58C had unique IR suppression systems mounted on its turbine exhaust. Early "C" models featured flat-panel windscreens as an attempt to reduce glint from the sun, which could give away the aircraft's location to an enemy. The windscreens had a negative effect of limiting the forward view of the crew, a previous strength of the original design.

:The aircraft were also equipped with a larger instrument panel, roughly a third bigger than the OH-58A panel, which held larger flight instruments. The panel was also equipped with Night Vision Goggle (NVG) compatible cockpit lighting. The lights inside the aircraft are modified to prevent them from interfering with the aircrews' use of NVGs.web cite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5K3nCZaN9|title=Bell OH-58C Kiowa|publisher=Flight Research, Inc.] OH-58C aircraft were also the first U.S. Army scout helicopter to be equipped with the AN/APR-39 radar detector, a system which allowed the crew to know when there were anti-aircraft radar systems in proximity to the aircraft.web cite|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5K3nRPKkv|title=Department of the Army Historical Summary, 1977|publisher=U.S. Army Center of Military History]

:Some OH-58C aircraft were armed with two AIM-92 Stingers. These aircraft are sometimes referred to as OH-58C/S, the "S" referring to the Stinger installation.cite web|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5K3nZl33p|title=Team Redstone's Role in Operation DESERT SHIELD/DESERT STORM|publisher=Redstone Arsenal] Called Air-To-Air Stinger (ATAS), the weapon system was intended to provide an air defense capability for the Kiowas as they pulled security on the flanks, while the Apaches destroyed tanks in the Engagement Area (EA).Verify source|date=July 2007;OH-58D:The OH-58D (Bell Model 406) was the result of the Army Helicopter Improvement Program (AHIP). An upgraded transmission and engine gave the aircraft the power it needed for nap-of-the-earth flight profiles, and a four-bladed main rotor made it much quieter than the two-bladed OH-58C. The OH-58D introduced the most distinctive feature of the Kiowa family – a Mast-Mounted Sight (MMS) above the rotor system with a gyro-stabilized platform containing a TeleVision System (TVS), a Thermal Imaging System (TIS), and a Laser Range Finder/Designator (LRF/D). These new features gave the aircraft the additional mission capability of target acquisition and laser designation in both day or night, and in limited-visibility and adverse weather.;406CS:Fifteen aircraft based on the OH-58D (sometimes referred to as the MH-58D [cite web|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5K3oFnG6Y|title=MH-58D Combat Scout] ) were sold to Saudi Arabiacite web|url=http://www.scramble.nl/mil/4/saudiarabia/main.htm|title=Royal Saudi Air Arms|work=Scramble|publisher=Dutch Air Society] as the "Bell 406CS" "Combat Scout". A Saab HeliTOW sight system [ [http://www.janes.com/extracts/extract/jawa/del00521.html Bell Model 406 CS Combat Scout] , Jane's, 15 July 1992] was opted for in place of the MMS. The sight was mounted on the roof of the aircraft, just above the left pilot seat. [ [http://www.aviastar.org/helicopters_eng/bell_warrior.php Bell Model 406 / OH-58D "Kiowa Warrior"] , aviastar.org] The 406CS also had detachable weapon hardpoints on each side.;AH-58D:OH-58D aircraft operated by Task Force 118 (4th Squadron, 17th Cavalry) and modified with armament in support of Operation Prime Chance. The weapons and fire control systems would become the basis for the Kiowa Warrior. AH-58D is not an official DOD aircraft designation, but is used by the Army in reference to these aircraft. [http://tri.army.mil/LC/CS/csa/ah-58d.htm] [http://www.history.army.mil/CHRONOS/16jan91.htm] [http://www.history.army.mil/photos/gulf_war/ods.htm] ;Kiowa Warrior:The Kiowa Warrior is the armed version of the OH-58D Kiowa. The main difference that distinguishes the Kiowa Warrior from the original AHIP aircraft is a universal weapons pylon found mounted on both sides of the aircraft. These pylons are capable of carrying combinations of Hellfire missiles, Air-to-Air Stinger (ATAS) missiles, 7-shot 2.75 in (70 mm) Hydra-70 rocket pods, [cite web|url=http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/missile/hydra-70.htm|title=Hydra-70 Rocket System|publisher= [http://www.fas.org Federation of American Scientists] ] and an M296 .50 caliber machine gun. The Kiowa Warrior upgrade also includes improvements in available power, navigation, communication and survivability, as well as modifications to improve the aircraft's deployability. [cite web|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5JOjlcwag|title=OH-58D Kiowa Warrior|publisher= [http://www.FAS.org Federation of American Scientists] |author=|accessdate=2006-10-04]

Operators

;AUS
* Australian Army (42)
** 161 Recce Squadron (OH-58A/CA-32)
** 162 Recce Squadron (OH-58A/CA-32)
** Army Aviation Training Centre (AAvnTC)All Kiowa's will be replaced by the Eurocopter Tiger [http://www.milaviapress.com/orbat/australia/index.php Australian military aviation OrBat] ]
* Royal Australian Navy (3 from 1974-2000)
** 722 Squadron
** 723 Squadron RAN converted to A109 and AS350 for the training role cite web|url = http://www.navy.gov.au/723_Squadron_History|title = 723 Squadron History|accessdate = 2008-09-14|last = Royal Australian Navy |authorlink = |year = 2007] ;AUT
*"Bundesheer"
*;OH-58B
**"Fliegerregiment 1" [cite web|url=http://www.bmlv.gv.at/english/organization/airforce.shtml#regiment1|title=Austrian Armed Forces] ;CAN
* Canadian Forces - Former operator.
*;COH-58A/CH-136 (1971-1995)
**3 Canadian Forces Flying Training School [http://www.airforce.forces.gc.ca/17wing/squadron/3cffts_e.asp]
**400 Tactical Helicopter Squadron [http://www.airforce.forces.gc.ca/1wing/squadron/400hist_e.asp]
**401 Tactical and Training Helicopter Squadron (disbanded 23 June 1996) [http://www.airforce.forces.gc.ca/hist/401sqn_e.asp]
**403 (Helicopter) Operational Training Squadron [http://www.airforce.forces.gc.ca/1wing/squadron/403hist4_e.asp]
**408 Tactical Helicopter Squadron [http://www.airforce.forces.gc.ca/1wing/squadron/408hist_e.asp]
**411 Tactical Helicopter Squadron (disbanded 23 June 1996) [http://www.airforce.forces.gc.ca/hist/411sqn_e.asp]
**422 Tactical Helicopter Squadron (disbanded 16 August 1980) [http://www.airforce.forces.gc.ca/hist/422sqn_e.asp]
**427 Tactical Helicopter Squadron [http://www.airforce.forces.gc.ca/1wing/squadron/427hist_e.asp]
**430 Tactical Helicopter Squadron ("430e Escadron Tactique d'Hélicoptères") [http://www.airforce.forces.gc.ca/1wing/squadron/430hist_e.asp]
**438 Tactical Helicopter Squadron [http://www.airforce.forces.gc.ca/1wing/squadron/438hist_e.asp]
**Aerospace Engineering Test Establishment [Shaw, Robbie: "Superbase 18 Cold Lake- Canada's Northern Guardians", page 86. Osprey Publishing, London, 1990. ISBN 0-85045-910-9] ;ROC-TW
* Republic of China Army [cite web|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5K2FtKSBd|title=Republic of China Army Aviation|publisher= [http://www.taiwanairpower.org TaiwanAirPower.org] ]
*;OH-58D Kiowa Warrior
**601st Air Cavalry Brigade
**602nd Air Cavalry Brigade ;DOM
* OH-58C [cite web|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5JR1UEpdJ|title=Dominican Republic since 1945|author=Inigo Guevara|date=01 Sep 2003|publisher=Air Combat Information Group (acig.org)] ;SAU
* Royal Saudi Land Forces
*;406CS
**1st Aviation Battalion;USA
* United States Army (current)
*;OH-58A/C
**Eagle Flight Detachment, Fort Irwin
**Eagle Flight Detachment, Fort Polk
**Reconnaissance and Aerial Interdiction Detachments (RAID), 32 states
*;OH-58D Kiowa Warrior
**1st Squadron, 6th Cavalry Regiment
**2nd Squadron, 6th Cavalry Regiment
**4th Squadron, 6th Cavalry Regiment
**6th Squadron, 6th Cavalry Regiment
**1st Squadron, 17th Cavalry Regiment
**2nd Squadron, 17th Cavalry Regiment
**3rd Squadron, 17th Cavalry Regiment
**6th Squadron, 17th Cavalry Regiment
**7th Squadron, 17th Cavalry Regiment

pecifications

OH-58A

aircraft specifications
plane or copter?=copter
jet or prop?=prop
crew=1 pilot, 2 pilots, or 1 pilot and 1 observer
span main=35 ft 4 in
span alt=10.77 m
length main=32 ft 2 in
length alt=9.81 m
height main=9 ft 7 in
height alt=2.92 m
empty weight main=1,553 lb
empty weight alt=704 kg
loaded weight main=
loaded weight alt=
max takeoff weight main=2313 lb
max takeoff weight alt=1049 kg
more general=

  • Fuel capacity: 70 gal (264.9 liters)
    engine (prop)=Allison T63-A-700
    type of prop=turboshaft
    number of props=1
    power main=317 shp
    power alt=236 kW
    max speed main=120 knots
    max speed alt=222.2 km/h
    cruise speed main=102 knots
    cruise speed alt=188.9 km/h
    range main=
    range alt=
    ceiling main=
    ceiling alt=
    climb rate main=
    climb rate alt=
    loading main=
    loading alt=
    power/mass main=
    power/mass alt=
    armament=
    * One M134 7.62 mm Minigun mounted on the M27 Armament Subsystemor
    * One M129 40 mm Grenade Launcher mounted on the XM8 Armament Subsystem

    OH-58D Kiowa Warrior

    aircraft specifications
    plane or copter?=copter
    jet or prop?=prop
    ref=
    crew=2 pilots
    span main=35 ft 0 in
    span alt=10.67 m
    length main=40 ft 8 in
    length alt=12.39 m
    height main=7 ft 6 in
    height alt=2.29 m
    empty weight main=3,290 lb
    empty weight alt=1,490 kg
    loaded weight main=
    loaded weight alt=
    max takeoff weight main=5,200 lb
    max takeoff weight alt=2,358 kg
    more general=Fuel capacity: 110 US gal (454 L)
    engine (prop)=Rolls-Royce T703-AD-700A or 250-C30R/3
    type of prop=turboshaft
    number of props=1
    power main=650 eshp
    power alt=485 kW
    max speed main=138 mph
    max speed alt=222 km/h
    cruise speed main=125 mph
    cruise speed alt=201 km/h
    range main=345 mi
    range alt=556 km
    ceiling main=20,500 ft
    ceiling alt=6,250 m
    climb rate main=1,615 ft/min
    climb rate alt=8.2 m/s
    loading main=
    loading alt=
    power/mass main=
    power/mass alt=
    armament= The OH-58D Kiowa Warrior can carry two weapons systems at one time from among four different weapons systems; one on each of its Universal Weapons Pylons (UWP):
    *AGM-114 Hellfire anti-tank missiles in 2-round M279 launchers
    *Hydra 70 2.75 in (70 mm) rockets in M260 7-tube pods
    *M296 .50 cal (12.7 mm) machine gun, 500 rounds (ammo can capacity) mounted only on the left side
    *AIM-92 Stinger air-to-air missiles in 2-round launchers

    ee also

    aircontent
    related=
    * Bell YOH-4
    * Bell 206
    * Bell 400
    * Bell 407
    * Bell ARH-70
    similar aircraft=
    * OH-6 Cayuse
    * Cicaré CH-14
    * Mil Mi-36
    lists=
    * List of active United States military aircraft
    see also=
    * U.S. Helicopter Armament Subsystems

    References

    External links

    * [http://www.army.mil/factfiles/equipment/aircraft/kiowa.html OH-58 Kiowa Warrior] and [http://www.aviation.army.mil/factsheets/OH58.html OH-58D fact sheets on Army.mil]
    * [http://tri.army.mil/LC/CS/csa/kppoints.htm OH-58D armament systems page on Army.mil]
    * [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/oh-58.htm OH-58 page on GlobalSecurity.org]
    * [http://www.deagel.com/Tactical-Support-Helicopters/OH-58D-Kiowa-Warrior_a000133001.aspx OH-58D Kiowa Warrior on Deagel.com]
    * [http://www.militaryfactory.com/aircraft/detail.asp?aircraft_id=1 Bell OH-58D Kiowa Warrior on militaryfactory.com]


  • Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

    Look at other dictionaries:

    • Kiowa — Kicking Bird, ein Häuptling der Kiowa, 1870 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

    • Kiowa — Kicking Bird, un jefe kiowa (ca. 1870) Población total 12.000[1] …   Wikipedia Español

    • Kiowa Indians — • An important Plains tribe, constituting a distinct linguistic stock Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Kiowa Indians     Kiowa Indians      …   Catholic encyclopedia

    • Kiowa County (Kansas) — Kiowa County Courthouse in Greensburg Verwaltung US Bundesstaat: Kansas …   Deutsch Wikipedia

    • Kiowa Gordon — en Galleria mall en Houston, Texas el 10 Noviembre 2009 Nombre real Kiowa Joseph Gordon Nacimiento 25 de marzo …   Wikipedia Español

    • KIOWA — Indiens d’Amérique du Nord du groupe linguistique kiowa tano, les Indiens Kiowa vivaient dans le sud des Grandes Plaines de l’Amérique du Nord. Cette tribu fut l’une des dernières à capituler devant les États Unis. Dans les années 1990, on compte …   Encyclopédie Universelle

    • Kiowa County (Colorado) — Kiowa County Courthouse (1903) Verwaltung US Bundesstaat: Colorado …   Deutsch Wikipedia

    • Kiowa (Colorado) — Kiowa Pueblo de los Estados Unidos …   Wikipedia Español

    • Kiowa — Kiowa, CO U.S. town in Colorado Population (2000): 581 Housing Units (2000): 243 Land area (2000): 0.488095 sq. miles (1.264161 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.488095 sq. miles (1.264161 sq.… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

    • Kiowa (Kansas) — Kiowa …   Deutsch Wikipedia

    • Kiowa (langue) — Kiowa Parlée aux  États Unis Région Oklahoma Nombre de locuteurs 1000 …   Wikipédia en Français