- Beam-powered propulsion
Beam-powered propulsion is a class of
spacecraft propulsionmechanisms that use energy beamed to the spacecraft from a remote power plant. Most designs are rocket engines where the energy is provided by the beam, and is used to superheat propellantthat then provides propulsion, although some obtain propulsion directly from light pressure acting on a light sailstructure, and at low altitude heating air gives extra thrust.
With beamed propulsion one can leave the power-source stationary on the ground, and directly (or via a heat exchanger) heat propellant on the spacecraft with a
maseror a laserbeam from a fixed installation. This permits the spacecraft to leave its power-source at home, saving significant amounts of mass, greatly improving performance.
Since a laser can heat propellant to extremely high temperatures, this potentially greatly improves the efficiency of a rocket, as exhaust velocity is proportional to the square root of the temperature. Normal chemical rockets have an exhaust speed limited by the fixed amount of energy in the propellants, but beamed propulsion systems have no particular theoretical limit (although in practice there are temperature limits).
Ablative Laser Propulsionis a form of laser propulsion that uses a laser to create a plasma plume from a metal propellant, thus producing thrust.
In addition, microwaves can be used to heat a suitable heat exchanger, which in turn heats a propellant (very typically hydrogen). This can give a combination of high specific impulse (700-900 seconds) as well as good thrust/weight ratio (50-150). [http://etd.caltech.edu/etd/available/etd-06022006-160023/ Kevin Parkin's PhD thesis on microwave/thermal propulsion] .
Some proposed spacecraft propulsion mechanisms use power in the form of electricity. Usually these schemes assume either solar panels, or an on-board reactor. However, both power sources are heavy.
Beamed propulsion in the form of laser can be used to send power to a
photovoltaic panel, for "Laser electric propulsion." In this system, careful design of the panels is necessary as the extra power tends to cause a fall-off of the conversion efficiency due to heating effects.
A microwave beam could be used to send power to a
rectenna, for "microwave electric propulsion". Microwavebroadcast power has been practically demonstrated several times (e.g. Goldstone, California in 1974), rectennas are potentially lightweight and can handle high power at high conversion efficiency. However, rectennas tend to need to be very large for a significant amount of power to be captured.
A beam could also be used to provide impulse by directly "pushing" on the sail.
One example of this would be using a
solar sailto reflect a laserbeam. This concept, called a "laser-pushed lightsail," was analyzed by physicist Robert L. Forwardin 1989 [R. L. Forward, "Roundtrip Interstellar Travel Using Laser-Pushed lightsails," "J. Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 21", pp 187-195 (Mar-Apr. 1989)] as a method of Interstellar travelthat would avoid extremely high mass ratios by not carrying fuel. His work elaborated on a proposal initially made by Marx [G. Marx, "Interstellar Vehicle Propelled by Laser Beam," "Nature, Vol. 211",July 1966, pp. 22-23.] . Further analysis of the concept was done by Landis [G. A. Landis, "Optics and Materials Considerations for a Laser-Propelled Lightsail", paper IAA-89-664 ( [http://www.sff.net/people/Geoffrey.Landis/lightsail/Lightsail89.html text] )] [G. A. Landis, "Small Laser-Pushed Lightsail Interstellar Probe: A Study of Parameter Variations", "J. British Interplanetary Society, Vol. 50", No. 4, pp. 149-154 (1997); Paper IAA-95-4.1.1.02,] , Mallove and Matloff [ cite book | last = Eugene Mallove and Gregory Matloff | title=The Starflight Handbook | publisher = John Wiley & Sons, Inc | year = 1989 | id = ISBN 0-471-61912-4 ] , Andrews [D. G. Andrews, "Cost Considerations for Interstellar Missions," paper IAA-93-706] and others.
In a later paper, Forward proposed pushing a sail with a microwave beam [R. L. Forward, "Starwisp: an Ultra-light Interstellar Probe," "J. Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 21, pp. 345-350, May-June 1985)] . This has the advantage that the sail need not be a continuous surface. Forward tagged his proposal for an ultralight sail "
Starwisp". A later analysis by Landis [G. A. Landis, "Microwave Pushed Interstellar Sail: Starwisp Revisited," paper [http://www.aiaa.org/content.cfm?pageid=165 AIAA ] -2000-3337, 36th Joint Propulsion Conference, Huntsville AL, July 17-19 2000.] suggested that the Starwisp concept as originally proposed by Forward would not work, but variations on the proposal continue to be proposed.
The beam has to have a large diameter so that only a small portion of the beam misses the sail due to
diffractionand the laser or microwave antenna has to have a good pointing stability so that the craft can tilt its sails fast enough to follow the center of the beam. This gets more important when going from interplanetary travelto interstellar travel, and when going from a fly-by mission, to a landing mission, to a return mission. The laser or the microwave sender would probably be a large phased arrayof small devices, which get their energy directly from solar radiation. The size of the array obsoletes any lens or mirror.
Another beam-pushed concept would be to use a
magnetic sailor MMPP sail to divert a beam of charged particles from a particle acceleratoror plasma jet [ G. Landis, "Interstellar Flight by Particle Beam," "Acta Astronautica. Vol 55", No. 11, 931-934 (Dec. 2004).] . Jordin Karehas proposed a variant to this whereby a "beam" of small laser accelerated light sails would transfer momentum to a magsail vehicle.
Early in the morning of 2 October 2000 at the High Energy Laser Systems Test Facility (HELSTF), Lightcraft Technologies, Inc. (LTI) with the help of Franklin B. Mead of the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory and
Leik Myraboset a new world's altitude record of 233 feet (71 meters) for its 4.8 inch (12.2 cm) diameter, 1.8 ounce, laser-boosted rocket in a flight lasting 12.7 seconds. Although much of the 8:35 am flight was spent hovering at 230+ feet, the Lightcraft earned a world record for the longest ever laser-powered free flight and the greatest "air time" (i.e., launch-to-landing/recovery) from a light-propelled object. This is comparable to Robert Goddard's first test flight of his rocket design. Increasing the laser power to 100 kilowatts will enable flights up to a 30-kilometer altitude. Their goal is to accelerate a one-kilogram microsatellite into low Earth orbitusing a custom-built, one megawatt ground-based laser. Such a system would use just about 20 dollars' worth of electricity, placing launch costs per kilogram to many times less than current launch costs (which are measured in thousands of dollars).
lightcraft" design is a reflective funnel-shaped craft that channels heat from the laser, towards the center, using a reflective parabolic surface causing the laser to literally explode the air underneath it, generating lift. Reflective surfaces in the craft focus the beam into a ring, where it heats air to a temperature nearly five times hotter than the surface of the sun, causing the air to expand explosively for thrust.
In 1964 Brown flew a microwave powered helicopter for an extended period.
In 2002 a Japanese group propelled a tiny aluminium airplane by using a laser to vaporize a water droplet clinging to it, and in 2003 NASA researchers flew an 11 ounce (312 g) model airplane with a propeller powered with solar panels illuminated by a laser. It is possible that such beam-powered propulsion could be useful for long-duration high altitude unmanned aircraft or balloons, perhaps designed to serve as communication relays or surveillance platforms.
laser broom" has been proposed to sweep space debrisfrom Earth orbit. This is another proposed use of beam-powered propulsion, used on objects that were not designed to be propelled by it, for example small pieces of scrap knocked off ("spalled") satellites. The technique works since the laser power ablates one side of the object, giving an impulse that changes the eccentricity of the objects orbit. The orbit would then intersect the atmosphere and burn up.
* [http://www.lightcrafttechnologies.com/ Lightcraft Technologies homepage]
* [http://science.howstuffworks.com/light-propulsion.htm How Stuff Works: light-propulsion]
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