AMX-13


AMX-13

Infobox Weapon|is_vehicle=yes
name=AMX 13


caption=
origin=FRA
type=Light tank
is_vehicle=yes
is_UK=yes
length=4.88 m (16 ft) hull
6.36 m (21 ft) with gun
width=2.51 m (8.23 ft)
height=2.35 m (7.70 ft)
weight=13.7 tonnes (30,203 lbs) empty 14.5 tonnes (31,966 lbs) combat
suspension=torsion-bar
speed=60 km/h (37 mph)
vehicle_range=400 km (248 mi)
primary_armament=75 mm (or 90 mm or 105 mm) with 32 Rounds
secondary_armament=7.5 mm (or 7.62 mm) coaxial MG with 3,600 Rounds, 7.62 mm AA MG (optional), 2×2 smoke grenade dischargers
armour=10mm (.39 in) minimum
40 mm (1.57 in) maximum
engine=SOFAM Model 8Gxb 8-cyl. water-cooled petrol
crew=3 (Commander, gunner and driver)
engine_power=250 hp (190 kW)
pw_ratio=15 hp/tonne

The AMX-13 was a French light tank produced from 1953 to 1985. It served with the French Army and was exported to over twenty-five other nations. Including prototypes and export versions there are over a hundred variants including self-propelled gun, anti-aircraft systems, APCs, and TOW/ATGM versions. It is estimated that total production of the AMX-13 family was 7,700 units, of which around 3,400 were exported.

History

The tank was designed at the Atelier de Construction d'Issy-les-Moulineaux in 1946 to meet a requirement for an air-portable vehicle to support paratroopers, the first prototype ran from 1948. The compact chassis had torsion bar suspension with five roadwheels and two return rollers; the engine runs the length of the tank on the right side with the driver on the left. It features an uncommon two-part 'oscillating' turret where the gun is fixed to the turret and the entire upper turret changes elevation. The turret is set to the rear of the vehicle and holds the commander and gunner. The original 75 mm gun, modelled on the German L/70 Panther gun, was fed with an automatic loading system in two six-round magazines. A weakness of the small size meant the magazines were mounted externally, thus requiring them to be reloaded "outside" the vehicle.

Production began at ARE (Atelier de Construction Roanne) from 1952, with the first tanks delivered the following year. In 1964 production was transferred to Creusot-Loire at Chalon-sur-Saone, as the ARE moved to building the AMX 30 MBT, and the numbers produced declined significantly.

In 1966 the standard gun was increased to 90 mm (the AMX-13/90) and the French upgraded all existing base models to this specification. Although there were many variants on the turret the basic chassis was almost unchanged until 1985 when changes including a new diesel engine, fully automatic transmission and a new hydropneumatic suspension were introduced.

Production halted with the Model 1987. After sales support and upgrades are still offered through GIAT Industries.

The AMX-13 tank was phased out of service with the French Army in the 1970s. Current French light tanks are the ERC 90 Sagaie and the AMX 10 RC.

Other countries that have used the AMX-13 include Algeria, Argentina (58 tanks not in use, replaced by the SK-105 Kurassier Patagon, an AMX turret on an SK chassis), Belgium, Cambodia, Chile (155mm self-propelled howitzer version), Côte d'Ivoire (5), Djibouti, Dominican Republic (2), Egypt, Ecuador (102), France, Guatemala, India, Indonesia (275), Israel, Kuwait, Lebanon (35),Mexico,Morocco, Nepal, The Netherlands (131), Peru (110), Singapore (350), Switzerland, Tunisia, and Venezuela (36).

Additional characteristics

*Ground clearance: 370 mm
*Fording: 600 mm
*Vertical obstacle 650 mm
*Trench: 1.6 m
*Gradient 60 %
*Side slope: 60 %
*NBC system: None
*Night vision: Optional

Variants

Prototypes

;Char AMX-13 (2A): Prototype with 4 roadwheels and trailing idler;Char AMX-13 (2B): Prototype with 5 roadwheels and raised idler;Char AMX-13 (2C): Prototype with FL-10 turret and two support rollers;Char AMX-13 (2D): Prototype with 4 support rollers;Char AMX-13 (2E): Prototype with 3 support rollers and 90 mm gun;Char AMX-13 (2F): Prototype with 2 support rollers and, later, a thermal sleeve

Variants

;AMX-13: Some initial vehicles were fitted with the turret of the M24 Chaffee;AMX-13 [DTT] : Initial vehicles with the turret of the M24 Chaffee converted into a driver training tank. Gun removed.;AMX-13/75 Modèle 51: High-velocity 75 mm Gun in FL-11 turret as installed in Panhard EBR armoured car and 2 top rollers;AMX-13/75 Modèle 51: High-velocity 75 mm Gun in FL-11 turret and 4 top rollers and revised stowage;AMX-13 T75 (Char Lance SS-11): Fitted with SS-11 ATGM launchers;AMX-13 T75 avec TCA: Fitted with an electronic guidance system for the missiles;AMX-13/90 Modèle 52: FL-10 turret refitted with the F3 90 mm gun;AMX-13/90 LRF: Fitted with laser rangefinder;AMX-13/105 Modèle 58: Fitted with 105 Gun mm in FL-12 turret (used by the Argentine Army and the Netherlands);AMX-13/105: Upgraded export version of the Modele 58 with thermal sleeve and revised hull front;AMX-13 Model 1987: Late production version;AMX-DCA aka AMX-13/S530: SPAAG version armed with two HS 831 30 mm cannons;AMX-DCA 30 aka Bitube de 30 mm anti-aérien automoteur, Oeil Noir: SPAAG version with retractable radar fitted, 60 delivered between 1969 and late 80s ;AMX-13 [Training Tank] : AMX-13 with turret removed and used for driver training;AMX-13 Modèle 55 (AMX-D): Recovery version;AMX-13 PDP (Poseur De Pont) Modèle 51: Scissors-type bridgelayer

Modernisation packages

;Cockerill 90 mm Regunning Packaging: 90 mm upgunning package;Giat Industries upgrade with a Baudouin 6F 11 SRY diesel engine and an upgraded turret.;Giat Industries Add-on Armour package installed on turret front/sides and glacis plate;NIMDA Upgrade Package: Israeli retrofit package

National variants

;AMX-13/FL-12 [Modernised] by the Netherlands: Fitted with searchlight and FN MAG machine-guns;AMX-13/FL-15: Dutch FL12 version refitted with an FL-15 Turret;AMX-13S: Rebuild of standard AMX-13 by Singapore prior to SM-1 upgrade;AMX-13SM1 (Singapore Modernised 1): Singaporean upgrade with modern communications, original petrol engine replaced by a diesel engine, improved transmissions & suspensions system, laser range-finder and thermal imaging sights. The 75mm main gun remain unchanged.;Leichter Panzer 51: Swiss Army version;AMX-13V: CLI upgraded AMX-13/90 for Venezuelan Army;AMX-13 [LAR-160] : Venezuelan MLRS version armed with IMI LAR 160 mm. rockets;AMX-13M51 Ráfaga: Venezuelan Army's AA version armed with two 40mm cannons mounted on an M-4E1 turret

Other prototypes

;AMX-13 avec tourelle: A14 Fitted with German HS-30 turret;AMX-13: Fitted with 105 mm howitzer barrel;AMX-13/75 (AMX-13e): Experimental variant with short-barreled 75 mm in FL-11 turret;Char AMX-13 avec Canon 57 L/100: Prototype with special gun;AMX-13 Twin 20 mm in welded turret without bustle;Char 48FCM: AKA Char 12T FCM, DCA de Quatre Canons de 20 mm—4 x 20 mm cannon in FL-4 turret;DCA de 40 mm: AKA Char 13T DCA a 40 mm Bofors—40L70 gun in large faceted turret;AMX-13 GTI: Improved suspension by Krauss-Maffei;AMX-13 THS: Prototype fitted with hydrostatic transmission;AMX-13: Fitted with Rapace 14 MBRL;AMX-13 HOT: Fitted with HOT ATGM launchers

APC Variants

The AMX-13 was the basis of a family of APCs beginning with the AMX-VTT and culminating with the AMX-VCI. The APC chassis was itself the basis of a number of variants.

105 mm Self Propelled Howitzer

;AMX Mk 61 (AMX-105A), Automoteur de 105 du AMX-13 en casemate: 105 mm casemate SP;AMX Mk 61 [Netherlands] : Dutch Army version with 30 calibre howitzer and Browning commanders mg;AMX Mk 62 (AMX-105B): Prototype with 105 mm howitzer in a turret;AMX Mk 63 (AMX-105B, AMX Mk F2): Prototype of Mk 62 with mg cupola fitted to turret

155 mm Self Propelled Howitzer

;AMX Mk F3 (Obusier de 155 mm sur affut automoteur AMX-13 T, AMX-155): 155 mm SPH

Miscellaneous

;M24/AMX-13: AMX-13 turret on M24 Chaffee hull;M4 Sherman fitted with AMX-13 turret, used by Egypt

Photo Gallery

Users

*ARG - 24 AMX Mk F3 155mm self-propelled howitzer version
*CAM - 12
*CHI - 47 155mm self-propelled howitzer version
*CIV - 5
*CYP - 12
*DJI - ?
*DOM - 2
*ECU - 102
*IDN - 275
*KWT - ?
*LBN - 35
*MEX - 409 AMX-VCI
*NEP - ?
*PER - 110
*SGP - 350 AMX-13/SM1 (ex-IDF machines, locally upgraded and modernised)
*TUN - ?
*VEN - 36 AMX-13C.90

Former Users

*ALG - ?
*ARG - 58 tanks not in use, replaced by the SK-105 Kurassier Patagon, an AMX turret on an SK chassis.
*BEL - ?
*EGY - ?
*FRA - The AMX-13 tank was phased out of service with the French Army in the 1970s.
*IND - ?
*ISR - Retired and sold to Singapore in 1969.
*MAR - Replaced by SK-105 Kurassier.
*NLD - 131
*CHE - ?

Model Kits & Accessories

*Heller 1/35 AMX 13-75 No.81122 (Plastic injection moulded kit, static model)
*Nichimo 1/35 A.M.X.13 Light Tank Equipped with SS-11 Missiles No.? (Plastic injection moulded kit, motorised)
*Heller 1/35 AMX 13 Canon de 105 No.? (Plastic injection moulded kit, static model)
*Heller 1/72 AMX 13 Canon de 105 No.198 (Plastic injection moulded kit, static model)
*WSW 1/87-HO AMX 13/FL 10 Turret Ref No:87-103 (Resin kit, static model)
*Nichimo 1/35 A.M.X.13-V.T.P. Personnel Carrier No.? (Plastic injection moulded kit, motorised)
*Condor Decals 1/35 Argentinian Tanks Ref No:35001 (Decal sheet)

Literature

*Armour in Profile No.12 - AMX.13 by Colonel E. F. Offord, Profile Publication Ltd., 1967.
*The AMX-13 Light Tank, Volume 2: Turret by Peter Lau, Rock Publications, 2007.
*The AMX-13 Light Tank, Volume 1: Chassis by Peter Lau, Rock Publications, 2006.

External links

* [http://www.jedsite.info/tanks/alpha/amx-13_series/amx13-series.html Jedsite.info] (paid membership required)
*fr icon [http://www.chars-francais.net/de1945a_nos_jours.htm Chars-francais.net]

ee also

*AMX 50
*Panhard EBR
*SK-105 Kürassier
*PT-76
*2S25


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