- Sex segregation and Islam
:"This is a sub-article to
Islamic jurisprudenceand Sex segregation Islamdiscourages social interaction between men and women when they are alone but not all interaction between men and women. This is shown in the example of Khadijah, who employed Muhammadand met with him to conduct trade before they were married, and in the example set by the other wives of Muhammad, who taught and counseled the men and women of Medina.
Islamic countries, sex segregationhas been or is strictly enforced.
The textual basis for insisting on the controlled interaction of the sexes is the "
hadith" on " zina" (fornication and adultery) of the "senses" (looking, touching, etc.) narrated from ibn Masʿud by Imam Ahmadin his "musnad" with a strong chain: "The two eyes commit "zina", the two hands commit "zina", the two feet commit "zina", and the genitals commit "zina"." Another wording with a passable chain in the "musnad" includes the tongue and specifies in the end: "Then the genitals actualize it or belly it.". However, it does not necessarily follow that this "hadith" can be used as justification for saying "Therefore, according to Shari'ah, to look, speak, listen, etc. to any " ghayr mahram" (women you are not related to or married to) except at the time of extreme necessity is " haraam" and impermissible."
Qur'anicverses which address the interaction of men and women in the social context include:
:"Tell the believing men to lower their gaze and to be mindful of their chastity: this will be most conducive to their purity - (and,) verily, God is aware of all that they do. And tell the believing women to lower their gaze and to be mindful of their chastity, and not to display their charms (in public) beyond what may (decently) be apparent thereof; hence let them draw their head-coverings over their bosoms.(24:30-31)"
:"O Prophet! Tell thy wives and thy daughters, as well as all (other) believing women, that they should draw over themselves some of their outer garments (when in public): this will be more conducive to their being recognized (as decent women) and not annoyed.(33:59)"
Implicit in these verses is the expectation that men and women will be interacting. Muslims are instructed to do so in such a way as to focus on attributes other than the physical, namely the spiritual and intellectual.
The following "
hadith" indicate that the separation practiced in some Islamic societies today has little precedence in early Islamic practices:
Abu Usaid As-Saidigot married, he invited the Prophet and his companions. None prepared the food for them and brought it to them but his wife. She soaked some dates in water in a stone pot overnight, and when the Prophet had finished his food, she provided him with the drink.( Bukhari, Vol. 7, No. 111)
Anas bin Malik,
:Once an Ansari woman came to the Prophet and he took her aside and said (to her), "By God, you (Ansar) are the most beloved people to me."(Bukhari, Vol.7, No. 161)
Narrated Ar-Rabiʿ bint Muʿawidh,
:We used to take part in holy battles with the Prophet by providing the people with water and serving them and bringing the killed and the wounded back to Medina. (Bukhari, Vol.4, No.134) (See also Nos. 131-133 and Muslim, Nos. 4453-4460).
Other hadith also confirm that men and women eating at the same place, and even at the same table, is not "haram".
:A man came to the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and said; "I am hard pressed by hunger." He (peace and blessings be upon him) sent a word to one of his wives who replied: "By Him Who has sent you with the Truth, I have nothing except water." Then he sent the same message to another (wife) and received the same reply. He sent this message to all of them (i.e., his wives) and received the same reply. Then he (peace and blessings be upon him) said, "Who will entertain this (man) as guest?" One of the Ansar said: "O Messenger of Allah, I will." So he took him home and said to his wife: "Serve the guest of Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him)."
Another narration is,
:An Ansari man asked his wife: "Have you got anything?" She answered: "Nothing, except a little food for the children." He said: "Keep them busy with something, and when they ask for food put them to sleep. When the guest enters, extinguish the light and give him the impression that we are also eating." So they sat down and the guest ate and they passed the night hungry. When he came to the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) in the morning, he said to him, "Allah admired what you did with your guest last night." (Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim).
Based on this hadith, the scholars concluded that it is part of hospitality that the husband and wife eat with their guest.
Imam Malik, as reported in Al-Muwatta', was asked about a woman eating with non-mahram, and he said: "There is no harm in doing this."
Similarly in many Muslim communities today, women are discouraged or prohibited from going to the mosques. Yet, Muhammad specifically admonished the men not to keep their wives from going to the mosques:
:The Messenger of God said, "Do not prevent the maid-servants of God from going to the mosque."(Muslim, No.888) (See also Nos. 884-891 and Bukhari Vol.1, Nos. 824, 832)
Also, it is clear from the following hadith that the women simply prayed behind the men and were not separated in a separate room or even concealed by a curtain or partition as is practiced in so many mosques today:
Asma' daughter of
:I heard the Apostle of God say, "One of you who believes in God and in the Last Day should not raise her head until the men raise their heads (after prostration) lest she should see the private parts of men."(Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 850).
The emphasis in the
Qur'anand the Sunnahis thus not on total segregation but on minimizing factors that promote physical attractiveness or may lead to the unlawful. Thus Islam requires believers to:
# Treat one another with respect at all times in all situations.
# Behave modestly.
# Avoid situations of seclusion (khalwa).
# Dress modestly (by covering ones body and (for females) hair).
ex segregation in Islamic countries
Afghanistan, under Talibanreligious leadership, was characterized by feminist groups and others as a " gender apartheid" system where women are segregated from men in public and do not enjoy legal equality or equal access to employment or education. [Hunter, D. Lyn. [http://www.berkeley.edu/news/berkeleyan/1999/0317/taliban.html Gender Apartheid Under Afghanistan's Taliban] "The Berkleyan", March 17, 1999.] [ [http://www.feminist.org/afghan/facts.html The Taliban & Afghan Women: Background] , Feminist Majority Foundationwebsite, Accessed June 25, 2006.] In 1997 the Feminist Majority Foundationlaunched a "Campaign to Stop Gender Apartheid in Afghanistan", which urged the U.S. government and the United Nationsto "do everything in their power to restore the human rights of Afghan women and girls." The campaign included a petition to U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annanand U.N. Assistant Secretary General Angela Kingwhich stated, in part, that "We, the undersigned, deplore the Taliban’s brutal decrees and gender apartheid in Afghanistan." [ [http://www.helpafghanwomen.com/Global_Petition_Flyer.pdf Stop Gender Apartheid in Afghanistan] (PDF), Global Petition Flyer, Feminist Majority Foundation.] In 1998 activists from the National Organization for Womenpicketed Unocal's Sugar Land, Texasoffice, arguing that its proposed pipeline through Afghanistan was collaborating with "gender apartheid". [ [http://www.now.org/nnt/fall-98/global.html Women Around the Globe Face Threats to Human Rights] , National Organization for Women, Fall 1998.] In a weekly presidential address in November 2001 Laura Bushalso accused the Taliban of practising "gender apartheid". [Otis, John. [http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/special/terror/front/1136655.html First lady slams 'gender apartheid'] , " Houston ChronicleNews Service, November 18, 2001.] " The Nation" referred to the Taliban's 1997 order that medical services for women be partly or completely suspended in all hospitals in the capital city of Kabulas "Health apartheid". [Block, Max. [http://www.thenation.com/doc/19971124/19971124block Kabul's Health Apartheid] , " The Nation", November 24, 1997.] According to the Women's Human Rights Resource Programme of the University of Toronto Bora LaskinLaw Library "Throughout the duration of Taliban rule in Afghanistan, the term "Gender Apartheid" was used by a number of women's rights advocates to convey the message that the rights violations experience by Afghan women were in substance no different than those experienced by blacks in Apartheid South Africa." [ [http://www.law-lib.utoronto.ca/Diana/afghanwomen.htm Women in Afghanistan] , Women's Human Rights Resource Programme, University of Toronto Bora LaskinLaw Library.]
For many years, breaking the barrier of confinement of the private sphere has been a major source of frustration for advocates of women's rights in Iran. But the Iranian revolution broke the barrier overnight. When
Ruhollah Khomeinicalled for women to attend public demonstration and ignore the night curfew, millions of women who would otherwise not have dreamt of leaving their homes without their husbands' and fathers' permission or presence, took to the streets. Khomeini's call to rise up against the Shah took away any doubt in the minds of many devoted Muslim women about the propriety of taking to the streets during the day or at night. [http://www.watsoninstitute.org/bjwa/archive/9.2/Iran/Bahramitash.pdf Revolution, Islamization, and Women’s Employment in Iran] , by Roksana Bahramitash]
The late 1980s and early 1990s witnessed a marked increase of employment for women. This increase was much more than the rate prior to the revolution. Such dramatic change in the pattern of labor force participation might not have been possible if Khomeini had not broken the barriers to women entering into the public sphere. Educational attainment for women, also a product of free education and the literacy campaign, contributed to this increase. In fact, today there are more women in higher education than there are men. The Islamic Republic had adopted certain policies to expand educational levels for women in order to ensure that sexual segregation paid off. These policies were to encourage women to become skilled workers in domains exclusive to women. For example, the government set quotas for female
pediatricians and gynecologists and set up barriers against women wanting to become civil engineers. Khomeini supported family planning, a program through which the government called upon women to distribute contraceptives.
Iranian women have a majority in Iranian educational institutions and Universities. Women have also enjoyed continuous presence in Iran's parliaments, city councils and cabinet.
Marina Mahathir, the daughter of Malaysia's former Prime Minister, and a campaigner for women's rights, described the status of Muslimwomen in Malaysia as similar to that of Black South Africans under apartheid. She was apparently doing so in response to new family laws which make it easier for Muslim men to divorce wives, or take multiple wives, or gain access to their property. Marina stated "In our country, there is an insidious growing form of apartheid among Malaysian women, that between Muslim and non-Muslim women." [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/4795808.stm BBC NEWS | Asia-Pacific | Malaysia 'apartheid' row deepens ] ] According to the " BBC", she sees Muslim Malaysian women as "subject to a form of apartheid - second-class citizens held back by discriminatory rules that do not apply to non-Muslim women." [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/4784784.stm BBC NEWS | Asia-Pacific | Malaysia women 'suffer apartheid' ] ] Her comments were strongly criticized: the Malaysian Muslim Professionals Forum stated "Her prejudiced views and assumptions smack of ignorance of the objectives and methodology of the Sharia, and a slavish capitulation to western feminism's notions of women's rights, gender equality and sexuality," and Dr Harlina Halizah Siraj, women's chief of the reform group Jamaah Islah Malaysiasaid "Women in Malaysia are given unlimited opportunities to obtain high education level, we are free to choose our profession and career besides enjoying high standard of living with our families."
Saudi Arabia's practices with respect to women have been referred to as "gender apartheid",Handrahan (2001).] and according to Jan Goodwin, this issue is serious enough to warrant attention from the international human rights community."In 'From the Valley of the Chador,' Jan Goodwin (1994) discusses 'gender apartheid' in Saudi Arabia, unmasking a phenomenon that, she argues, has long been thought of as a 'personal problem' and revealing it to be a political issue that deserves attention from the international human rights community." Hanigsberg (1997), p. 76.] Others criticize U.S. government words of support for the plight women and children in Afghanistan as a "cynical public relations ploy", arguing that the Bush administration has remained silent about the gender apartheid practiced by Saudi Arabia."Sharon Smith, among others, has labeled such support a cynical public relations ploy. She cites… the U.S. government's silence over gender apartheid practices by allies such as Saudi Arabia." Hesford and Kozol (2005), p. 3.]
According to Rita Henley Jensen while Saudi Arabian women "have the right to own property, transact business, go to school and be supported by their husbands, while maintaining their separate bank accounts", "Women on Saudi soil must have a husband or male relative as an escort. We are not allowed to drive. When sight-seeing we must wear a full-length black gown known as an
abaya. During Saudi Arabia's first elections, held the week before my arrival, women were not permitted to vote or run for office." She states that hotels have no female employees, and that segregated eating areas in hotels and beaches for women have poorer facilities. She also criticizes Saudi law for setting female inheritance at half of what men inherit (see Female inheritance in Islam). [Jensen (2005).] Ann Elizabeth Mayer sees gender apartheid as being enshrined in the Saudi Basic Law, particularly articles 9 and 10, which, in her view, deny women "any opportunity to participate in public law or government"."Taken together, these suggest an intention to employ appeals to Saudi family values and premodern Islamic law in order to maintain the traditional patriarchial family structure and to keep women subordinated and cloistered within its confines, denied any opportunity to participate in public life or government. In other words, the Basic Law accommodates the Saudi system of gender apartheid". Mayer (1999), p. 122.] Though Mary Kaldor does not differentiate between gender apartheid in Saudi Arabia and that enforced by the Talibanin Afghanistan,"Islamic groups insist that women wear veils and, in some cases, the best known being the Taliban in Afghanistan or Saudi Arabia, they introduce what is essentially a form of gender apartheid". Kaldor (2003), p. 183.] Margaret L. Andersen and Howard Francis Taylor see strictures such as the Saudi refusal to let women drive as indicative of a less extreme form of gender apartheid. ["Gender apartheid is also evident in other nations, although not so extreme as it was under Taliban rule. But, in Saudi Arabia women are not allowed to drive; in Kuwait, they cannot vote." Andersen, Margaret L. & Taylor Howard Francis (2006) p. 316.] Daniel Pipes, too, sees Saudi gender apartheid as tempered by other practices, including the Saudi policy of allowing women "to attend school and work". ["Yes, the Saudi state deems the Koran to be its constitution, forbids the practice of any religion but Islam on its territory, employs an intolerant religious police, and imposes gender apartheid. But it also enacts non-Koranic regulations, employs large numbers of non-Muslims, constrains the religious police, and allows women to attend school and work." Pipes (2003), p. 63.] Andrea Dworkinrefers to these Saudi practices regarding women simply as "apartheid":
Seductive mirages of progress notwithstanding, nowhere in the world is apartheid practiced with more cruelty and finality than in Saudi Arabia. Of course, it is women who are locked in and kept out, exiled to invisibility and abject powerlessness within their own country. It is women who are degraded systematically from birth to early death, utterly and totally and without exception deprived of freedom. It is women who are sold into marriage or concubinage, often before puberty; killed if their hymens are not intact on the wedding night; kept confined, ignorant, pregnant, poor, without choice or recourse. It is women who are raped and beaten with full sanction of the law. It is women who cannot own property or work for a living or determine in any way the circumstances of their own lives. It is women who are subject to a despotism that knows no restraint. Women locked out and locked in. [Dworkin (1993).]
Daniel McNeill in his book "The Face: A Natural History" writes that "the apartheid is starkest in Saudi Arabia":
Most Saudi homes have one entrance for men, another for women. Women ride in the back of the bus in Riyadh, and enter it through a separate door. Until 1981 a woman couldn't meet her spouse unveiled till after the wedding. Saudi daughters inherit half as much as sons… Saudi banks are so segregated that only female auditors examine women's accounts. Medicine is the sole career where the sexes mix, because, though fundamentalists object to women doctors touching male patients, there aren't enough male physicians to go around.McNeill (2000), p. 271.]
Others refer to these practices as "sexual apartheid"."The end result of this is that Saudi men have no opportunity to learn how to interact in a non-sexual way with women and so the system of sexual apartheid persists (Whitaker 2006)." Bradley (2007), p. 130.] Stromquist (2002), p. 148]
Colbert I. Kingquotes an American official who accuses Western companies of complicity in Saudi Arabia's sexual apartheid:
One of the (still) untold stories, however, is the cooperation of U.S. and other Western companies in enforcing sexual apartheid in Saudi Arabia.
McDonald's, Pizza Hut, Starbucks, and other U.S. firms, for instance, maintain strictly segregated eating zones in their restaurants. The men's sections are typically lavish, comfortable and up to Western standards, whereas the women's or families' sections are often run-down, neglected and, in the case of Starbucks, have no seats. Worse, these firms will bar entrance to Western women who show up without their husbands. My wife and other [U.S. government affiliated] women were regularly forbidden entrance to the local McDonald's unless there was a man with them." [King (2001).]
Azar Majedi, of the Centre for Women and Socialism, attributes sexual apartheid in Saudi Arabia to political Islam."Women are the first victims of political Islam and Islamic terrorist gangs. Sexual apartheid, stoning, compulsory Islamic veil and covering and stripping women of all rights are the fruits of this reactionary and fascistic movement." Majedi (2002).] According to "
The Guardian", " [i] n the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, sexual apartheid rules", and this sexual apartheid is enforced by "mutawa", religious police, though not as strongly in some areas:
The kingdom's sexual apartheid is enforced, in a crude fashion, by the religious police, the mutawa. Thuggish, bigoted and with little real training in Islamic law, they are much feared in some areas but also increasingly ridiculed. In
Jeddah- a more laid-back city than Riyadh- they are rarely seen nowadays. [Whitaker (2006).]
2008- 03- 18, the first women's-only hotel opened in Saudi Arabia [ [http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/saudi-arabia-opens-its-first-womenonly-hotel-798417.html Saudi Arabia opens its first women-only hotel] ] . In addition to only servicing female clients, all employees are women as well.
ex segregation in mosques
Women are highly encouraged to go to Mosques, and whoever tries to stop them are viewed as criminals under Islamic law. A woman has her own free will as stated by Allah in the Qur'an. ["Do not stop Allah's women-slave from going to Allah's Mosques." (Bukhari|2|13|23.)] However, as Islam spread, it became unusual for women to worship in mosques because of fears of unchastity caused by interaction between sexes; this condition persisted until the late 1960s. [Mattson, Ingrid. "Women, Islam, and Mosques." In "Encyclopedia of Women And Religion in North America" (Rosemary Skinner Keller, Rosemary Radford Ruether, and Marie Cantlon, ed.). Indiana University Press (2006), [http://books.google.com/books?id=we2KvdT3zOsC&pg=PA616&dq=mosques+separate+men+women&sig=0sUvbmfVSqY3IiQA2gGdAiXYIZ4#PPA615,M1 p616] . ISBN 0253346886.] Since then, women have become increasingly involved in the mosque, though men and women generally worship separately. [Mattson, Ingrid. "Women, Islam, and Mosques." In "Encyclopedia of Women And Religion in North America" (Rosemary Skinner Keller, Rosemary Radford Ruether, and Marie Cantlon, ed.). Indiana University Press (2006), [http://books.google.com/books?id=we2KvdT3zOsC&pg=PA616&dq=mosques+separate+men+women&sig=0sUvbmfVSqY3IiQA2gGdAiXYIZ4#PPA615,M1 p616-17] . ISBN 0253346886.] (Muslims explain this by citing the need to avoid distraction during prayer prostrations that raise the buttocks while the forehead touches the ground.Smith, Jane L. "Islam in America". Columbia University Press (2000): [http://books.google.com/books?id=e3zrCarDGxAC&pg=PA111&dq=mosques+separate+men+women&sig=KwkViCnKXPvMw-tTYgBf3ip_u3M p111] . ISBN 0231109679.] ) Separation between sexes ranges from men and women on opposite sides of an aisle, to men in front of women (as was the case in the time of Muhammad), to women in second-floor balconies or separate rooms accessible by a door for women only. There is a growing movement of women (such as
Asra Nomani) who complain of second-class conditions in separate female sections of mosques. [http://www.pbs.org/wnet/religionandethics/week811/cover.html Religion & Ethics NewsWeekly . COVER STORY . Women in Mosques . November 12, 2004 | PBS] ] [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=we2KvdT3zOsC&pg=PA616&dq=mosques+separate+men+women&sig=0sUvbmfVSqY3IiQA2gGdAiXYIZ4#PPA616,M1 The Encyclopedia of Women and Religion in North America] ] On the Hajj(the mandatory pilgrimage to Mecca) men and women pray side by side.
Sultana's Dream, a 1905 Bengali story of reversed sex segregation
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Sex segregation — is the separation of people according to their gender. The derogatory term gender apartheid (or sexual apartheid) has been applied to segregation of people by gender, implying that it is sexual discrimination. In some circumstances, gender… … Wikipedia
Islam and clothing — Part of a series on Islamic jurisprudence (Fiqh) … Wikipedia
Islam — For other uses, see Islam (disambiguation). The Kaaba, in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, is the … Wikipedia
Islam and antisemitism — Part of a series on Criticism of Islam Issues Antisemitism … Wikipedia
Islam in Egypt — The republic of Egypt has recognized Islam as the state religion since 1980. Egypt is predominantly Muslim, with Muslims comprising about 90% of a population of around 80 million Egyptianscite web|url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the… … Wikipedia
Islam in South Africa — Part of a series on Islam by country Africa Algeria • … Wikipedia
Islam and children — Contents 1 Children in the Qur an 1.1 Adoption 1.2 Breast feeding … Wikipedia
Racial segregation — Segregationist redirects here. For the short story by Isaac Asimov, see Segregationist (short story). Part of a series of articles on Racial segregation … Wikipedia
Islamic views on oral sex — Oral sex in Islam is controversial among Islamic theologians. Some allow the practice, and some disapprove. Contents 1 Knowledge of oral sex 1.1 Opinions from Sunni Islam 2 Sucking the wife s breasts and vagina … Wikipedia
Pederasty in the Middle East and Central Asia — For a generalized discussion of relations between men and boys see main article: Pederasty The practice of pederasty in the Middle East seems to have begun, according to surviving records, sometime during the 800s and ended, at least as an open… … Wikipedia