- Pope John XXII
English name=John XXII
birth_name=Jacques Duèze or d'Euse
August 7, 1316
December 4, 1334
Pope John XXII (1249 –
December 4, 1334), born Jacques Duèze (or d'Euse), was popefrom 1316 to 1334. He was the second Pope of the Avignon Papacy(1309-1377), elected by a conclave in Lyonassembled by Philip V of France. Like his predecessor, Clement V, he centralized power and income in the Papacy, living a princely life in Avignon. He opposed Louis IV of Bavariaas emperor, and Louis in turn invaded Italy and set up an antipope, Nicholas V. Pope John XXII also faced controversy in theology involving his views on the Beatific Vision.
The death of
Pope Clement Vin 1314 was followed by a sedisvacancy of two years, due to disagreements between the cardinals, who were split into two factions. After two years, Philip V of France(1316–22) finally in 1316 managed to arrange a conclave of twenty-three cardinals in Lyon. This conclave elected Jacques Duèze, who took the name John XXII and was crowned in Lyon. He set up his residence in Avignonrather than Rome, continuing the Avignon Papacyof his predecessor.
John XXII involved himself in the politics and religious movements of many
European countriesin order to advance the interests of the Church. This made him a very controversialpope at the time.
Before John XXII's election a contest had begun for the imperial crown between
Louis IV of Bavaria(1314–47) and his opponent, Frederick I of Austria(1308–30). John XXII was neutral at first; but in 1323, when Louis IV had won and became Holy Roman Emperor, the Guelph (papal) party and the Ghibelline(imperial) party began a serious quarrel. This was partly provoked by John XXII's extreme claims of authority over the empire and also partly by Louis IV's support of the spiritual Franciscans, whom John XXII condemned for their insistence on evangelical poverty and their belief that mendicant friars would replace the priesthood and sacraments of the Church. Louis IV was assisted in his doctrinal dispute with the papacy by Marsilius of Padua, and later by the British Franciscan friar and scholar William of Ockham. Louis IV invaded Italy, entered Rome and set up Pietro Rainalducci as antipope Nicholas V(1328–30). The project was a fiasco. Guelphic predominance at Rome was later restored, and Pope John excommunicated William of Ockham. However, Louis IV had silenced the papal claims, and John XXII stayed the rest of his life in Avignon.
Pope John XXII was involved in a theological controversy involving the
Beatific Vision. Beginning before he was pope, he argued that those who died in the faith did not see the presence of God until the Last Judgment. The point is important to Catholics, since if the dead are not in the presence of God, then the whole idea of prayers to the saintswould seem to be undermined. John XXII continued this argument for a time in sermons while he was pope, although he never taught this in official documents. He eventually backed down from his position, and agreed that those who died in grace do indeed immediately enjoy the Beatific Vision.
Despite holding for many years a view widely held to be heretical, John XXII is not considered a heretic because in his day the doctrine he had contradicted had not been formally defined by the Church, a lacuna that his successor,
Pope Benedict XII(1334–42), immediately filled by the encyclical " [http://www.papalencyclicals.net/Ben12/B12bdeus.html Benedictus Deus] ", which formally defined this doctrine as part of Church teaching.
Pope John XXII was also an excellent administrator and did much efficient reorganizing.
John XXII has traditionally been credited with having composed the prayer 'Anima Christi, sanctifica me...', which has come down to us in English as 'Soul of Christ, sanctify me...' and as the hymn, 'Soul of my Saviour, sanctify my breast'.
On Sunday 27th March 1329 John XXII condemned many writings of
Meister Eckhartas heretical in his papal bull "In Agro Dominico".
He is frequently discussed in
Umberto Eco's " The Name of the Rose", and is also featured in Maurice Druon's series of historical novels " The Accursed Kings".
The previous pope named John was
Pope John XXI. The last pope named John before that was Pope John XIX(1024–32), who was additionally really only the eighteenth pope named John.
*Patrick Nold, Pope John XXII and his Franciscan Cardinal: Bertrand de la Tour and the Apostolic Poverty Controversy (Oxford, 2003)
*Guillaume Mollat, The Popes at Avignon (Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1963), 9-25
* [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08431a.htm Catholic encyclopedia entry]
* [http://www.inrebus.com/cambridgebull.php John XXII's bull 'Inter Singula']
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Pope John XXII — Pope John XXII † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope John XXII (JACQUES D EUSE) Born at Cahors in 1249; enthroned, 5 September, 1316; died at Avignon, 4 December, 1334. He received his early education from the Dominicans in his native… … Catholic encyclopedia
John XXII — Pope John XXII † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope John XXII (JACQUES D EUSE) Born at Cahors in 1249; enthroned, 5 September, 1316; died at Avignon, 4 December, 1334. He received his early education from the Dominicans in his native… … Catholic encyclopedia
Pope John — has been the most common papal name in the Roman Catholic Church, used by 21 popes, though the numbering of them has been irregular through history due to antipopes and differences in old lists. The Latin name is Iohannes .# Pope John I (523–526) … Wikipedia
Pope John Paul II — John Paul II John Paul II in 1993 Papacy began 16 October 1978 Papacy ended 2 April 2005 ( 1000000000000002600000026 years, 1000000 … Wikipedia
JOHN XXII° — (Jacques Duèse; b. c. 1245), pope at Avignon, 1316–34. Pragmatically adapting his attitude to suit the current situation, John XXII could be called neither benevolent nor severe in his dealings with the Jews. He wished to encourage the conversion … Encyclopedia of Judaism
John XXII, Pope — • Born at Cahors in 1249; enthroned, 5 September, 1316; died at Avignon, 4 December, 1334 Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006 … Catholic encyclopedia
John XXII — (Jacques Duèse) c1244 1334, French ecclesiastic: pope 1316 34. * * * orig. Jacques Duèse born , Cahors, France died Dec. 4, 1334, Avignon Second Avignon pope (1316–34). The successor to Clement V, he established the papal court at Avignon on a… … Universalium
Pope John XXIII — Infobox pope English name=John XXIII birth name=Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli term start=28 October 1958 term end=3 June 1963 predecessor=Pius XII successor=Paul VI birth date=birth date|df=yes|1881|11|25 birthplace=Sotto il Monte, Italy dead=dead… … Wikipedia
John XXII — (1249–1334) Pope. John was born Jacques Duèse in Cahors, France. He was educated at the University of Paris and was appointed Bishop of Fréjus in 1300, Bishop of Avignon in 1310, Cardinal Bishop of Porto in 1312, and was elected Pope in… … Who’s Who in Christianity
John XXII — /dʒɒn/ (say jon) noun (Jacques Duèse), 1244?–1334, pope 1316–34 … Australian English dictionary