Timeline of algorithms

Timeline of algorithms

The following timeline outlines the development of algorithms (mainly "mathematical recipes") since their inception.

Before Modern Era

* Before - Writing about "recipes" (on cooking, rituals, agriculture and other themes)
* c. 1600 BC - Babylonians develop earliest known algorithms for factorization and finding square roots
* c. 300 BC - Euclid's algorithm
* c. 200 BC - the Sieve of Eratosthenes
* 263 AD - Gaussian elimination described by Liu Hui
* 628 - Chakravala method described by Brahmagupta
* c. 820 - Al-Khawarizmi described algorithms for solving linear equations and quadratic equations in his "Algebra"; the word "algorithm" comes from his name
* 825 - Al-Khawarizmi described the algorism, algorithms for using the Hindu-Arabic numerals, in his treatise "On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals", which was translated into Latin as "Algoritmi de numero Indorum", where "Algoritmi", the translator's rendition of the author's name gave rise to the word algorithm (Latin "algorithmus") with a meaning "calculation method"
* c. 850 - Cryptanalysis and frequency analysis algorithms developed by Al-Kindi (Alkindus) in "A Manuscript on Deciphering Cryptographic Messages", which contains algorithms on breaking encryptions and ciphers. [Simon Singh, "The Code Book", pp. 14-20] [cite web |url=http://www.muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=372 |title= Al-Kindi, Cryptgraphy, Codebreaking and Ciphers |accessdate=2007-01-12 |format= HTML |work= ]
* c. 1025 - Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), was the first mathematician to derive the formula for the sum of the fourth powers, and in turn, he develops an algorithm for determining the general formula for the sum of any integral powers, which was fundamental to the development of integral calculusVictor J. Katz (1995). "Ideas of Calculus in Islam and India", "Mathematics Magazine" 68 (3), p. 163-174.]
* c. 1400 - Ahmad al-Qalqashandi gives a list of ciphers in his "Subh al-a'sha" which include both substitution and transposition, and for the first time, a cipher with multiple substitutions for each plaintext letter; he also gives an exposition on and worked example of cryptanalysis, including the use of tables of letter frequencies and sets of letters which can not occur together in one word

Before 1940

* 1614 - John Napier develops method for performing calculations using logarithms
* 1671 - Newton-Raphson method developed by Isaac Newton
* 1690 - Newton-Raphson method independently developed by Joseph Raphson
* 1706 - John Machin develops a quickly converging inverse-tangent series for π and computes π to 100 decimal places,
* 1789 - Jurij Vega improves Machin's formula and computes π to 140 decimal places,
* 1805 - FFT-like algorithm known by Carl Friedrich Gauss
* 1903 - A Fast Fourier Transform algorithm presented by Carle David Tolme Runge
* 1926 - Boruvka's algorithm
* 1934 - Delaunay triangulation developed by Boris Delaunay
* 1936 - Turing machine, an abstract machine developed by Alan Turing, with others developed the modern notion of "algorithm".


* 1942 - A Fast Fourier Transform algorithm developed by G.C. Danielson and Cornelius Lanczos
* 1945 - Merge sort developed by John von Neumann
* 1947 - Simplex algorithm developed by George Dantzig


* 1952 - Huffman coding developed by David A. Huffman
* 1953 - Simulated annealing introduced by Nicholas Metropolis
* 1954 - Radix sort computer algorithm developed by Harold H. Seward
* 1956 - Kruskal's algorithm developed by Joseph Kruskal
* 1957 - Prim's algorithm developed by Robert Prim
* 1957 - Bellman-Ford algorithm developed by R. Bellman and L. R. Ford, Jr.
* 1959 - Dijkstra's algorithm developed by Edsger Dijkstra
* 1959 - Shell sort developed by D. L. Shell
* 1959 - De Casteljau's algorithm developed by Paul de Casteljau


* 1962 - Quicksort developed by C. A. R. Hoare
* 1962 - Ford-Fulkerson algorithm developed by L. R. Ford, Jr. and D. R. Fulkerson
* 1962 - Bresenham's line algorithm developed by Jack E. Bresenham
* 1964 - Heapsort developed by J. W. J. Williams
* 1964 - multigrid methods first proposed by R. P. Fedorenko
* 1965 - Cooley-Tukey algorithm rediscovered by James Cooley and John Tukey
* 1965 - Levenshtein distance developed by Vladimir Levenshtein
* 1965 - Cocke-Younger-Kasami (CYK) algorithm independently developed by T. Kasami
* 1966 - Dantzig algorithm for shortest path in a graph with negative edges
* 1967 - Viterbi algorithm proposed by Andrew Viterbi
* 1967 - Cocke-Younger-Kasami (CYK) algorithm independently developed by D. H. Younger
* 1968 - A* graph search algorithm described by Peter Hart, Nils Nilsson, and Bertram Raphael.


* 1970 - Knuth-Bendix completion algorithm developed by Donald Knuth and P. B. Bendix
* 1970 - BFGS method of the quasi-Newton class
* 1972 - Graham scan developed by Ronald Graham
* 1973 - RSA encryption algorithm discovered by Clifford Cocks
* 1973 - Jarvis march algorithm developed by R. A. Jarvis
* 1974 - Pollard's "p" − 1 algorithm developed by John Pollard
* 1975 - Genetic algorithms popularized by John Holland
* 1975 - Pollard's rho algorithm developed by John Pollard
* 1975 - Aho-Corasick algorithm developed by Alfred V. Aho and Margaret J. Corasick
* 1976 - Salamin-Brent algorithm independently discovered by Eugene Salamin and Richard Brent
* 1976 - Knuth-Morris-Pratt algorithm developed by Donald Knuth and Vaughan Pratt and independently by J. H. Morris
* 1977 - Boyer-Moore string search algorithm for searching the occurrence of a string into another string.
* 1977 - RSA encryption algorithm rediscovered by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Len Adleman
* 1977 - LZ77 algorithm developed by Abraham Lempel and Jacob Ziv
* 1977 - multigrid methods developed independently by Achi Brandt and Wolfgang Hackbusch
* 1978 - LZ78 algorithm developed from LZ77 by Abraham Lempel and Jacob Ziv
* 1978 - Bruun's algorithm proposed for powers of two by G. Bruun
* 1979 - Khachiyan's ellipsoid method developed by Leonid Khachiyan


* 1981 - Quadratic sieve developed by Carl Pomerance
* 1983 - Simulated annealing developed by S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt and M. P. Vecchi
* 1984 - LZW algorithm developed from LZ78 by Terry Welch
* 1984 - Karmarkar's interior-point algorithm developed by Narendra Karmarkar
* 1985 - Simulated annealing independently developed by V. Cerny
* 1986 - Blum Blum Shub proposed by L. Blum, M. Blum, and M. Shub
* 1987 - Fast multipole method developed by Leslie Greengard and Vladimir Rokhlin
* 1988 - Special number field sieve developed by John Pollard


* 1990 - General number field sieve developed from SNFS by Carl Pomerance, Joe Buhler, Hendrik Lenstra, and Leonard Adleman
* 1991 - Wait-free synchronization developed by Maurice Herlihy
* 1992 - Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm proposed by D. Deutsch and R. Jozsa
* 1994 - Shor's algorithm developed by Peter Shor
* 1994 - Burrows-Wheeler transform developed by Michael Burrows and David Wheeler
* 1996 - Bruun's algorithm generalized to arbitrary even composite sizes by H. Murakami
* 1996 - Grover's algorithm developed by Lov K. Grover
* 1996 - RIPEMD-160 developed by Hans Dobbertin, Antoon Bosselaers, and Bart Preneel
* 1998 - rsync algorithm developed by Andrew Tridgell
* 1999 - Yarrow algorithm designed by Bruce Schneier, John Kelsey, and Niels Ferguson


* 2001 - LZMA compression algorithm
* 2002 - AKS primality test developed by Manindra Agrawal, Neeraj Kayal and Nitin Saxena


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