Amplitude


Amplitude

Amplitude is the magnitude of change in the oscillating variable, with each oscillation, within an oscillating system. For instance, sound waves are oscillations in atmospheric pressure and their amplitudes are proportional to the change in pressure during one oscillation. If a graph of the system is drawn with the oscillating variable as the vertical axis and time as the horizontal axis then the amplitude may be measured as the vertical distance between points on the curve.

Concepts of amplitude

Peak-to-peak amplitude

Peak-to-peak amplitude is the measure of the change between peak and trough. Peak-to-peak amplitudes can be measured by meters with appropriate circuitry, or by viewing the waveform on an oscilloscope. Semi-amplitude in fields such as astronomy is understood to mean half the peak-to-peak amplitude.Tatum, J. B. " [http://orca.phys.uvic.ca/~tatum/celmechs/celm18.pdf Physics - Celestial Mechanics] ." Paragraph 18.2.12. 2007. Retrieved 2008-08-22]

emi-amplitude

Some scientists [Regents of the University of California. " [http://cse.ssl.berkeley.edu/light/measure_amp.html#measure4 Universe of Light: What is the Amplitude of a Wave?] " 1996. Retrieved 2008-08-22] use "amplitude" or "peak amplitude" to mean semi-amplitude, namely half the peak to peak amplitude.

Root mean square amplitude

Root mean square (RMS) amplitude is used especially in electrical engineering: the RMS is defined as the square root of the mean over time of the square of the vertical distance of the graph from the rest state. [Department of Communicative Disorders University of Wisconsin-Madison. " [http://www.comdis.wisc.edu/vcd202/rms.html RMS Amplitude] ". Retrieved 2008-08-22]

Ambiguity of amplitude

The use of peak amplitude is simple and unambiguous for symmetric, periodic waves, like a sine wave, a square wave, or a triangular wave. For an asymmetric wave (periodic pulses in one direction, for example), the peak amplitude becomes ambiguous because the value obtained is different depending on whether the maximum positive signal is measured relative to the mean, the maximum negative signal is measured relative to the mean, or the maximum positive signal is measured relative the maximum negative signal (the peak-to-peak amplitude) and then divided by two.

For complex waveforms, especially non-repeating signals like noise, the RMS amplitude is usually used because it is unambiguous and because it has physical significance. For example, the average power transmitted by an acoustic or electromagnetic wave or by an electrical signal is proportional to the square of the RMS amplitude (and not, in general, to the square of the peak amplitude).

When dealing with alternating current electrical power it is universal to specify RMS values of a sinusoidal waveform. It is important to recognize that the peak-to-peak voltage is nearly 3 times the RMS value when assessing safety, specifying components, etc.

Pulse amplitude

In telecommunication, "pulse amplitude" is the magnitude of a pulse parameter, such as the field intensity, voltage level, current level, or power level.

"Note 1:" Pulse amplitude is measured with respect to a specified reference and therefore should be modified by qualifiers, such as "average", "instantaneous", "peak", or "root-mean-square."

"Note 2:" Pulse amplitude also applies to the amplitude of frequency- and phase-modulated waveform envelopes.

Source: from Federal Standard 1037C

Amplitude in the wave equation

In the simple wave equation

:x = A sin(t - K) + b ,

"A" is the amplitude of the wave.

Units of amplitude

The units of the amplitude depend on the type of wave.

For waves on a string, or in medium such as water, the amplitude is a displacement.

The amplitude of sound waves and audio signals (also referred to as Volume) conventionally refers to the amplitude of the air pressure in the wave, but sometimes the amplitude of the displacement (movements of the air or the diaphragm of a speaker) is described. The logarithm of the amplitude squared is usually quoted in dB, so a null amplitude corresponds to - dB. Loudness is related to amplitude and intensity and is one of most salient qualities of a sound, although in general sounds can be recognized independently of amplitude. The square of the amplitude is proportional to the intensity of the wave.

For electromagnetic radiation, the amplitude of a photon corresponds to the changes in the electric field of the wave. However radio signals may be carried by electromagnetic radiation; the intensity of the radiation (amplitude modulation) or the frequency of the radiation (frequency modulation) is oscillated and then the individual oscillations are varied (modulated) to produce the signal.

Waveforms and amplitude

The amplitude may be constant (in which case the wave is a continuous wave) or may vary with time and/or position. The form of the variation of amplitude is called the envelope of the wave.

If the waveform is a pure sine wave, the relationships between peak-to-peak, peak, mean, and RMS amplitudes are fixed and known, but this is not true for an arbitrary waveform which may or may not be periodic.

For a sine wave the relationship between RMS and peak-to-peak amplitude is::mbox{Peak-to-peak} = 2 sqrt{2} imes mbox{RMS} approx 2.8 imes mbox{RMS}. ,

ee also

* Waves and their properties:
** Frequency
** Period
** Wavelength
** Crest factor
* Amplitude modulation

Notes

Further reading

*Goldvais, A. Goldvais. [http://img2.tapuz.co.il/forums/1_109580628.pdf Exoplanets] . Retrieved 2008-08-22


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  • amplitude — [ ɑ̃plityd ] n. f. • XVe; lat. amplitudo 1 ♦ Vx Grandeur, étendue. « Dans l amplitude et immensité de la nature » (Pascal). 2 ♦ Sc. Différence entre les valeurs extrêmes d une grandeur. Amplitude d un intervalle borné : distance entre les bornes …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Amplitude — Am pli*tude, n. [L. amplitudo, fr. amplus: cf. F. amplitude. See {Ample}.] 1. State of being ample; extent of surface or space; largeness of dimensions; size. [1913 Webster] The cathedral of Lincoln . . . is a magnificent structure,… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Amplitude [1] — Amplitude, wird in der Mathematik in verschiedenen Fällen als Bezeichnung für Winkel von spezieller Bedeutung gebraucht. So nennen manche Amplitude einer komplexen Zahl (a + ib) den durch die Gleichung a + ib = r (cosφ + isinφ)… …   Lexikon der gesamten Technik

  • amplitude — AMPLITUDE. s. f. Dans le jet des bombes, c est la ligne horizontale comprise entre le point d où part la bombe, et celui où elle va tomber. L amplitude du jet.Amplitude, en Astronomie, est l arc de l horizon compris entre le vrai levant ou le… …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française 1798

  • amplitude — of displacement at a point in a vibrating system is the largest value of displacement that the point attains with reference to its equilibrium position. double amplitude peak to peak amplitude static amplitude stress amplitude …   Mechanics glossary

  • Amplitude — Sf Schwingungsweite per. Wortschatz fach. (19. Jh.) Entlehnung. Entlehnt und übertragen aus l. amplitūdo ( dinis) Größe, Weite, Erhabenheit , Abstraktum von l. amplus umfangreich, geräumig, groß .    Ebenso nndl. amplitude, ne. amplitude, nfrz.… …   Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache

  • Amplitude — amplitudė statusas T sritis automatika atitikmenys: angl. amplitude vok. Amplitude, f; Schwingungsweite, f rus. амплитуда, f pranc. amplitude, f …   Automatikos terminų žodynas

  • amplitude — amplitudė statusas T sritis automatika atitikmenys: angl. amplitude vok. Amplitude, f; Schwingungsweite, f rus. амплитуда, f pranc. amplitude, f …   Automatikos terminų žodynas

  • amplitudė — statusas T sritis automatika atitikmenys: angl. amplitude vok. Amplitude, f; Schwingungsweite, f rus. амплитуда, f pranc. amplitude, f …   Automatikos terminų žodynas

  • Amplitude — amplitudė statusas T sritis Standartizacija ir metrologija apibrėžtis Didžiausias virpamojo dydžio nuokrypis nuo pusiausvyros padėties. Amplitudinę vertę virpamasis dydis kiekviename virpesių pusperiodyje pasiekia tik vieną kartą. atitikmenys:… …   Penkiakalbis aiškinamasis metrologijos terminų žodynas


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