Struma River

Struma River

:"Strymon redirects here. For the Strymon Gulf, see Strymonian Gulf. For the butterfly genus, see "Strymon (butterfly)."

Infobox River | river_name = Struma (Струма), Strymónas (Στρυμόνας)

caption = The course of the Struma in Bulgaria
origin = The south slopes of Vitosha, Bulgaria
mouth = Aegean Sea, Greece
basin_countries = Bulgaria, Greece
length = 415 km
elevation = 2,180 m
discharge = from 2,117 m³/s at Pernik to 76,167 m³/s at Marino pole
watershed = 10,797 km² in Bulgaria

The Struma or Strymónas (Bulgarian Струма, pronounced|ˈstruma, Greek Στρυμόνας IPA| [striˈmonas] , Turkish Karasu 'black water') is a river in Bulgaria and Greece. Its ancient name was Strymōn (Greek: Στρυμών /stry'mɔːn/). Its catchment area is 10,800 km². It takes its source from the Vitosha Mountain in Bulgaria, runs first westward, then southward, enters Greek territory at the Kula village and flows into the Aegean Sea, near Amphipolis in the Serres prefecture. The river's length is 415 km (of which 290 km in Bulgaria, making it the country's fifth longest).

The river valley is a coal-producing area of Bulgaria. The Greek portion is a valley which is dominant in agriculture, being Greece's fourth biggest valley. The tributaries include the Rila River, the Dragovishtitsa, the Blagoevgradska Bistritsa, the Konska River, the Sandanska Bistritsa and the Aggitis River.

The Ancient Greek city of Amphipolis was founded near the river's entrance to the Aegean, at the site previously known as Ennea Odoi (Nine roads}. When Xerxes I of Persia crossed the river during his invasion in 480 BC he buried alive nine young boys and nine maidens as a sacrifice to the river god. [Herodotus 7,114 [] . The history may be Greek slander, though, as human sacrifice is not known as an Iranian cultic practice.] The forces of Alexander I of Macedon defeated the remnants of Xerxes' army near Ennea Odoi in 479 BC. In 424 BC the Spartan general Brasidas after crossing the entire Greek peninsula sieged and conquered Amphipolis. The Battle of Kleidion was fought by the river in 1014.

In 1913, the Greek Army was trapped in the Kresna Gorge of the Struma during the Second Balkan War. The Bulgarians were defeated in the war, however, and the Treaty of Bucharest resulted in significant territorial losses for Bulgaria.

The river valley was part of the Macedonian front in World War I.

The ship "Struma", which carried Jewish refugees out of Romania in World War II and subsequently sunk in the Black Sea, causing nearly 800 deaths, is named after the river.

The river's name comes from Thracian "Strymón", derived from IE *sru "stream" [Katičic', Radislav. "Ancient Languages of the Balkans, Part One". Paris: Mouton, 1976: 144.] , akin to English "stream", Old Irish "sruaimm" "river", Lithuanian "straumuoe" "fast stream", Greek "reuma" "stream", Albanian "rrymë" "water flow", "shri" "rain".


Struma Glacier on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named after Struma River.


External links

* [ Strymon]

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Struma River — River, western Bulgaria and northeastern Greece. Rising in the Rhodope Mountains southwest of Sofia, Bulg., it courses 258 mi (415 km) southeast to the Aegean Sea. Its upper valley is a major source of brown coal for Bulgaria, and its lower… …   Universalium

  • Struma (Fluss) — Struma (Strymonas) Blick auf die Mündung des Flusses Struma (Strymonas) in die Ägäis von Amphipolis ausVorlage:Infobox Fluss/KARTE fehlt …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Struma (disambiguation) — Struma can refer to:* Struma, a ship that transported Jewish refugees from Romania and sunk in the Black Sea during World War II * Struma River, a river in Bulgaria and Greece * Goitre, an enlargement of the thyroid gland * Struma it is sometimes …   Wikipedia

  • Struma Glacier — (Lednik Struma led nik stru ma) is a tributary glacier in eastern Livingston Island, Antarctica draining the area between Bowles Ridge and Melnik Ridge. The glacier is 3km long and 1.5km wide, flowing eastwards into Huron Glacier. It is Bounded… …   Wikipedia

  • Struma — may refer to: * Goitre * Struma (ship), a WWII refugee ship * Struma River …   Wikipedia

  • river — river1 riverless, adj. riverlike, adj. /riv euhr/, n. 1. a natural stream of water of fairly large size flowing in a definite course or channel or series of diverging and converging channels. 2. a similar stream of something other than water: a… …   Universalium

  • Struma — /ˈstruma/ (say stroohmah) noun a river flowing through south western Bulgaria and north eastern Greece into the Aegean. About 362 km. Greek, Strimon, Strymon …   Australian English dictionary

  • Struma — [stro͞o′mä] river in SE Europe, flowing from W Bulgaria across NE Greece into the Aegean Sea: c. 220 mi (354 km) …   English World dictionary

  • Struma — /strooh mah/, n. a river in S Europe, flowing SE through SW Bulgaria and NE Greece into the Aegean. 225 mi. (362 km) long. * * * …   Universalium

  • Struma — Stru•ma [[t]ˈstru mɑ[/t]] n. geg a river in S Europe, flowing SE through SW Bulgaria and NE Greece into the Aegean. 225 mi. (362 km) long …   From formal English to slang

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