- Tribune (magazine)
name = Tribune
type = Weekly
foundation = 1937
headquarters = Arkwright Road, London
website = http://www.tribunemagazine.co.uk/
"Tribune" is a
democratic socialistweekly, currently a magazine though in the past more often a newspaper, published in London.
"Tribune" was set up in early 1937 by two left-wing Labour Party Members of Parliament (MPs),
Stafford Crippsand George Strauss, to back the Unity Campaign, an attempt to secure an anti-fascist and anti-appeasement United Frontbetween the Labour Party and socialist parties to its left which involved Cripps's (Labour-affiliated) Socialist League, the Independent Labour Partyand the Communist Party of Great Britain(CP).
The paper's first editor was
William Mellor, and its journalists included Michael Footand Barbara Betts (later Barbara Castle). As well as Cripps and Strauss, its board comprised the Labour MPs Aneurin Bevanand Ellen Wilkinson, Harold Laskiof the Left Book Cluband the veteran left-wing journalist and former-ILPer H. N. Brailsford.
Mellor was fired in 1938 for refusing to adopt a new CP policy — which was supported by Cripps — of backing a
Popular Front, including non-socialist parties, against fascism and appeasement; Foot resigned in solidarity. Mellor was succeeded by H. J. Hartshorn, a secret member of the Communist Party, and Victor Gollancz, the Left Book Club's publisher, joined the board of directors. For the next year, the paper was little more than an appendage of the Left Book Club, taking an uncritical line on the Popular Front and the Soviet Union.
"Tribune" in the 1940s
In 1939, after the
Nazi-Soviet pactand the outbreak of the second world war, "Tribune" initially adopted the CP's position of denouncing the war as imperialist. But after the Soviet invasion of Finland, with Cripps off on a world tour, Strauss and Bevan became increasingly impatient at Hartshorn's unrelenting Stalinism. Strauss fired him in February 1940, replacing him as editor with Raymond Postgate. From then on the paper became the voice of the pro-war democratic left in the Labour Party, taking a position similar to that adopted by Gollancz in his famous edited volume attacking the communists for backing the Nazi-Soviet pact, " Betrayal of the Left".
Bevan ousted Postgate after a series of personality clashes in 1941, assuming the role of editor himself, though the day-to-day running of the paper was done by
Jon Kimche. The Bevan-Kimche "Tribune" is revered as one of the greatest left-wing papers in British history. It campaigned vigorously for the opening of a second front against Adolf Hitler's Germany, was consistently critical of the Churchill government's failings and argued that only a democratic socialist post-war settlement in Britain (and Europe as a whole) was viable. George Orwellwas hired in 1943 as literary editor, and for the next three-and-a-half years he wrote a series of columns, under the title " As I Please". Orwell left the "Tribune" staff in early 1945 to become a war correspondent for " The Observer" — he was replaced as literary editor by his friend Tosco Fyvel— but remained a regular contributor until March 1947.
Kimche left "Tribune" to join Reuters in 1945, his place being taken by
Frederic Mullally. After the Labour landslide election victory of 1945, Bevan joined Clement Attlee's government and formally left the paper, leaving Mullally and Evelyn Andersonas joint editors, with Foot playing Bevan's role of political director. Over the next five years, "Tribune" was critically involved in every key political event in the life of the Labour government and reached its highest-ever circulation, of some 40,000. Foot persuaded Kimche to return as joint editor in 1946 (after Mulally's departure to the Sunday Pictorial) and eventually himself became joint editor with Anderson in 1948 after Kimche was fired for disappearing from the office to Istanbul to negotiate the safe passage of two Jewish refugee ships through the Bosporus and Dardanelles.
In the first few years of the Attlee administration, "Tribune" became the focus for the Labour left's attempts to persuade
Ernest Bevin, the Foreign Secretary, to adopt a "third force" democratic socialist foreign policy, with Europe acting independently from the US and the Soviet Union, most coherently advanced in the pamphlet " Keep Left" (which was published by the rival " New Statesman").
In 1948, however, after the Soviet rejection of
Marshall Aidand the communist takeover of Czechoslovakia, "Tribune" endorsed the North Atlantic Treaty Organizationand took a strongly anti-communist line. "The major threat to democratic socialism and the major danger of war in Europe arises from Soviet policy and not from American policy," declared the editors in November 1948. "It is not the Americans who have imposed a blockade on Berlin. It is not the Americans who have used conspiratorial methods to destroy democratic socialist parties in one country after another. It is not the Americans who have blocked effective action through one United Nations agency after another."
Bevanism and CND
Foot remained in the editorial chair until 1952, when Bob Edwards took over, but returned after losing his parliamentary seat in Plymouth in 1955. During the early 1950s, "Tribune" became the organ of the
Bevaniteleft opposition to the Labour Party leadership, turning against America over its handling of the Korean war then arguing strongly against West German rearmament and nuclear arms. "Tribune" remained critical of the Soviet Union, however: it denounced Stalin on his death in 1953, and, in 1956, opposed the Soviet suppression of the Hungarian Revolutionand the British government's Suezadventure. The paper and Bevan parted company after his "naked into the conference chamber" speech at the 1957 Labour Party conference: for the next five years "Tribune" was at the forefront of the campaign to commit Labour to a non-nuclear defence policy, "the official weekly of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament" (CND) as the direct actionists in the peace movement put it. CND's general secretary, Peggy Duff, had been Tribune general manager. Among journalists on "Tribune" in the 1950s were Richard Clements, Ian Aitkenand Mervyn Jones, who related his experience on the paper in his autobiography "Chances".
The 1960s and 1970s
After Foot was re-elected to Parliament in 1960 for Bevan's old seat of
Ebbw Vale, Richard Clements became editor. During the 1960s and 1970s the paper faithfully expressed the ideas of the parliamentary Labour left and allied itself with the new generation of left-wing trade union leaders that emerged on the back of a wave of workplace militancy from the early 1960s onwards.
As such, it played a massive role in the politics of the time. Although it welcomed the election of Harold Wilson's Labour government in 1964 – "Tribune takes over from Eton in the cabinet," exclaimed a headline – the paper became rapidly disillusioned. It denounced the Wilson government's timidity on nationalisation and devaluation, opposed its moves to join the
European Economic Community(EEC) and attacked it for failing to take a principled position against the Vietnam war. It also backed the unions' campaigns against the government's prices-and-incomes policies and against " In Place of Strife", Barbara Castle's 1969 package of trade union law reforms.
The paper continued in the same vein after
Edward Heathwon the 1970 general election, opposing his Tory government's trade union legislation between 1970 and 1974 and placing itself at the head of opposition to Heath's negotiations for Britain to join the EEC. After Labour regained power in 1974, "Tribune" played a central part in the "no" campaign in the 1975 referendum on British EEC membership.
But "Tribune" in this period did not speak to, let alone represent, the concerns of the younger generation of leftists who were at the centre of the campaign against the Vietnam war and the post-1968 student revolt, who found the paper's reformism and commitment to Labour tame and old-fashioned. Circulation, around 20,000 in 1960, declined to around 10,000 in 1980.
Supports Tony Benn for an instant
Clements resigned as editor in 1982 to become a political adviser to Foot (by now Labour leader), a role he continued under Foot's successor as Labour leader,
Neil Kinnock. Clements was succeeded in the "Tribune" chair by Chris Mullin, who steered the paper into the supporting Tony Benn(then just past the peak of his influence on the Labour left) and attempted to turn it into a workers' co-operative, much to the consternation of the old Bevanite shareholders, most prominent among them John Silkinand Donald Bruce, who dominated the paper's board. A protracted dispute ensued that at one point seemed likely to close the paper.
Paper of the 'soft left'
Mullin left in 1984, with circulation at around 6,000 (at which level it roughly remained for the next 10 years). He was replaced by his equally Bennite protege Nigel Williamson (editor 1984-87), who surprised everyone by arguing for a 'realignment of the left' and took the paper into the '
soft left' camp, supporting Kinnock, a long-time "Tribune" contributor and onetime board member, as Labour leader against the Bennites. The next two editors, Phil Kelly (editor 1987-91), and Paul Anderson (editor 1991-93), took much the same line though both clashed with Kinnock, particularly over his decision to abandon Labour's non-nuclear defence policy.
Under Kelly, "Tribune" supported
John Prescott's challenge to Roy Hattersleyas Labour Deputy leader in 1988 and came close to going bust, a fate averted by an emergency appeal launched by a front page exclaiming "Don't let this be the last issue of "Tribune". Under Anderson, the paper took a strongly pro-European stance, supported electoral reform and argued for military intervention against Serbian aggression in Croatia and Bosnia. Throughout the 1980s and early 1990s, "Tribune" acted as a clearing house for arguments inside the Labour Party, with contributions from all major players. Regular columnists and contributors included Gordon Brown, Jack Straw, David Blunkett, Peter Hain, Robin Cook, Margaret Hodge, Clare Short, Denis MacShane, Bryan Gould, Ken Livingstone, Bill Morrisand John Edmonds.
Back to basics
From 1993, Mark Seddon (editor 1993-2004) shifted "Tribune" several degrees back to the left, particularly after
Tony Blairbecame Labour leader in 1994. The paper strongly opposed Blair's abandonment of Clause Fourof the Labour Party constitution and resisted his rebranding of the party as 'New Labour'.
After Labour won the 1997 general election, the paper maintained an oppositionist stance, objecting to the Blair government's military interventions and its reliance on spin-doctors. In 2001, "Tribune" opposed the US-led invasion of Afghanistan, and it was outspoken against the invasion of Iraq in 2003. The paper under Seddon also reverted to an anti-European position very similar to that it adopted in the 1970s and early 1980s and campaigned for Gordon Brown to replace Blair as Labour leader and prime minister.
"Tribune" changed format from newspaper to magazine in 2001, but remained plagued by financial uncertainty, coming close to folding again in 2002. But Seddon and Chairman of Tribune Publications, the Labour MP
Peter Kilfoyleled a team of pro-bono advisers who organised a rescue package with a consortium of trade unions (Unison, Amicusand AslefJohn Plunkett [http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2008/oct/09/pressandpublishing "Tribune set to close by November",] "The Guardian" 9 October 2008. The first cited reference is slightly misleading, Amicus merged with the TGWU in 2007 to form Unite.] ), who became majority shareholders in return for a significant investment in the magazine in early 2004.
While editor, Seddon was elected several times to the Labour Party
National Executive Committeeas a candidate of the Grassroots Alliancecoalition of left-wing activists. Seddon resigned as editor in summer 2004 and was succeeded by Chris McLaughlin, former political editor of the " Sunday Mirror". Seddon is currently UN Correspondent for Al-Jazeera in New York.
During 2007, "Tribune" spawned two offshoot websites, a Tribune Cartoons blog, put together by cartoonists who draw for the magazine, and a "Tribune" History blog. In September 2008, the magazine's future was again in doubt thanks to problems with its trade union funding. An attempt by the Unite trade union to render "Tribune" its wholly owned subsidiary had a mixed response. [Paul Anderson [http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2008/sep/11/georgeorwell "Better read than dead",] "The Guardian" (Comment is Free website), 11 September 2008.] On 9 October it was announced that ther magazine would close on the 31 October if a buyer could not be found.
cartoonistis Alex Hughes.
The Tribune Group
The Tribune Group of Labour MPs was formed as a support group for the newspaper in 1964. During the 1960s and 1970s it was the main forum for the left in the
Parliamentary Labour Party, but it split over Tony Benn's bid for the deputy leadership of the party in 1981, with Benn's supporters forming the Socialist Campaign Group. During the 1980s, the Tribune Group was the Labour soft left's political caucus, but its closeness to the leadership of Neil Kinnockand subsequently Gordon Brownand Tony Blairmeant that it had lost any real "raison d'etre" by the early 1990s.
The group was reformed in 2005, lead by Eltham's
Clive Efford. Invitations to join the newly reformed group have been extended to backbench Labour MPs only. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/4395364.stm]
*Anderson, Paul (ed). "Orwell in "Tribune": 'As I Please' and Other Writings". Methuen/Politico's 2006. ISBN 1-842-75155-7
*Hill, Douglas (ed). "Tribune 40: the first forty years of a socialist newspaper". Quartet. 1977. ISBN 0-7043-3124-1
*Thomas, Elizabeth (ed). "Tribune 21". MacGibbon and Kee. 1958.
* [http://www.tribunemagazine.co.uk/ "Tribune" magazine]
* [http://tribunecartoons.blogspot.com/ "Tribune Cartoons"]
* [http://tribunehistory.blogspot.com/ "Tribune History"]
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