A darkroom is a room that can be made completely dark to allow the processing of light sensitive photographic materials, including photographic film and photographic paper. Darkrooms have been created and used since the inception of photography in the early 19th century. Darkrooms have many various manifestations, from the elaborate space used by Ansel Adams to a retooled ambulance wagon used by Timothy H. O'Sullivan. From the initial development to the creation of prints, the darkroom process allows complete control over the medium.
Due to the popularity of color photography and complexity of processing colour film (see C-41 process) and printing color photographs and also to the rise, first of Polaroid technology and later digital photography, darkrooms are decreasing in popularity, though are still commonplace on college campuses, schools and in the studios of many professional photographers.
In most darkrooms, an enlarger, an optical apparatus similar to a slide projector, that projects the image of a negative onto a base, finely controls the focus, intensity and duration of light, is used for printmaking. A sheet of photographic paper is exposed to the enlarged image from the negative.
When making black-and-white prints, a safelight is commonly used to illuminate the work area. Since the majority of black-and-white papers are sensitive to only blue, or to blue and green light, a red- or amber-coloured light can be safely used without exposing the paper.
Color print paper, being sensitive to all parts of the visible spectrum, must be kept in complete darkness until the prints are properly fixed.
Another use for a darkroom is to load film in and out of cameras, development spools, or film holders, which requires complete darkness. Lacking a darkroom, a photographer can make use of a changing bag, which is a small bag with sleeved arm holes specially designed to be completely light proof and used to prepare film prior to exposure or developing.
During exposure, values in the image can be adjusted, most often by "dodging" (reducing the amount of light to a specific area of an image by selectively blocking light to it for part or all of the exposure time) and/or "burning" (giving additional exposure to specific area of an image by exposing only it while blocking light to the rest). Filters, usually thin pieces of colored plastic, can be used to increase or decrease an image's contrast (the difference between dark tones and light tones). After exposure, the photographic printing paper (which still appears blank) is ready to be processed.
Photographers generally begin printing a roll of film by making a contact print of their negatives to use as a quick reference to decide which images to enlarge. Some large format photographers, such as Edward Weston, make only contact prints of their large (4x5", 5x7", 8x10" or larger) negatives.
The paper that has been exposed is processed, first by immersion in a photographic developer, halting development with a stop bath, and fixing in a photographic fixer. The print is then washed to remove the processing chemicals and dried. There are a variety of other, additional steps a photographer may take, such as toning.
- ^ "Black and White Photography - Darkroom Layout & Equipment". Danmassey.co.uk. http://www.danmassey.co.uk/darkroom/Darkroom_layout_and_equipment.htm. Retrieved 2011-08-02.
- ^ "for history". http://xroads.virginia.edu/~MA99/paul/tim/forhistory.html. Retrieved 2011-08-02.
- ^ "How to Print B&W Photographs in a Darkroom". http://www.instructables.com/pdf/How-to-Print-BW-Photographs-in-a-Darkroom/How-to-Print-BW-Photographs-in-a-Darkroom.pdf. Retrieved 2011-08-02.
- Black and white darkroom resource center
- Darkroom safety
- Darkroom Discussion
- A collection of chemical recipes for the darkroom (dead link, 2010-10-28)
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Darkroom — (с англ. тёмная комната) слабо освещённое помещение для анонимных, в том числе и групповых, сексуальных контактов, а также для БДСМ игр. «Тёмные комнаты» возникли в 1970 е годы в США. Первоначально они располагались в подвальных… … Википедия
darkroom — ► NOUN ▪ a room for developing photographs, from which normal light is excluded … English terms dictionary
darkroom — [därk′ro͞om΄] n. a room from which all actinic rays are excluded, so that photographs can be developed in it … English World dictionary
Darkroom — Ein Darkroom (engl., eigentlich für Photographische Dunkelkammer für die Bearbeitung von lichtempfindlichen Materialien, im englischsprachigen Raum allerdings backroom/back room („Hinterzimmer“) genannt, im Beamtendeutsch auch als beruhigter… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Darkroom — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Darkroom est une série télévisée américaine créée par Richard Levinson et William Link, diffusée en 1982. Une Darkroom, également appeléé backroom est une … Wikipédia en Français
darkroom — UK [ˈdɑː(r)kruːm] / US [ˈdɑrkˌrum] noun [countable] Word forms darkroom : singular darkroom plural darkrooms a room with very little light in it, used for developing photographs from film using chemicals … English dictionary
darkroom — [[t]dɑ͟ː(r)kruːm[/t]] darkrooms N COUNT A darkroom is a room which can be sealed off from natural light and is lit only by red light. It is used for developing photographs … English dictionary
darkroom — noun Date: 1841 a room with no light or with a safelight for handling and processing light sensitive photographic materials … New Collegiate Dictionary
darkroom — /dahrk roohm , room /, n. Photog. a room in which film or the like is made, handled, or developed and from which the actinic rays of light are excluded. [1835 45; DARK + ROOM] * * * … Universalium
darkroom — noun a) A dark room, where photographs are developed. b) A darkened room where sexual activity can take place, especially one in a gay club … Wiktionary