- Hoysala architecture
Hoysala architecture ( _kn. ಹೊಯ್ಸಳ ವಾಸ್ತುಶಿಲ್ಪ) is the building style developed under the rule of the
Hoysala Empire, in the region known today as the Indian state of Karnataka, between the 11th and 14th centuries. Hoysala influence was at its peak in the 13th century, when it dominated the Southern Deccan Plateau region. Large and small temples built during this era remain as examples of the Hoysala architectural style, including the Chennakesava Templeat Belur, the Hoysaleswara Templeat Halebidu, and the Kesava Temple at Somanathapura. Other examples of fine Hoysala craftsmanship are the temples at Belavadi, Amruthapura, Hosaholalu, Arasikere and Nuggehalli. Study of the Hoysala architectural style has revealed a negligible Indo-Aryaninfluence while the impact of Southern Indian style is more distinct.Percy Brown in Kamath (2001), p134]
The vigorous temple building activity of the Hoysala Empire was due to the social, cultural and political events of the period. The stylistic transformation of the "Karnata" temple building tradition reflected religious trends popularized by the
Vaishnavaand Virashaivaphilosophers as well as the growing military prowess of the Hoysala kings who desired to surpass their Western Chalukyaoverlords in artistic achievement. Temples built prior to Hoysala independence in the mid-12th century reflect significant Western Chalukya influences, while later temples retain some features salient to Chalukyan art but have additional inventive decoration and ornamentation, features unique to Hoysala artisans. About one hundred temples have survived in present-day Karnataka state, mostly in the Malnad(hill) districts, the native home of the Hoysala kings.
As popular tourist destinations in Karnataka, Hoysala temples offer an opportunity for pilgrims and students of architecture to examine
medievalHindu architecture in the "Karnata Dravida" tradition. This tradition began in the 7th century under the patronage of the Chalukya dynastyof Badami, developed further under the Western Chalukyas of Basavakalyanin the 11th century and finally transformed into an independent style by the 12th century during the reign of the Hoysalas. Medieval Kannada languageinscriptions displayed prominently at temple locations give details of the temples and offer information about the history of the Hoysala dynasty.
Hinduism is a combination of secular and sacred beliefs, rituals, daily practices and traditions that has evolved over the course of over two thousand years and embodies complex symbolism combining the natural world with philosophy.Hindu temples began as simple shrines housing a deity and by the time of the Hoysalas had evolved into well articulated edifices in which worshippers sought transcendence of the daily world. Hoysala temples were not limited to any specific organised tradition of Hinduism and encouraged pilgrims of different Hindu
devotional movements. The Hoysalas usually dedicated their temples to Lord Shivaor to Lord Vishnu(two of the major Hindu gods), but they occasionally chose a different deity. Worshippers of Shiva are called Shaivas or Lingayats and worshippers of Vishnu are called Vaishnavas. While King Vishnuvardhanaand his descendants were Vaishnava by faith,Kamath (2001), p132] records show that the Hoysalas maintained religious harmony by building as many temples dedicated to Shiva as they did to Vishnu.Foekema (1996), p19] Most of these temples have secularfeatures with broad themes depicted in their sculptures. This can be seen in the famous Chennakesava Templeat Belurdedicated to Vishnuand in the Hoysaleswara templeat Halebidudedicated to Shiva. The Kesava temple at Somanathapurais different in that its ornamentation is strictly Vaishnavan.cite web|title=Hoysala Heritage|url=http://www.flonnet.com/fl2008/stories/20030425000206700.htm |author=Settar S.|publisher=Frontline, From the publishers of the Hindu|work=Frontline, Volume 20 - Issue 08, April 12–25, 2003|accessdate=2006-11-13] Generally Vaishnava temples are dedicated to Keshava(or to Chennakeshava, meaning "Beautiful Vishnu") while a small number are dedicated to Lakshminarayana and Lakshminarasimha (Narayana and Narasimha both being avatars, or physical manifestations, of Vishnu) with Lakshmi, consort of Vishnu, seated at his feet. Temples dedicated to Vishnu are always named after the deity. The Shaiva temples have a Shiva linga, symbol of fertility and the universal symbol of Shiva, in the shrine. The names of Shiva temples can end with the suffix "eshwara" meaning "Lord of". The name "Hoysaleswara", for instance, means "Lord of Hoysala". The temple can also be named after the devotee who commissioned the construction of the temple, an example being the Bucesvara temple at Koravangala, named after the devotee Buci.Foekema (1996), p19–20] The most striking sculptural decorations are the horizontal rows of exquisitely detailed, intricately carved images of gods, goddesses and their attendants on the outer temple wall panels.The DoddagaddavalliLakshmi Devi ("Goddess of Wealth") Temple is an exception as it is dedicated to neither Vishnu nor Shiva. The defeat of the Jain Western Ganga Dynasty(of present-day south Karnataka) by the Cholas in the early 11th century and the rising numbers of followers of Vaishnava Hinduism and Virashaivismin the 12th century was mirrored by a decreased interest in Jainism.Kamath (2001), pp 112, 132] However, two notable locations of Jain worship in the Hoysala territory were Shravanabelagolaand Kambadahalli. The Hoysalas built Jaintemples to satisfy the needs of its Jain population, a few of which have survived in Halebiducontaining icons of Jain tirthankaras. They constructed stepped wells called "Pushkarni" or "Kalyani", the ornate tank at Hulikere being an example. The tank has twelve minor shrines containing Hindu deities.Foekema (1996), plate 27]
The two main deities found in Hoysala temple sculpture are Lord
Shivaand Lord Vishnuin their various forms and avatars (incarnations). Shiva is usually shown with four arms holding a tridentand a small drum among other emblems that symbolise objects worshiped independently of the divine image with which they are associated.Foekema (1996), p31] Any male icon portrayed in this way is Shiva although a female icon may sometimes be portrayed with these attributes as Shiva's consort, Parvati. Various depictions of Lord Shivashow him in action, such as slaying a demon or dancing on the head of an elephant. He is often accompanied by his consort Parvati or shown with Nandithe bull. He may be represented as Bhairava, another of Shiva's many manifestations.
A male figure depicted holding certain objects such as a
conch(symbol of eternal, heavenly space) and a wheel (eternal time and destructive power) is Vishnu. If a female figure is depicted holding these objects, she is seen as his consort, Lakshmi. In all the depictions Vishnu is holding four objects: a conch, a wheel, a lotus and a mace. These can be held in any of the icon's hands, making possible twenty-four different forms of Vishnu, each with a unique name.Foekema (1996), p32] Apart from these, Vishnu is depicted in any of his ten "avataras", which include Vishnu sitting on Anantha (the celestial snake and keeper of life energy), Vishnu with Lakshmi seated on his lap (Lakshminarayana), with the head of a lion disemboweling a demon on his lap (Lakshminarasimha), with head of a boar walking over a demon ( Varaha), in the Krishnaavatar (as Venugopala or the cow herder playing the Venu(flute}, dancing on the head of the snake Kaliya, lifting a hill such as Govardhana), with his feet over head of a small figure (" Vamana"), with Lakshmiseated on Garuda, and the eagle (stealing the parijata tree).
A Hindu temple is a place of contact between the gods or deities and man. The focus of a temple is the centre or
sanctum sanctorum( garbhagriha) where the image of the deity resides, so temple architecture is designed to move the devotee from outside to the garbhagriha through ambulatory passageways for circumambulationand halls or chambers (" mantapas") that become increasingly sacred as the deity is approached.Hoysala temples have distinct parts that are merged to form a unified organic whole, in contrast to the temples of Tamil country where different parts of a temple stand independently.Foekema (1996), p21] Although superficially unique, Hoysala temples resemble each other structurally. They are characterised by a complex profusion of sculpture decorating all the temple parts chiseled of soft soapstone(chloritic schist), a good material for intricate carving, executed mostly by local craftsmen, and exhibit architectural features that distinguish them from other temple architectures of South India.Kamath (2001), p136]
Most Hoysala temples have a plain covered entrance
porchsupported by latheturned (circular or bell-shaped) pillars which were sometimes further carved with deep fluting and moulded with decorative motifs. The temples may be built upon a platform raised by about a metre called a "jagati". The "jagati", apart from giving a raised look to the temple, serves as a " pradakshinapatha" or " circumambulationpath" for circumambulation around the temple, as the "garbagriha" (inner sanctum) provides no such feature.Kamath (2001), p135] Such temples will have an additional set of steps leading to an open " mantapa" (open hall) with parapetwalls. A good example of this style is the Kesava Temple at Somanathapura. The "jagati" which is in unity with the rest of the templeFoekema (1996), p25] follows a star-shaped design and the walls of the temple follow a zig-zag pattern, a Hoysala innovation.cite web|title=History of Karnataka-Religion, Literature, Art and Architecture in Hoysala Empire|url=http://www.ourkarnataka.com/history.htm|author=Arthikaje|publisher=1998–2000 OurKarnataka.Com, Inc|work=|accessdate=2006-11-13] A pair of small shrines, each with a deity and a miniature tower directly facing the entrance, could adorn either side of steps of the "jagati". This would be repeated for all entrances leading to the "jagati".Devotees can first complete a ritual circumambulation on the "jagati" starting from the main entrance by walking in a clockwise direction (towards the left) before entering the "mantapa", following the sculptural clockwise-sequenced reliefson the outer temple walls depicting a sequence of epic scenes from the Hindu epics. Temples that are not built on a "jagati" can have steps flanked by elephant balustrades ( parapets) that lead to the "mantapa" from ground level. An example of a temple that does not exhibit the raised platform is the "Bucesvara" temple in Korvangla, Hassan District. In temples with two shrines ("dvikuta"), the "vimanas" (the shrines or cellae) may be placed either next to each other or on opposite sides.The Hoysaleswara shrine and the Shantaleswara shrine in the Hoysaleswara Temple in Halebidu are examples. (Foekema 1996, p59)] The Lakshmidevi temple at Doddagaddavallihas a minor shrine at each of the four corners of the walled temple complex in addition to five major shrines.
mantapa" is the hall where groups of people gather during prayers. The entrance to the "mantapa" normally has a highly ornate overhead lintelcalled a "makaratorana" ("makara" is an imaginary beast and "torana" is an overhead decoration).Kamath (2001), p135] The open "mantapa" which serves the purpose of an outer hall (outer "mantapa") is a regular feature in larger Hoysala temples leading to an inner small closed "mantapa" and the shrine(s). The open "mantapas" have seating areas made of stone with the "mantapa's" parapet wall acting as a back rest. The seats may follow the same staggered square shape of the parapet wall. The open "mantapa" is the largest part of the temple and is the place supporting larger congregations of people. The ceiling here is supported by numerous pillars that create many bays.A bay is a square or rectangular compartment in the hall (Foekema 1996, p93)] The shape of the open "mantapa" is best described as staggered-square and is the style used in most Hoysala temples.This is also called "cross-in-square" style and is not a square (Foekema, 1996, p22)] Even the smallest open "mantapa" has 13 bays. The walls have parapets that have half pillars supporting the outer ends of the roof which allow plenty of light making all the sculptural details visible. The "mantapa" ceiling is generally ornate with sculptures, both mythological and floral. The ceiling consists of deep and domical surfaces and contains sculptural depictions of banana bud motifs and other such decorations.cite web|title=Here, the past unfolds itself in all its glory & might—Hoyasala architecture in Somanathapura|url=http://www.chitralakshana.com/hoysalas.html|author=Githa U.B.|publisher=Chitralakshana|work=Deccan Herald, Tuesday, May 11, 2004|accessdate=2006-11-13] The Amruteswara temple in Chikmagalur districthas forty-eight domes in the "mahamantapa" ("great open hall").
If the temple is small it will consist of only a closed "mantapa" (enclosed with walls extending all the way to the ceiling) and the shrine. The closed "mantapa", well decorated inside and out, is larger than the vestibule connecting the shrine and the "mantapa" and has four lathe-turned pillars to support the ceiling, which may be deeply domed. The four pillars divide the hall into nine bays. The nine bays result in nine finely decorated ceilings.The four pillars and nine bays of a closed "mantapa" is a norm in Hoysala temples (Foekema 1996, p22)] . Pierced stone
latticeworkscreens placed between pillars to filter the light is a characteristic Hoysala stylistic element.
A porch adorns the entrance to a closed "mantapa", consisting of an awning supported by two half-pillars (
engaged columns) and two parapets, all richly decorated. The closed "mantapa" is connected to the shrine(s) by a vestibule, a square area that also connects the shrines. Its outer walls are finely decorated, but as the size the vestibule is not large, this may not be a conspicuous part of the temple. The vestibule also has a short tower called the "sukanasi" or "nose" It is called a "nose" because it looks like an extension of the main tower (Foekema 1996, p22)] upon which is mounted the Hoysala emblem. In Belurand Halebidu, these sculptures are quite large and are placed at all doorways.
The outer and inner "mantapa" (open and closed) have circular lathe-turned pillars. This is a common feature of Western Chalukya-Hoysala temples: (Kamath 2001, p117)] having four brackets at the top. Over each bracket stands sculptured figure(s) called "
salabhanjika" or "madanika". The pillars may also exhibit fine ornamental carvings on the surface and no two pillars are alike.It is possible that the Hoysalas encouraged different groups of artists to execute pillars and these groups may have been in competition to produce unique pillars, (Sastri 1955, p429)] This is how Hoysala art differs from the work of their early overlords, the Western Chalukyas, who added sculptural details to the circular pillar base and left the top plain. The lathe-turned pillars are 16, 32, or 64-pointed; some are bell-shaped and have properties that reflect light. The Parsvanatha Basadi at Halebidu is a good example.cite web|title=Architecture in Hoysala Empire|url=http://www.ourkarnataka.com/history.htm|author=Arthikaje|publisher=1998–2000 OurKarnataka.Com, Inc|work=|accessdate=2006-12-28] The shaft of the pillar is a monolithwith the base left as a square and with well-sculpted figures adorning the top.
The "vimana", also called the
cella, contains the most sacred shrine wherein resides the image of the presiding deity. The "vimana" is often topped by a tower which is quite different on the outside than on the inside. Inside, the vimana is plain and square, whereas outside it is profusely decorated and can be either stellate ("star-shaped") or shaped as a staggered square, or feature a combination of these designs, giving it many projections and recesses that seem to multiply as the light falls on it.Foekema (1996), p21] Each projection and recess has a complete decorative articulation that is rhythmic and repetitive and comprised of blocks and mouldings, obscuring the tower profile. Depending on the number of shrines (and hence on the number of towers), the temples are classified as "ekakuta" (one), "dvikuta" (two), "trikuta" (three), "chatushkuta" (four) and "panchakuta" (five). Most Hoysala temples are "ekakuta", "dvikuta" or "trikuta".Sometimes a "trikuta" may not literally mean "three towers", as only the central shrine has a tower (Foekema 1996, p25)] In temples with multiple shrines, all essential parts are duplicated for symmetry and balance. A temple's minor shrine usually has its own tower. There are cases where a temple is "trikuta" but has only one tower over the main shrine (in the middle). So the terminology "trikuta" may not be literally accurate. Smaller shrines attached to the outer walls and facing outward from a larger "vimana" are a common feature.
The highest point of the temple ("kalasa") has the shape of a beautiful water pot and stands on top of the tower. This portion of the "vimana" is often lost due to age and has been replaced with a metallic pinnacle. Below the "kalasa" is a large, highly- sculptured structure resembling a dome which is made from large stones and looks like a helmet.Foekema (1996), p27] It may be 2 m by 2 m in size and follows the shape of the shrine. Below this structure are domed roofs in a square plan, all of them much smaller and crowned with small "kalasas". They are mixed with other small roofs of different shapes and are ornately decorated. The tower of the shrine usually has three or four tiers of rows of decorative roofs while the tower on top of the "sukanasi" has one less tier, making the tower look like an extension of the main tower (the "nose"). One decorated roof tier runs on top of the wall of a closed "mantapa" above the heavy eaves of an open "mantapa" and above the porches.
Below the superstructure of the "vimana" are temple "
eaves" under the projecting roof overhanging the wall (Foekema 1996, p93)] projecting half a meter from the wall. Below the eaves two different decorative schemes may be found, depending on whether a temple was built in the early or the later period of the empire. In the early temples built prior to the 13th century, there is one eave and below this are decorative miniature towers. A panel of Hindu deities and their attendants are below these towers, followed by a set of five different mouldings forming the base of the wall. In the later temples there is a second eave running about a metre below the upper eaves with decorative miniature towers placed between them. The wall images of gods are below the lower eaves, followed by six different mouldings of equal size. This is broadly termed "horizontal treatment".Kamath (2001), p134] The six mouldings at the base are divided in two sections. Going from the very base of the wall, the first horizontal layer contains a procession of elephants, above which are horsemen and then a band of foliage. The second horizontal section has depictions of the Hindu epics and "Puranic" scenes executed with detail. Above this are two friezes of "yalli"s or "makara"s (imaginary beasts) and "hamsas" (swans). The "vimana" (tower) is divided into three horizontal sections and is even more ornate than the walls. Art critic Percy Brown calls this one of the distinguishing features of Hoysala art. (Kamath 2001, p134)]
Hoysala artists are famous for their sculptural detail, be it in the depiction of the
Hinduepics, "yallis" , deities, " kirthimukha"(gargoyles), eroticism or aspects of daily life. Their medium, the soft chlorite schist, enabled a virtuoso carving style. Their workmanship shows an attention paid to precise detail. Every aspect down to a fingernail or toenail is perfected.
Salabhanjika", a common form of Hoysala sculpture, is an old Indian tradition going back to Buddhist sculpture. "Sala" is the sala tree and "bhanjika" is the chaste maiden. In the Hoysala idiom, "madanika" figures are decorative objects put at an angle on the outer walls of the temple near the roof so that worshipers circumambulating the temple can view them.cite web|title=Hoysala Heritage|url=http://www.flonnet.com/fl2008/stories/20030425000206700.htm |author=Settar S|publisher=Frontline, From the publishers of the Hindu|work=Frontline, Volume 20 - Issue 08, April 12–25, 2003|accessdate=2006-11-13] They served the function of bracket figures to pillars inside the "mantapa". These "madanika" were sculpted as seemingly engaged in artistic activities such as music (holding musical instruments) and dance. "Kirthimukhas" (demon faces) adorn the towers of "vimana"s in some temples. Sometimes the artists left behind their signatures on the sculptures they created.
The "sthamba buttalikas" are pillar images that show traces of
Cholaart in the Chalukyan touches. Some of the artists working for the Hoysalas may have been from Chola country, a result of the expansion of the empire into Tamil-speaking regions of Southern India. The image of "mohini" on one of the pillars in the "mantapa" (closed hall) of the Chennakeshava temple is a fine example of Chola art.cite web|title=Hoysala Heritage|url=http://www.flonnet.com/fl2008/stories/20030425000206700.htm |author=Settar S|publisher=Frontline, From the publishers of the Hindu|work=Frontline, Volume 20 - Issue 08, April 12–25, 2003|accessdate=2006-11-13]
General life themes are portrayed on wall panels such as the way horses were reined, the type of stirrup used, the depiction of dancers, musicians, instrumentalists, and rows of animals such as lions and elephants (where no two animals are identical). Perhaps no other temple in the country depicts the
Ramayanaand Mahabharataepics more effectively than the Hoysaleshwara temple at Halebidu.The epic friezeis the most exciting feature of their sculptures (Foekema 1996, p29)] cite web|title=Hoysala Heritage|url=http://www.flonnet.com/fl2008/stories/20030425000206700.htm |author=Settar S|publisher=Frontline, From the publishers of the Hindu|work=Frontline, Volume 20 - Issue 08, April 12–25, 2003|accessdate=2006-11-13]
Erotica was a subject the Hoysala artist handled with discretion. There is no exhibitionism in this, and erotic themes were carved into recesses and niches, generally miniature in form, making them inconspicuous. These erotic representations are associated with the "Shakta" practice. The temple doorway is heavily engraved with ornamentation called "Makaratorana" ("makara" being an imaginary beast) and each side of the doorway exhibits sculptured "Salabhanjika" (maidens).
Apart from these sculptures, entire sequences from the
Hinduepics (commonly the Ramayanaand the Mahabharata) have been sculpted in a clockwise direction starting at the main entrance.Foekema (1996), p29] The right to left sequence is the same direction taken by the devotees in their ritual circumambulation as they wind inward toward the inner sanctum. Depictions from mythology such as the epic hero Arjunashooting fish, the elephant-headed god Ganesha, the Sun god Surya, the weather and war god Indra, and Brahmawith Sarasvatiare common. Also frequently seen in these temples is Durga, with several arms holding weapons given to her by other gods, in the act of killing a buffalo (a demon in a buffalo's form) and Harihara(a fusion of Shiva and Vishnu) holding a conch, wheel and trident. Many of these friezes were signed by the artisans, the first known instance of signed artwork in India. [cite book
title= Introduction to Indian Architecture
publisher= Periplus Editions
pages= p 69
id= ISBN 0794600115]
Surveys in modern times have indicated that 1000–1500 structures were built by the Hoysalas, of which about a hundred temples have survived to date.Kamath (2001), p132] 1,500 temples in 958 centres were built, according to historical records, between 1000–1346 CE. cite web|title=Hoysala Heritage|url=http://www.flonnet.com/fl2008/stories/20030425000206700.htm |author=Settar S|publisher=Frontline, From the publishers of the Hindu|work=Frontline, Volume 20 - Issue 08, April 12–25, 2003|accessdate=2006-11-13] The Hoysala style is an offshoot of the
Western Chalukyastyle, which was popular in the 10th and 11th centuries.Kamath (2001), p134] cite web|title=History of Karnataka-Religion, Literature, Art and Architecture in Hoysala Empire|url=http://www.ourkarnataka.com/history.htm|author=Arthikaje|publisher=1998–2000 OurKarnataka.Com, Inc|work=|accessdate=2006-11-13 — James Fergusson and Henry Cousens opine that the Hoysala style has features in common with the Western Chalukya style] It is distinctively Dravidian, and owing to its unique features, Hoysala architecture qualifies as an independent style.Hoysala architecture and sculpture have been called a phenomenal effort of human concentration, skill and religious consciousness (Percy Brown in Kamath 2001, p134)] While the Hoysalas introduced innovative features into their architecture, they also borrowed features from the earlier great builders of "Karnata" like the Kadambas, Western Chalukyas. These features were the use of chloritic schist or soapstoneas a basic building material,Kamath (2001) p136] cite web|title=Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent, 1996|url=http://www.indoarch.org/|author=Kamiya Takeo|publisher=Gerard da Cunha|work=Architecture Autonomous, Bardez, Goa, India|accessdate=2006-11-13 — The Western Chalukyacarvings were done in green schist (soapstone), a technique adopted by the Hoysalas] pierced stone window screens which were very popular in Hoysala temples,This is very commonly found in earlier Western Chalukya temples (Kamath 2001, p116)] and the "vimana" which follows a stellate pattern.cite web|title=Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent, 1996|url=http://www.indoarch.org/|author=Kamiya Takeyo|publisher=Gerard da Cunha|work=Architecture Autonomous, Bardez, Goa, India|accessdate=2006-11-13 — The Western Chalukyaarchitecture has a stellate plan for the "vimana"] All these features were popular with their early overlords, the Western Chalukyas. Other features were the stepped style of "vimana" tower called the "Kadamba shikhara", which was inherited from the Kadambas.The most prominent feature of Kadambaarchitecture is their " shikhara", called "Kadamba shikhara". The "shikhara" is pyramid-shaped and rises in steps without any decoration and has a "stupika" or "kalasha" on the top (Kamath 2001, p38)] Engrained in the craftsmanship of Hoysala sculptors was their knowledge of the effect of light and shade on carved walls, which they used to maximum effect in their sculptures in the numerous projections and recesses. The Hoysala sculpture in all its richness is said to be a challenge to photography.cite web|title=Hoysala Heritage|url=http://www.flonnet.com/fl2008/stories/20030425000206700.htm |author=Settar S|publisher=Frontline, From the publishers of the Hindu|work=Frontline, Volume 20 - Issue 08, April 12–25, 2003|accessdate=2006-11-13] The artistry of the Hoysalas in stone has been compared to the finesse of an ivory worker or a goldsmith. The abundance of jewelry worn by the sculpted figures and the variety of hairstyles and headdresses depicted give a fair idea of the lifestyles of the Hoysala times.Sastri (1955), p429]
While the Hoysalas had the services of great architects and sculptors, some names stand out in their history. While medieval Indian artisans preferred to remain anonymous, Hoysala artisans signed their works, which has given researchers fascinating details about their lives, families, guilds, etc. Apart from the architects and sculptors, people of other guilds such as goldsmiths, ivory carvers, carpenters, and silversmiths also contributed to the completion of temples. The artisans were from diverse geographical backgrounds and included famous locals. Prolific architects included
Amarashilpi Jakanachari,cite web|title=In need of support|url=http://www.deccanherald.com/Archives/aug92005/spectrum92548200588.asp|author=Raghavendra, Srinidhi|publisher=Deccan Herald|work=Deccan Herald, Spectrum, Tuesday, August 9, 2005|accessdate=2006-11-13] a native of Kaidala in Tumkur district, who also built temples for the Western Chalukyas. Ruvari Malithammabuilt the Kesava Temple at Somanathapuraand worked on forty other monuments, including the Amruteshwara temple at Amruthapura. Malithamma specialised in ornamentation, and his works span six decades. His sculptures were typically signed in shorthand as "Malli" or simply "Ma".cite web|title=Here, the past unfolds itself in all its glory & might-Hoyasala architecture in Somanathapura|url=http://www.chitralakshana.com/hoysalas.html|author=Githa U.B.|publisher=Chitralakshana|work=Deccan Herald, Tuesday, May 11, 2004|accessdate=2006-11-13] cite web|title=Architectural marvel
publisher=Deccan Herald|work=Spectrum, Deccan Herald, Tuesday, January 20, 2004|accessdate=2006-11-13] Dasoja and his son Chavana from
Balligaviwere the architects of Chennakesava Temple at Belur; Kedaroja was the chief architect of the Hoysaleswara Templeat Halebidu.Kamath (2001), p135] Their influence is seen in other temples built by the Hoysalas as well. Names of other locals found in inscriptions are Maridamma, Baicoja, Caudaya, Nanjaya and Bama,Sastri (1955), p299] Kamath (2001), p135] Malloja, Nadoja, Siddoja,cite web|title=A glimpse of the lost grandeur|url=http://www.deccanherald.com/archives/jan252005/spt7.asp|author=Chandragutti, Raghavendra |publisher=Deccan Herald|work=Spectrum, Deccan Herald, Tuesday, January 25, 2005|accessdate=2006-11-13] Masanithamma, Chameya and Rameya. Artists from Tamil country included Pallavachari and Cholavachari.cite web|title=Here, the past unfolds itself in all its glory & might-Hoyasala architecture in Somanathapura|url=http://www.deccanherald.com/archives/may112004/spt7.asp|author=Githa U.B.|publisher=Deccan Herald|work=Deccan Herald, Tuesday, May 11, 2004|accessdate=2006-11-13]
Some famous temples built by the Hoysalas are shown in the table.Foekema (1996), pp5-6]
Badami Chalukya Architecture
* cite web|author=Premakumar, B.P.|title=Architectural marvel
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Architecture of India — [ Mohenjo daro in modern day Pakistan.] The architecture of India is rooted in its history, culture and religion.Raj Jadhav, pages 7 13 in Modern Traditions: Contemporary Architecture in India ] Indian architecture progressed with time and… … Wikipedia
Hoysala dynasty — ▪ Indian dynasty family that ruled in India from about 1006 to about 1346 CE in the southern Deccan and for a time in the Kaveri (Cauvery) River (Kaveri River) valley. The first kings came from the hills northwest of Dorasamudra (present… … Universalium
Architecture Hoysala — Partie d un temple Hoysala L’architecture Hoysala (Kannada : ಹೊಯ್ಸಳ ವಾಸ್ತುಶಿಲ್ಪ) est le style architectural mis au point dans l Empire Hoysala entre le XIe siècle et le XIVe siècle, dans la région connue aujourd hui comme le … Wikipédia en Français
Architecture of Denmark — Renaissance styled Frederiksborg Palace completed by Hans van Steenwinckel the Younger in 1620 … Wikipedia
Architecture of Chennai — The Ripon Building, Chennai, an example of the Indo Saracenic architectural style found in the city. Chennai architecture is a confluence of many architectural styles. From ancient Dravidian temples built by the Pallavas, to the Indo Saracenic… … Wikipedia
Western Chalukya architecture — ( kn. ಪಶ್ಚಿಮ ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯ ವಾಸ್ತುಶಿಲ್ಪ), also known as Kalyani Chalukya or Later Chalukya architecture, is the distinctive style of ornamented architecture that evolved during the rule of the Western Chalukya Empire in the Tungabhadra region of central … Wikipedia
Dravidian architecture — The Annamalaiyar Temple in Thiruvannaamalai Dravidian architecture was a style of architecture that emerged thousands of years ago in Southern part of the Indian subcontinent or South India. They consist primarily of pyramid shaped temples called … Wikipedia
Hindu temple architecture — Mahadeva Temple at Itagi, Koppal district in Karnataka, also called Devalaya Chakravarti, 1112 C … Wikipedia
History of architecture — The History of architecture traces the changes in the history of architecture through various countries and dates.Prehistoric architectureNeolithic architecture is the architecture of the Neolithic period. In Southwest Asia, Neolithic cultures… … Wikipedia